Abstract

We describe a novel reconstruction algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to multi-spectral imaging data. Using numerical phantoms, based on a two layered skin model developed previously, we found analytical expressions, which convert qualitative PCA results into quantitative blood volume and oxygenation values, assuming the epidermal thickness to be known. We also evaluate the limits of accuracy of this method when the value of the epidermal thickness is not known. We show that blood volume can reliably be extracted (less than 6% error) even if the assumed thickness deviates 0.04mm from the actual value, whereas the error in blood oxygenation can be as large as 25% for the same deviation in thickness. This PCA based reconstruction was found to extract blood volume and blood oxygenation with less than 8% error, if the underlying structure is known. We then apply the method to in vivo multi-spectral images from a healthy volunteer’s lower forearm, complemented by images of the same area using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for measuring the epidermal thickness. Reconstruction of the imaging results using a two layered analytical skin model was compared to PCA based reconstruction results. A point wise correlation was found, showing the proof of principle of using PCA based reconstruction for blood volume and oxygenation extraction.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (4)

J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mandelkow, D. Brandeis, and P. Boesiger, “Good practices in EEG-MRI: the utility of retrospective synchronization and PCA for the removal of MRI gradient artefacts,” Neuroimage 49(3), 2287–2303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zakharov, M. S. Talary, I. Kolm, and A. Caduff, “Full-field optical coherence tomography for the rapid estimation of epidermal thickness: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1,” Physiol. Meas. 31(2), 193–205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, M. Ehler, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

W. E. Roberts, “Skin type classification systems old and new,” Dermatol. Clin. 27(4), 529–533, viii (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Fadzil, S. Norashikin, H. H. Suraiya, and H. Nugroho, “Independent component analysis for assessing therapeutic response in vitiligo skin disorder,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 33(2), 101–109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, A. Bono, and M. Carrara, “In vivo characterization of melanin in melanocytic lesions: spectroscopic study on 1671 pigmented skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014027 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mantis and G. Zonios, “Simple two-layer reflectance model for biological tissue applications,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3490–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Tseng, P. Bargo, A. Durkin, and N. Kollias, “Chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of human skin in-vivo,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14599–14617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

Q. Du and J. E. Fowler, “Low-complexity principal component analysis for hyperspectral image compression,” Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 22(4), 438–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Zakian, I. Pretty, R. Ellwood, and D. Hamlin, “In vivo quantification of gingival inflammation using spectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miyamae, Y. Yamakawa, M. Kawabata, and Y. Ozaki, “A noninvasive method for assessing interior skin damage caused by chronological aging and photoaging based on near-infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(6), 677–681 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, “Detection limits of multi-spectral optical imaging under the skin surface,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(3), 617–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology (Basel) 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. She, Y. Liu, and A. Damatoa, “Combination of features from skin pattern and ABCD analysis for lesion classification,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(1), 25–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

L. L. Nuffer, P. A. Medvick, H. P. Foote, and J. C. Solinsky, “Multispectral/hyperspectral image enhancement for biological cell analysis,” Cytometry A 69A(8), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X.-H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(6), 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Asai, Y. Sumiyama, M. Watanabe, and K. Aizawa, “Tumor viability using real-time spectral images,” Surg. Today 36(12), 1075–1084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

E. Claridge, S. Cotton, P. Hall, and M. Moncrieff, “From colour to tissue histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions,” Med. Image Anal. 7(4), 489–502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, “Quantitative assessment of skin layers absorption and skin reflectance spectra simulation in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions,” Physiol. Meas. 23(4), 741–753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

G. Hance, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, and W. V. Stoecker, “Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15(1), 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, and G. Hance, “Automatic color segmentation algorithms-with application to skin tumor feature identification,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 12(3), 75–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1901 (1)

K. Pearson, “On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space,” Philos. Mag. Ser. 6 2(11), 559–572 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Agrba, P. D.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizawa, K.

K. Asai, Y. Sumiyama, M. Watanabe, and K. Aizawa, “Tumor viability using real-time spectral images,” Surg. Today 36(12), 1075–1084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Amyot, F.

J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, M. Ehler, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asai, K.

