Abstract

Correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) is a recently proposed technique that extends the capabilities of OCT to enable mapping of vasculature networks. The technique is achieved as a processing step on OCT intensity images that does not require any modification to existing OCT hardware. In this paper we apply the cmOCT processing technique to in vivo human imaging of the volar forearm. We illustrate that cmOCT can produce maps of the microcirculation that clearly follow the accepted anatomical structure. We demonstrate that the technique can extract parameters such as capillary density and vessel diameter. These parameters are key clinical markers for the early changes associated with microvascular diseases. Overall the presented results show that cmOCT is a powerful new tool that generates microcirculation maps in a safe non-invasive, non-contact technique which has clear clinical applications.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2000

1997

1996

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Characterization of fluid flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1337–1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

R. H. Bull, D. O. Bates, and P. S. Mortimer, “Intravital video-capillaroscopy for the study of the microcirculation in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 126(5), 436–445 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

E. M. Kohner, “Dynamic changes in the microcirculation of diabetics as related to diabetic microangiopathy,” Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 578, 41–47 (1975).
[PubMed]

1974

J. Folkman, “Proceedings: Tumor angiogenesis factor,” Cancer Res. 34(8), 2109–2113 (1974).
[PubMed]

An, L.

Anderson, C.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, C. D.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

Bates, D. O.

R. H. Bull, D. O. Bates, and P. S. Mortimer, “Intravital video-capillaroscopy for the study of the microcirculation in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 126(5), 436–445 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, A.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisland, S.

Bodapati, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull, R. H.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Bull, D. O. Bates, and P. S. Mortimer, “Intravital video-capillaroscopy for the study of the microcirculation in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 126(5), 436–445 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Charalambous, I.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P. C.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, A. T.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

Christ, F.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clancy, N. T.

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, M.

M. Cutolo, W. Grassi, and M. Matucci Cerinic, “Raynaud’s phenomenon and the role of capillaroscopy,” Arthritis Rheum. 48(11), 3023–3030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davila, V.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Zerda, A.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunnill, G. S.

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elvins, D. M.

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enfield, J. G.

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, B. W.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkman, J.

J. Folkman, “Proceedings: Tumor angiogenesis factor,” Cancer Res. 34(8), 2109–2113 (1974).
[PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G.

Genzel-Boroviczeny, O.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M.

Grassi, W.

M. Cutolo, W. Grassi, and M. Matucci Cerinic, “Raynaud’s phenomenon and the role of capillaroscopy,” Arthritis Rheum. 48(11), 3023–3030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Henricson, J.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiedl, S.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Hurst, S.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jiang, J.

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabasakal, Y.

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keren, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohner, E. M.

E. M. Kohner, “Dynamic changes in the microcirculation of diabetics as related to diabetic microangiopathy,” Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 578, 41–47 (1975).
[PubMed]

Kroth, J.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, M. J.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K.

Levi, J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levick, J. R.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. S.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

Li, M. L.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

Ma, T. J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

MacGregor, G. A.

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Marcon, N.

Mariampillai, A.

Maslov, K.

Matucci Cerinic, M.

M. Cutolo, W. Grassi, and M. Matucci Cerinic, “Raynaud’s phenomenon and the role of capillaroscopy,” Arthritis Rheum. 48(11), 3023–3030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McHugh, N. J.

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNamara, P.

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, P. M.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Moriyama, E. H.

Mortimer, P. S.

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Bull, D. O. Bates, and P. S. Mortimer, “Intravital video-capillaroscopy for the study of the microcirculation in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 126(5), 436–445 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen-Huynh, A. T.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussbaum, C.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuttall, A. L.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Connell, M. L.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Doherty, J.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Doherty, J.

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. T.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oralkan, O.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

Plesea, L.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, A.

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pullen, J.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Qin, J.

Ramanujam, S.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ring, E. F.

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, C. C.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosen, R.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

Shi, X.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöberg, F.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. R.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. M.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Standish, B. A.

Stanton, A. W.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stromski, S.

Subhash, H. M.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

Toll, R.

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaithilingam, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

Vitkin, I.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, L. V.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Wang, X. J.

Weidlich, K.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

Yang, V. X.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zavaleta, C.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
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Acta Med. Scand. Suppl.

E. M. Kohner, “Dynamic changes in the microcirculation of diabetics as related to diabetic microangiopathy,” Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 578, 41–47 (1975).
[PubMed]

Ann. Rheum. Dis.

