Abstract

We explore the feasibility of using gold nanorods with efficient two-photon luminescence properties as contrast agents for intravital imaging of neoplasia. This investigation spanned ex vivo characterization in cells/tissue to in vivo implementation in an oral carcinogenesis model. GNRs were >40 times brighter than surrounding tissue. Intravital imaging revealed 3D microvasculature, and in dysplasia, abnormal vessels (dense and tortuous) compared to normal. GNRs were diffusely distributed in lesions after 24 hours. No known previous study has revealed abnormal vessel structure in dysplasia by imaging. Results suggest GNRs can function as high-contrast agents for in vivo visualization of carcinogenesis features.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Applications of gold nanorods for cancer imaging and photothermal therapy,” Methods Mol. Biol. 624, 343–357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Nussenbaum and I. M. Herman, “Tumor angigoenesis: insights and inovations,” J. Oncolog. 2010, 132641 (2010).

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. Raica, A. M. Cimpean, and D. Ribatti, “Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(11), 1924–1934 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy--a novel diagnostic method for superficial skin cancers,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 190–195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (6)

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Michailidou, A. K. Markopoulos, and D. Z. Antoniades, “Mast cells and angiogenesis in oral malignant and premalignant lesions,” Open Dent. J. 2(1), 126–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Noonan and S. Kabani, “Diagnosis and management of suspicious lesions of the oral cavity,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38(1), 21–35, vii (2005) (vii.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, “In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2478–2486 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoniades, D. Z.

E. Z. Michailidou, A. K. Markopoulos, and D. Z. Antoniades, “Mast cells and angiogenesis in oral malignant and premalignant lesions,” Open Dent. J. 2(1), 126–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babakoohi, S.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, B.

Ben-Yakar, A.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burdick, M. M.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cimpean, A. M.

M. Raica, A. M. Cimpean, and D. Ribatti, “Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(11), 1924–1934 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, C.

Copland, J. A.

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagia, N. M.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, N. L.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeSimone, J. M.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Durr, N. J.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebihara, A.

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eghtedari, M.

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J. C.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Abbadi, N.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Applications of gold nanorods for cancer imaging and photothermal therapy,” Methods Mol. Biol. 624, 343–357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Applications of gold nanorods for cancer imaging and photothermal therapy,” Methods Mol. Biol. 624, 343–357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, M. B.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy--a novel diagnostic method for superficial skin cancers,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 190–195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estrada, A.

Fago, S.

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fennewald, S. M.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firooz, A.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, S. E.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, W.

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, I. M.

F. Nussenbaum and I. M. Herman, “Tumor angigoenesis: insights and inovations,” J. Oncolog. 2010, 132641 (2010).

Ho, K. H.

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Applications of gold nanorods for cancer imaging and photothermal therapy,” Methods Mol. Biol. 624, 343–357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. H.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huff, T. B.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, J.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

V. L. Noonan and S. Kabani, “Diagnosis and management of suspicious lesions of the oral cavity,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38(1), 21–35, vii (2005) (vii.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kluftinger, A. M.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koop, N.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

Krasieva, T.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, T.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaw, L.-H.

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. C.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liopo, A. V.

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. A.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Low, P. S.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luft, J. C.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, V. J.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markopoulos, A. K.

E. Z. Michailidou, A. K. Markopoulos, and D. Z. Antoniades, “Mast cells and angiogenesis in oral malignant and premalignant lesions,” Open Dent. J. 2(1), 126–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCammon, S.

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

McCammon, S. D.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michailidou, E. Z.

E. Z. Michailidou, A. K. Markopoulos, and D. Z. Antoniades, “Mast cells and angiogenesis in oral malignant and premalignant lesions,” Open Dent. J. 2(1), 126–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohtasham, N.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montaser-Kouhsari, L.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, “In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2478–2486 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Napier, M. E.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noonan, V. L.

V. L. Noonan and S. Kabani, “Diagnosis and management of suspicious lesions of the oral cavity,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38(1), 21–35, vii (2005) (vii.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussenbaum, F.

F. Nussenbaum and I. M. Herman, “Tumor angigoenesis: insights and inovations,” J. Oncolog. 2010, 132641 (2010).

Oraevsky, A. A.

M. Eghtedari, A. V. Liopo, J. A. Copland, A. A. Oraevsky, and M. Motamedi, “Engineering of hetero-functional gold nanorods for the in vivo molecular targeting of breast cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paoli, J.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy--a novel diagnostic method for superficial skin cancers,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 190–195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Payne, J. D.

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohlhaus, P. D.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, C. K.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, X.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quenville, N. F.

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahmanzadeh, R.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raica, M.

M. Raica, A. M. Cimpean, and D. Ribatti, “Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(11), 1924–1934 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resto, V. A.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribatti, D.

M. Raica, A. M. Cimpean, and D. Ribatti, “Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(11), 1924–1934 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riching, K. M.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropp, P. A.

