Abstract

Studying renal microcirculation and its dynamics is of great importance for understanding the renal function and further aiding the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal pathologies. In this paper, we present a potentially useful method to provide high-sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculations using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG). The UHS-OMAG image system used here is based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, which uses a broadband light source centered at 1300 nm with an imaging speed of 150 frames per second that requires ~6.7 sec to complete one 3D scan of ~2.5 × 2.5 mm2 area. The technique is sensitive enough to image capillary networks, such as peritubular capillaries within renal cortex. We show the ability of UHS-OMAG to provide depth-resolved volumetric images of capillary level renal microcirculation. We also show that UHS-OMAG is capable of monitoring the changes of renal microcirculation in response to renal ischemia and reperfusion. Finally, we attempt to show the capability of OMAG to provide quantitative analysis about velocity changes in a single capillary vessel (down to tens of microns per second) in response to the ischemic event.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (6)

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bezemer, M. Legrand, E. Klijn, M. Heger, I. C. Post, T. M. van Gulik, D. Payen, and C. Ince, “Real-time assessment of renal cortical microvascular perfusion heterogeneities using near-infrared laser speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15054–15061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Q. Li, M. L. Onozato, P. M. Andrews, C. W. Chen, A. Paek, R. Naphas, S. Yuan, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Automated quantification of microstructural dimensions of the human kidney using optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(18), 16000–16016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Nilsson, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys,” Eur. Radiol. 14(S8 Suppl 8Suppl 8), 104–109 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

L. Knesplova and G. P. Krestin, “Magnetic resonance in the assessment of renal function,” Eur. Radiol. 8(2), 201–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advani, A.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Andrews, P. M.

Q. Li, M. L. Onozato, P. M. Andrews, C. W. Chen, A. Paek, R. Naphas, S. Yuan, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Automated quantification of microstructural dimensions of the human kidney using optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(18), 16000–16016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, S. E.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, M. D.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Bezemer, R.

Bin, J. P.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodsky, S. V.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chade, A. R.

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

Chen, Y.

Q. Li, M. L. Onozato, P. M. Andrews, C. W. Chen, A. Paek, R. Naphas, S. Yuan, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Automated quantification of microstructural dimensions of the human kidney using optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(18), 16000–16016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Coggins, M.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connelly, K.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

de Boer, J. F.

Fernandez, S. R.

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiksen-Olsen, M. J.

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Fischer, D. C.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortepiani, L. A.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

Francis, P.

Fujimoto, J. G.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Estan, J.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gilbert, R.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Goligorsky, M. S.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Haffner, D.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heger, M.

Hillman, B. J.

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E. A.

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Holdt-Lehmann, B.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R. A.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Iliescu, R.

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ince, C.

Jacques, S. L.

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Q. Li, M. L. Onozato, P. M. Andrews, C. W. Chen, A. Paek, R. Naphas, S. Yuan, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Automated quantification of microstructural dimensions of the human kidney using optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(18), 16000–16016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajiya, F.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kalantar-Zadeh, K.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kaul, S.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelsen, S.

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klijn, E.

Knesplova, L.

L. Knesplova and G. P. Krestin, “Magnetic resonance in the assessment of renal function,” Eur. Radiol. 8(2), 201–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Körber, T.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krestin, G. P.

L. Knesplova and G. P. Krestin, “Magnetic resonance in the assessment of renal function,” Eur. Radiol. 8(2), 201–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuliszewski, M.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Le, E.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legrand, M.

Leong-Poi, H.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Lerman, L. O.

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Li, Q.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, D. M.

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Maric, C.

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, L.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

McCarthy, M.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mitzner, A.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naphas, R.

Nelson, J. S.

Nilsson, A.

A. Nilsson, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys,” Eur. Radiol. 14(S8 Suppl 8Suppl 8), 104–109 (2004).
[PubMed]

Nissel, R.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noiri, E.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Onozato, M. L.

Q. Li, M. L. Onozato, P. M. Andrews, C. W. Chen, A. Paek, R. Naphas, S. Yuan, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Automated quantification of microstructural dimensions of the human kidney using optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(18), 16000–16016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paek, A.

Passardi, F.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

Payen, D.

Petzsch, M.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, I. C.

Puhlmann, A.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

Ritman, E. L.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Romero, J. C.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Rudenko, D.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Ruiz, M. C.

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmidt, R.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Secker, D.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sehgal, A.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Steiber, A. L.

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swindell, W.

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tada, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Thorpe, J.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tieß, M.

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tracey, P.

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trogadis, J.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

van Gulik, T. M.

Wang, R. K.

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, K.