Y. Kabasakal, D. M. Elvins, E. F. Ring, and N. J. McHugh, “Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55(8), 507–512 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arthritis Rheum.

M. Cutolo, W. Grassi, and M. Matucci Cerinic, “Raynaud’s phenomenon and the role of capillaroscopy,” Arthritis Rheum. 48(11), 3023–3030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol.

R. H. Bull, D. O. Bates, and P. S. Mortimer, “Intravital video-capillaroscopy for the study of the microcirculation in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 126(5), 436–445 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

J. Folkman, “Proceedings: Tumor angiogenesis factor,” Cancer Res. 34(8), 2109–2113 (1974).
[PubMed]

Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc.

M. M. Smith, P. C. Chen, C. S. Li, S. Ramanujam, and A. T. Cheung, “Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 41(4), 229–239 (2009).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, X. Shi, A. L. Nuttall, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of microvascular perfusion within the intact cochlea in mice using ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 30(2), 224–230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp.

C. C. Roberts, A. W. Stanton, J. Pullen, R. H. Bull, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “Skin microvascular architecture and perfusion studied in human postmastectomy oedema by intravital video-capillaroscopy,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(6), 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics

P. M. McNamara, J. O’Doherty, M. L. O’Connell, B. W. Fitzgerald, C. D. Anderson, G. E. Nilsson, R. Toll, and M. J. Leahy, “Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 66–74 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O’Doherty, P. McNamara, N. T. Clancy, J. G. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hypertens.

A. Prasad, G. S. Dunnill, P. S. Mortimer, and G. A. MacGregor, “Capillary rarefaction in the forearm skin in essential hypertension,” J. Hypertens. 13(2), 265–268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Laser Appl.

M. J. Leahy, J. G. Enfield, N. T. Clancy, J. O'Doherty, P. McNamara, and G. E. Nilsson, “Biophotonic methods in microcirculation imaging,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 105–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pediatr. Res.

K. Weidlich, J. Kroth, C. Nussbaum, S. Hiedl, A. Bauer, F. Christ, and O. Genzel-Boroviczeny, “Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study,” Pediatr. Res. 66(4), 461–465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Agache, P. Humbert, and H. Maibach, Measuring the Skin (Springer, 2004), p. 439.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4 (2010) (preprint), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbio.201000103/abstract

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (6395 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (7331 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2480 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing steps for cmOCT algorithm. Higher correlation is shown as darker color while lower correlation is shown as brighter color. The figure shows a 200 µm capillary tube containing intralipid solution moving under Brownian motion embedded in excised porcine tissue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample cmOCT processing for a scattering epoxy resin phantom with three layers of capillary tubes containing an intralipid solution moving under Brownian motion. (A) 3D rendering of the structural OCT data set. (B) 3D rendering of resulting cmOCT processed volume. A movie showing a 3D rotation of the merged data sets is also provided (Media 1). MIP projections through the cmOCT volume are also shown illustrating the 3 detected capillary layers; Top layer (C), Middle layer (D) and Bottom layer (E).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

cmOCT of the volar forearm for a 2.5x2.5x3 mm region. (A) OCT B-scan image of the forearm, (B) cmOCT image generated using A. (C) 3D rendering showing a cutaway structural OCT volume revealing the cmOCT generated volume. A supporting movie is also provided (Media 2) (D) Maximum intensity projection through the cmOCT volume (scale bar 500 µm). (The blue line represents the location of the slice in A,B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Location of detected vessels within the forearm (A) Structural OCT image of volar forearm (XY) with the estimated surface shown (red line). (B) A series of MIP projections (XZ) at varying depths through the sample as measured from the estimated surface. (1) 20-70 µm (2) 130-180 µm (3) 310-360 µm. An enface flythrough movie of the cmOCT data is also provided (Media 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

cmOCT of an 8 mm x 7 mm region of the vascular network in the volar forearm. The figure is made up of 6 x 5 individual 2.5 x 2.5 mm OCT scans that have been manually aligned (scale bar 1 mm).

Equations (1)

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c m O C T ( x , y ) = p = 0 M q = 0 N [ I A ( x + p , y + q ) I A ( x , y ) ¯ ] [ I B ( x + p , y + q ) I B ( x , y ) ¯ ] ( I A ( x + p , y + q ) I A ( x , y ) ¯ ) 2 + ( I B ( x + p , y + q ) I B ( x , y ) ¯ ) 2

Metrics