S. E. Gratton, P. A. Ropp, P. D. Pohlhaus, J. C. Luft, V. J. Madden, M. E. Napier, and J. M. DeSimone, “The effect of particle design on cellular internalization pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(33), 11613–11618 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackstein, R.

V. A. Resto, M. M. Burdick, N. M. Dagia, S. D. McCammon, S. M. Fennewald, and R. Sackstein, “L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(23), 15816–15824 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salehinejad, J.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sang, K.

Schwartz, J. A.

Shakeri, M. T.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, K.

Shilagard, T.

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, “In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2478–2486 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shojaee, S.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sistani, N. S.

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smedh, M.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy--a novel diagnostic method for superficial skin cancers,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 190–195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. K.

Sokolov, K.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squirrell, J. M.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, W. C.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, K. C.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

Vargas, G.

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, “In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2478–2486 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Osann, N. Hanna, N. El Abbadi, M. Brenner, D. Messadi, and T. Krasieva, “In vivo multiphoton fluorescence imaging: a novel approach to oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(2), 96–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ebihara, T. B. Krasieva, L.-H. Liaw, S. Fago, D. Messadi, K. Osann, and P. Wilder-Smith, “Detection and diagnosis of oral cancer by light-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 17–24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, Y. K.

S. A. Liu, Y. K. Wong, J. C. Lin, C. K. Poon, K. C. Tung, and W. C. Tsai, “Impact of recurrence interval on survival of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients after local relapse,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(1), 112–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

X. Qu, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, N. Koop, R. Rahmanzadeh, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging of cancer cells by multiphoton microscopy using gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 031217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

L. Tong, W. He, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng, and J. X. Cheng, “Visualizing systemic clearance and cellular level biodistribution of gold nanorods by intrinsic two-photon luminescence,” Langmuir 25(21), 12454–12459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zweifel, D. A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Odontol. Scand. (1)

N. Mohtasham, S. Babakoohi, J. Salehinejad, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, M. T. Shakeri, S. Shojaee, N. S. Sistani, and A. Firooz, “Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Odontol. Scand. 68(5), 300–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Lett. (1)

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

M. C. Skala, J. M. Squirrell, K. M. Vrotsos, J. C. Eickhoff, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, K. W. Eliceiri, and N. Ramanujam, “Multiphoton microscopy of endogenous fluorescence differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous squamous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 65(4), 1180–1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

G. Vargas, T. Shilagard, K. H. Ho, and S. McCammon, “Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy of oral epithelial neoplasms,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2009, 6311–6313 (2009).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

M. Raica, A. M. Cimpean, and D. Ribatti, “Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(11), 1924–1934 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-photon induced luminescence images of GNR-labeled and unlabeled JHU-19 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. (a) Two-photon maximum intensity projection image of GNR-labeled cells using an incident power of 0.7 mW (image has been cropped to a dimension of ~50 by 50 microns to show details of cells). GNRs are distributed throughout cytoplasm, with nuclei appearing dark; (b) image of GNR labeled cell subsequently labeled with the live cell dye Calcein-AM, shown in red. Three planes through the midline of the cell are shown along three-dimensions (x-y, x-z,y-z) . (c) Graph demonstrating quadratic dependence of emission signal intensity on incident laser power. Slope of fitted line is 1.96; (d) Two-photon image of GNR-labeled cells using an incident power of 0.7 mW overlayed with corresponding transmitted light micrograph (e) Two-photon overlay image of unlabeled cells also using an incident power of 0.7 mW with detector and optical path settings unchanged.. Imaging was performed using a 40x 0.8 N.A. water immersion objective.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative two-photon microscopy images of intravenously delivered GNRs in hamster model with accompanying confocal reflectance image (a) Confocal reflectance image of tissue showing location of blood vessels which appear dark against the surrounding tissue (b) High power (20 mW) two photon image of the same vascular region prior to intravenous injection of GNRs (c) Two-photon image using low incident power of 1 mW following intravenous injection GNRs showing blood vessels in the tissue. Two-photon microscopy of vascular sites prior to GNR injection, using 1-20 mW incident power, yielded no detectable signal from blood vessels. Asterisk denotes the same vessel junction on all three images displayed. (d) Spectral profile of GNRs in vitro and within in vivo blood vessels following intravenous injection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average trends displaying emission signal intensity vs. incident laser power for cases of gold nanorods and autofluorescence. In both cases, the quadratic dependency of two-photon emission signal on incident laser power was confirmed (the slope of a fitted line to log-log plots was ~2 for each case).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Two-photon 3D reconstructed image of precancerous (dysplastic) lesion labeled with GNRs 10 minutes post-inoculation, showing dense and tortuous network of blood vessels, obtained with an incident power of 1 mW. (b)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of blood vessel features in histology and TPL a

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