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Xiang, S.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yuan, S.

Yuen, D.

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Zhao, Y.

Zhi, Z.

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2)

L. A. Fortepiani, M. C. Ruiz, F. Passardi, M. D. Bentley, J. Garcia-Estan, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Effect of losartan on renal microvasculature during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide visualized by micro-CT,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 285(5), F852–F860 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Yamamoto, T. Tada, S. V. Brodsky, H. Tanaka, E. Noiri, F. Kajiya, and M. S. Goligorsky, “Intravital videomicroscopy of peritubular capillaries in renal ischemia,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282(6), F1150–F1155 (2002).
[PubMed]

Circ. Res. (1)

M. D. Bentley, L. O. Lerman, E. A. Hoffman, M. J. Fiksen-Olsen, E. L. Ritman, and J. C. Romero, “Measurement of renal perfusion and blood flow with fast computed tomography,” Circ. Res. 74(5), 945–951 (1994).
[PubMed]

Circulation (1)

M. Kuliszewski, D. Rudenko, K. Connelly, D. Yuen, J. Trogadis, A. Advani, R. Gilbert, and H. Leong-Poi, “Abstract 5266: a novel technique for assessing the renal microvasculature in chronic kidney disease,” Circulation 120, S1077 (2009).

Eur. Radiol. (2)

A. Nilsson, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys,” Eur. Radiol. 14(S8 Suppl 8Suppl 8), 104–109 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. Knesplova and G. P. Krestin, “Magnetic resonance in the assessment of renal function,” Eur. Radiol. 8(2), 201–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

B. J. Hillman, S. M. Lee, P. Tracey, W. Swindell, and D. M. Long, “CT determination of renal and hepatic microvascular volumes in experimental acute renal failure,” Invest. Radiol. 17(1), 41–45 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

K. Wei, E. Le, J. P. Bin, M. Coggins, J. Thorpe, and S. Kaul, “Quantification of renal blood flow with contrast-enhanced ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37(4), 1135–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren. Nutr. (1)

A. L. Steiber, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, D. Secker, M. McCarthy, A. Sehgal, and L. McCann, “Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review,” J. Ren. Nutr. 14(4), 191–200 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lab. Invest. (1)

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

R. Nissel, D. C. Fischer, A. Puhlmann, B. Holdt-Lehmann, A. Mitzner, M. Petzsch, T. Körber, M. Tieß, R. Schmidt, and D. Haffner, “Short-term growth hormone treatment and microcirculation: effects in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Microvasc. Res. 78(2), 246–252 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1)

R. Iliescu, S. R. Fernandez, S. Kelsen, C. Maric, and A. R. Chade, “Role of renal microcirculation in experimental renovascular disease,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25(4), 1079–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the UHS-OMAG system: SLD – super luminescent diode, OC – optical circulator, FC– 10:90 fiber coupler, PC – polarization controller, RM – reference mirror, Laser- pilot laser for beam guiding, DG – diffraction grating, CCD – line-scan camera, COMP – computer. (b) Scanning voltage pattern for galvo-mirror during UHS-OMAG data acquisition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical in vivo UHS-OMAG imaging results of the renal microcirculation in adult mouse. (A) Shows one typical cross-sectional OCT image of the mouse kidney structure, and (B) is corresponding UHS-OMAG blood flow image of (A). Small white arrows point to the small capillaries and the open arrow points the arcuate artery. (C) 3D merged structure and volumetric perfusion image, (D) Microvasculature image showing the arterioles and peritubular capillary network. (E) 3D rendered angiogram of cortical microvasculature from the top view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical image of renal microvasculature at different depth (distance from surface): (a) 3D volumetric perfusion map, maximal intensity projection map at depth of (b) 0-200 um, (c) 200-400um, (d) 400-600 um, (e) > 600 um. The imaged region is ~1.5 x 1.5 mm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Monitor of the process of renal ischemia using UHS-OMAG. (a, c) are the cross-sectional structure images captured before and after renal ischemia, and (b, d) are the corresponding UHS-OMAG flow images. (e) The normalized vessel density change during the process of renal ischemia and reperfusion, mean ± SEM (n = 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative 3D renal microcirculation perfusion maps show the process of renal ischemia and reperfusion. The imaged region shown here is ~1.5 x 1.5 mm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Cross-sectional blood flow image (upper) showing the capillary vessel used for velocity evaluation as located by the circle and arrow. This capillary vessel was also pointed out in the bottom 3D capillary map. (b) Blood flow velocity change of the single capillary vessel pointed out in (a) during the process of renal ischemia.

Equations (1)

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V Z = Δ φ λ 0 4 π n Δ t B

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