K. Asai, Y. Sumiyama, M. Watanabe, and K. Aizawa, “Tumor viability using real-time spectral images,” Surg. Today 36(12), 1075–1084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attas, M.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balalaeva, I. V.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bargo, P.

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binzoni, T.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, “Detection limits of multi-spectral optical imaging under the skin surface,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(3), 617–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blenkiron, P.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

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J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
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J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
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J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
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J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, M. Ehler, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046013 (2010).
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J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
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H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X.-H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(6), 1479–1489 (2006).
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U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
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[PubMed]

Kainerstorfer, J. M.

J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, M. Ehler, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Khlebtsov, B. N.

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Kolm, I.

P. Zakharov, M. S. Talary, I. Kolm, and A. Caduff, “Full-field optical coherence tomography for the rapid estimation of epidermal thickness: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1,” Physiol. Meas. 31(2), 193–205 (2010).
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H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X.-H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(6), 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
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Z. She, Y. Liu, and A. Damatoa, “Combination of features from skin pattern and ABCD analysis for lesion classification,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(1), 25–33 (2007).
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H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X.-H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(6), 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lübbers, D. W.

U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandelkow, H.

H. Mandelkow, D. Brandeis, and P. Boesiger, “Good practices in EEG-MRI: the utility of retrospective synchronization and PCA for the removal of MRI gradient artefacts,” Neuroimage 49(3), 2287–2303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantis, G.

Mantsch, H.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

R. Marchesini, A. Bono, and M. Carrara, “In vivo characterization of melanin in melanocytic lesions: spectroscopic study on 1671 pigmented skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014027 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, “Detection limits of multi-spectral optical imaging under the skin surface,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(3), 617–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcott, C.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, “Quantitative assessment of skin layers absorption and skin reflectance spectra simulation in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions,” Physiol. Meas. 23(4), 741–753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matts, P. J.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Medvick, P. A.

L. L. Nuffer, P. A. Medvick, H. P. Foote, and J. C. Solinsky, “Multispectral/hyperspectral image enhancement for biological cell analysis,” Cytometry A 69A(8), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meglinski, I. V.

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, “Quantitative assessment of skin layers absorption and skin reflectance spectra simulation in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions,” Physiol. Meas. 23(4), 741–753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merschbrock, U.

U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

Miyamae, Y.

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology (Basel) 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moncrieff, M.

E. Claridge, S. Cotton, P. Hall, and M. Moncrieff, “From colour to tissue histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions,” Med. Image Anal. 7(4), 489–502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morsy, H. A.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology (Basel) 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, R. H.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Hance, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, and W. V. Stoecker, “Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15(1), 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, and G. Hance, “Automatic color segmentation algorithms-with application to skin tumor feature identification,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 12(3), 75–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norashikin, S.

M. H. Fadzil, S. Norashikin, H. H. Suraiya, and H. Nugroho, “Independent component analysis for assessing therapeutic response in vitiligo skin disorder,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 33(2), 101–109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuffer, L. L.

L. L. Nuffer, P. A. Medvick, H. P. Foote, and J. C. Solinsky, “Multispectral/hyperspectral image enhancement for biological cell analysis,” Cytometry A 69A(8), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugroho, H.

M. H. Fadzil, S. Norashikin, H. H. Suraiya, and H. Nugroho, “Independent component analysis for assessing therapeutic response in vitiligo skin disorder,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 33(2), 101–109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlova, A. G.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, Y.

Payette, J.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, K.

K. Pearson, “On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space,” Philos. Mag. Ser. 6 2(11), 559–572 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Posthumus, T.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pretty, I.

C. Zakian, I. Pretty, R. Ellwood, and D. Hamlin, “In vivo quantification of gingival inflammation using spectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pursley, R.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rawlings, A. V.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Riley, J. D.

J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, M. Ehler, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, F. Amyot, S. G. Demos, M. Hassan, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Quantitative assessment of ischemia and reactive hyperemia of the dermal layers using multi-spectral imaging on the human arm,” Proc. SPIE 7369, 73690P, 73690P–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, W. E.

W. E. Roberts, “Skin type classification systems old and new,” Dermatol. Clin. 27(4), 529–533, viii (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmickaly, U.

