Abstract

Using a spectral domain OCT system, equipped with a broadband Ti:sapphire laser, we imaged the human retina with 5 µm x 1.3 µm transverse and axial resolution at acquisition rate of 100 kHz. Such imaging speed significantly reduces motion artifacts. Combined with the ultra-high resolution, this allows observing microscopic retinal details with high axial definition without the help of adaptive optics. In this work we apply our system to image the parafoveal capillary network. We demonstrate how already on the intensity level the parafoveal capillaries can be segmented by a simple structural high pass filtering algorithm. This data is then used to quantitatively characterize the capillary network of healthy and diseased eyes. We propose to use the fractal dimension as index for capillary integrity of pathologic disorders.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

2010 (4)

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. W. Baish and R. K. Jain, “Fractals and cancer,” Cancer Res. 60(14), 3683–3688 (2000).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

W. A. Manschot, “Retinal vascular obstruction,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 40(2), 383–389 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Arend, O.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baish, J. W.

J. W. Baish and R. K. Jain, “Fractals and cancer,” Cancer Res. 60(14), 3683–3688 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Balaratnasingam, C.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, C. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bertram, B.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouter, L. M.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chen, Y.

Choi, S. S.

Cringle, S. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dekker, J. M.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, “Cellular and functional optical coherence tomography of the human retina: the Cogan lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(12), 5340–5351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Grulkowski, I.

Heine, R. J.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Hermann, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Jaillon, F.

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Baish and R. K. Jain, “Fractals and cancer,” Cancer Res. 60(14), 3683–3688 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jones, S. M.

Jung, F.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Makita, S.

Manschot, W. A.

W. A. Manschot, “Retinal vascular obstruction,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 40(2), 383–389 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Martin, J. A.

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAllister, I. L.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendis, K. R.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Moll, A. C.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nijpels, G.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Oliver, S. S.

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Polak, B. C. P.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Pöstgens, H.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reim, M.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stehouwer, C. D. A.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tam, J.

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toonen, H.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torzicky, T.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leiden, H. A.

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Werner, J. S.

Wilson, D. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, S.

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yu, D. Y.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zotter, S.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll, G. Nijpels, R. J. Heine, L. M. Bouter, C. D. A. Stehouwer, and B. C. P. Polak, “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 245–251 (2003).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

O. Arend, S. Wolf, F. Jung, B. Bertram, H. Pöstgens, H. Toonen, and M. Reim, “Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75(9), 514–518 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Med. (2)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Opt. Express (8)

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Visualization of microvasculature by dual-beam phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1217–1227 (2011).
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S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
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I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
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R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M, 73721M-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 2008).

F. Moisy, “Boxcount” (Matlab Central, 2006), http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/13063-boxcount .

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W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (4095 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (4082 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2596 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The human parafoveal capillary network, extracted using phase variance analysis with swept-source OCT at 1050 nm. (a) Fundus projection taken from the inner retinal layers. (b) Phase variance tomogram across the blue line in (a). The arrow indicates typical vessel shadow decorrelation artifacts. The red bars denote 200µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction limited spot size on the retina for central wave length λ0 = 800nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Volume across the fovea (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm). Media 1 shows a fly through this volume starting from the RNFL down to the choroid. (b) B-scan from the volume presented in (a) across the central fovea. Red lines indicate the segmentation of segment 1 (S1). Blue lines indicate the segmentation of segment 2 (S2). The corresponding video (Media 2) shows a fly through in the same plane. (c) En-face projection of S1, indicated in (b). (d) En-face projection of S2, indicated in (b). Red scale bars denote 200 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Annotation of the foveal capillary network of a healthy eye. (a) 3D view of the segmented capillary network. (b) Overlay of the annotation and the OCT intensity volume without the retinal nerve fiber layer. (c) Multiplication of the annotation with the inner retinal layers of the intensity volume (Media 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Maximum intensity projection of the INL; (b) Result of band pass filtering (a). (c) Skeleton of (b). (d) 3D view of the annotation of the INL capillaries of the same data set. (e) Maximum intensity projection of (d). (f) Skeleton of (e). (g) Overlay of (a) and (c). (h) Overlay of (a) and (f). (i) Overlay of (a), (c) and (f). (j) maximum intensity projection of S2 of a diseased eye suffering from telangiectasia. (k) Result of band pass filtering (j). (l) Skeleton of (j). Red arrow indicates area of leakage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Atypical vessel growth in telangiectasia.; (a) Intensity volume, white arrow points to capillaries growing towards photoreceptors; (b) Fundus fluorescein angiogram, square indicates section imaged with OCT. (c) Overlay of intensity volume and annotation; (d) Overlay of intensity volume and annotation showing capillaries growing towards photoreceptors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of box count method for determination of fractal dimension (following [29,30]).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fractal Dimension for segments of 2 healthy subjects and two patients suffering from telangiectasia.

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