U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

She, Z.

Z. She, Y. Liu, and A. Damatoa, “Combination of features from skin pattern and ABCD analysis for lesion classification,” Skin Res. Technol. 13(1), 25–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirmanova, M. V.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sieg, A.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sirotkina, M. A.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solinsky, J. C.

L. L. Nuffer, P. A. Medvick, H. P. Foote, and J. C. Solinsky, “Multispectral/hyperspectral image enhancement for biological cell analysis,” Cytometry A 69A(8), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S. K.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoecker, W. V.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Hance, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, and W. V. Stoecker, “Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15(1), 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, and G. Hance, “Automatic color segmentation algorithms-with application to skin tumor feature identification,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 12(3), 75–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sumiyama, Y.

K. Asai, Y. Sumiyama, M. Watanabe, and K. Aizawa, “Tumor viability using real-time spectral images,” Surg. Today 36(12), 1075–1084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suraiya, H. H.

M. H. Fadzil, S. Norashikin, H. H. Suraiya, and H. Nugroho, “Independent component analysis for assessing therapeutic response in vitiligo skin disorder,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 33(2), 101–109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swamisai, R.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talary, M. S.

P. Zakharov, M. S. Talary, I. Kolm, and A. Caduff, “Full-field optical coherence tomography for the rapid estimation of epidermal thickness: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1,” Physiol. Meas. 31(2), 193–205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teegala, S.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology (Basel) 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. H.

Tsumura, N.

Umbaugh, S. E.

Y. Cheng, R. Swamisai, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, S. Teegala, and S. K. Srinivasan, “Skin lesion classification using relative color features,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(1), 53–64 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Hance, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, and W. V. Stoecker, “Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15(1), 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, and G. Hance, “Automatic color segmentation algorithms-with application to skin tumor feature identification,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 12(3), 75–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, “Detection limits of multi-spectral optical imaging under the skin surface,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(3), 617–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

K. Asai, Y. Sumiyama, M. Watanabe, and K. Aizawa, “Tumor viability using real-time spectral images,” Surg. Today 36(12), 1075–1084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitton, J. T.

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooden, W. A.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X.-H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(6), 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamakawa, Y.

Yap, V. V.

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarchoan, R.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagaynova, E. V.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharov, P.

P. Zakharov, M. S. Talary, I. Kolm, and A. Caduff, “Full-field optical coherence tomography for the rapid estimation of epidermal thickness: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1,” Physiol. Meas. 31(2), 193–205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakian, C.

C. Zakian, I. Pretty, R. Ellwood, and D. Hamlin, “In vivo quantification of gingival inflammation using spectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

H. Nugroho, M. H. Fadzil, V. V. Yap, S. Norashikin, and H. H. Suraiya, “Determination of skin repigmentation progression,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2007, 3442–3445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

L. L. Nuffer, P. A. Medvick, H. P. Foote, and J. C. Solinsky, “Multispectral/hyperspectral image enhancement for biological cell analysis,” Cytometry A 69A(8), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Clin. (1)

W. E. Roberts, “Skin type classification systems old and new,” Dermatol. Clin. 27(4), 529–533, viii (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatology (Basel) (1)

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology (Basel) 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (2)

G. Hance, S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, and W. V. Stoecker, “Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15(1), 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Umbaugh, R. H. Moss, W. V. Stoecker, and G. Hance, “Automatic color segmentation algorithms-with application to skin tumor feature identification,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 12(3), 75–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. (1)

Q. Du and J. E. Fowler, “Low-complexity principal component analysis for hyperspectral image compression,” Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 22(4), 438–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. (1)

U. Merschbrock, J. Hoffmann, L. Caspary, J. Huber, U. Schmickaly, and D. W. Lübbers, “Fast wavelength scanning reflectance spectrophotometer for noninvasive determination of hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin,” Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 14(5), 274–281 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, M. Ehler, F. Amyot, M. Hassan, S. G. Demos, V. Chernomordik, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. D. Riley, “Principal component model of multispectral data for near real-time skin chromophore mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, Y. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zakian, I. Pretty, R. Ellwood, and D. Hamlin, “In vivo quantification of gingival inflammation using spectral imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, A. Bono, and M. Carrara, “In vivo characterization of melanin in melanocytic lesions: spectroscopic study on 1671 pigmented skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014027 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial distributions of blood volume (a) and blood oxygenation (b) for the numerical phantoms. Each resulting intensity image pixel has a unique combination of those two. Resulting intensity images with epidermal thickness of d = 0.06 mm are shown for 750 nm (c), 800 nm (d), and 850 nm (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Paper mask placed on the forearm. The small squares were imaged with OCT first and the outer square was imaged with the multi-spectral imaging system. A cartoon of the mask is seen in (a), the mask on the forearm for OCT imaging in (b), and for multi-spectral imaging in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eigenvector 1 and 2 vs. blood volume and blood oxygenation, respectively. 3a and 3b show results for the uniform thickness set; 3c and 3d for spatially varying thickness set. 3a and 3c show results color-coded with thickness d; 3b shows one wavelength set of uniform thickness of 0.06mm; 3d shows a wavelength set of varying thickness; 3b and 3d are color-coded with blood volume, showing the dependence of eigenvector 2 on blood volume as well as on thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PCA based reconstruction of blood volume vs. blood volume for all uniform d (a) and spatially varying d (b) image sets. After correction, blood volume can be assessed within a maximum error of 8%, using eigenvector 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Slope and intercept of eigenvector 2. 5a. shows the slope A vs. blood volume, 5b. the intercept B vs. blood volume, where the blue curves show the smallest thickness within the wavelength set (d1), green show d2, red d3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PCA based reconstruction of blood oxygenation vs. blood oxygenation for the first image set (uniform d) (a), second image set (spatially varying d) (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative error in two layered model reconstruction. A constant epidermal thickness of d = 0.06mm is assumed for calculations. The error in blood volume values is shown in (a), color-coded with blood volume. The error in blood oxygenation in dependence on blood volume is shown in (b), color-coded with blood oxygenation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative error in PCA based reconstruction for the uniform epidermal thickness image set. A constant epidermal thickness of d = 0.06mm is assumed for calculations. The error in blood volume values is shown in (a), color-coded with blood volume. The error in blood oxygenation in dependence on blood volume is shown in (b), color-coded with blood oxygenation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

B-scan (a), A-scan (b). A typical section of the forearm is shown in a, where the red lines indicate the surface of the skin as well as the boundary to the dermal layer. A representative A-scan in linear scale is seen in b.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average and standard deviation of extracted epidermal thickness over twelve 1x1cm2 areas on the forearm of a healthy volunteer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Blood volume (a) and oxygenation (b) over time, extracted with two-layered reconstruction and PCA based reconstruction. Begin and end of occlusion is indicated by the vertical lines at time t = 0min and t = 5min.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

In vivo results for blood volume (a) and blood oxygenation (b), showing a pixel wise correspondence between two-layered reconstruction and PCA based reconstruction.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Epidermal thickness variation within different image sets

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Table 2 Coefficients for cubic polynomial for C1-C4

Equations (12)

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I e = S R e ( λ ) 2 R d ( λ )
R e ( λ ) = e μ e d = e ( v m 0.66 10 11 λ 3.33 d )
R d ( λ ) = e 2 ( μ d / μ s ) 24 ( μ d / μ s ) . ( 1 e 24 ( μ d / μ s ) ) 1.06 1.45 ( μ d / μ s ) 0.35 ,
μ d = v d b [ ( 1 v b o x y ) μ d e o x y + ( v b o x y ) μ o x y ]
Y = W T X
V D B * = C 1 Y 1 3 + C 2 Y 1 2 + C 3 Y 1 + C 4 ,
V B O X Y * = A Y 2 Y 1 + B
A = 6.27 V D B 0.35 + 5.99
B min = S 1 V D B S 2 + S 3
S 1 = 0.22 d min 0.13 S 2 = 0.04 d min 0.34 S 3 = 0 .14 d min + 0.47
B = S 4 B min + S 5
S 4 = 18.44 ( D d min ) + 1.04 ; S 5 = 6.25 ( D d min ) 0.01

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