Abstract

We validate specific binding activity of a fluorescence-labeled peptide to colorectal dysplasia in living mice using a miniature, flexible, fiber microendoscope that passes through the instrument channel of an endoscope. The microendoscope delivers excitation light at 473 nm through a fiber-optic bundle with outer diameter of 680 µm to collect en face images at 10 Hz with 4 µm lateral resolution. We applied the FITC-labeled peptide QPIHPNNM topically to colonic mucosa in genetically engineered mice that spontaneously develop adenomas. More than two-fold greater fluorescence intensity was measured from adenomas compared to adjacent normal-appearing mucosa. Images of adenomas showed irregular morphology characteristic of dysplasia.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ciardiello and G. Tortora, “EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(11), 1160–1174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, and M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. E. Sharpless and R. A. Depinho, “The mighty mouse: genetically engineered mouse models in cancer drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(9), 741–754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akyol, A.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anlauf, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. N.

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartenstein, P.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, and M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biesmans, B.

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

Blum, H. E.

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boland, C. R.

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broome, A.-M.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K. R.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardiello, F.

F. Ciardiello and G. Tortora, “EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(11), 1160–1174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Roock, W.

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

De Schutter, J.

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

Delaney, P.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depinho, R. A.

N. E. Sharpless and R. A. Depinho, “The mighty mouse: genetically engineered mouse models in cancer drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(9), 741–754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C. B.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duerk, J. L.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elahi, S. F.

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, M. C.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, and M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fearon, E. R.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, D. O.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flask, C.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foersch, S.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fottner, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedland, S.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaustad, A.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goel, A.

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grady, W. M.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenson, J. K.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregor, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, J.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinoi, T.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtmann, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P. L.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, B. P.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanzler, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klöppel, G.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoblaugh, S.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolthammer, J.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, R. S.

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, A. W.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luker, G. D.

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luker, K. E.

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Memadathil, B.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. J.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz, N. M.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, and M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojas, A.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahbaie, P.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salem, N.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandhu, G. S.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasazuki, T.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, R.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, T.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpless, N. E.

N. E. Sharpless and R. A. Depinho, “The mighty mouse: genetically engineered mouse models in cancer drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(9), 741–754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirasawa, S.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solorio, L.

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, D.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tejpar, S.

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

Theisen, B. K.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tortora, G.

F. Ciardiello and G. Tortora, “EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(11), 1160–1174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trobridge, P.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, K. D.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, C. M.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldner, M. J.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washington, M. K.

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, M. M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weyand, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. O.

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A. P.

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziebart, A.

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

C. N. Arnold, A. Goel, H. E. Blum, and C. R. Boland, “Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer: implications for molecular diagnosis,” Cancer 104(10), 2035–2047 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

T. Hinoi, A. Akyol, B. K. Theisen, D. O. Ferguson, J. K. Greenson, B. O. Williams, K. R. Cho, and E. R. Fearon, “Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation,” Cancer Res. 67(20), 9721–9730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (2)

M. Goetz, A. Ziebart, S. Foersch, M. Vieth, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor,” Gastroenterology 138(2), 435–446 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Trobridge, S. Knoblaugh, M. K. Washington, N. M. Munoz, K. D. Tsuchiya, A. Rojas, X. Song, C. M. Ulrich, T. Sasazuki, S. Shirasawa, and W. M. Grady, “TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin-independent pathway,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1680–1688e7 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Diagn. Ther. (1)

W. De Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Mol. Diagn. Ther. 13(2), 103–114 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

S. F. Elahi, Z. Liu, K. E. Luker, R. S. Kwon, G. D. Luker, and T. D. Wang, “Longitudinal molecular imaging with single cell resolution of disseminated ovarian cancer in mice with a LED-based confocal microendoscope,” Mol. Imaging Biol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

F. Ciardiello and G. Tortora, “EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(11), 1160–1174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

P. L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, and M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

N. E. Sharpless and R. A. Depinho, “The mighty mouse: genetically engineered mouse models in cancer drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(9), 741–754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel Peptide probe,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. (1)

G. S. Sandhu, L. Solorio, A.-M. Broome, N. Salem, J. Kolthammer, T. Shah, C. Flask, and J. L. Duerk, “Whole animal imaging,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2(4), 398–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2010 (American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Ga., 2010).

R. S. Cotran, Robbins and Cotran Pathalogic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, eds. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 2005).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic. Excitation from the laser diode at 473 nm is collimated by an asphere (L1), reflected by a dichroic beamsplitter, and focused into a 680 µm (O.D.) coherent fiber bundle. Fluorescence is transmitted to the CCD. The bundle is sufficiently small in dimension to pass through the instrument channel of a small animal endoscope (inset).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo microendoscopy images. QPIHPNNM applied to the surface of a) an adenoma (Media 1) and b) normal-appearing adjacent mucosa. GGGAGGGA (control peptide) applied to the surface of c) an adenoma and d) normal-appearing adjacent mucosa. e) QPIHPNNM applied to normal colonic mucosa in Cre(-) mice. f) Autofluorescence from adenoma in Cre(+) mice. g) QPIHPNNM applied to hyperplastic mucosa of Kras mouse. h) Autofluorescence signal from Kras mouse. Scale bar = 100 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantification of average fluorescence intensities. (a) Boxplot of T/B of peptides from adenomas to adjacent normal mucosa. T/B of QPIHPNNM is significantly higher than that of GGGAGGGA. Lower, middle, and top lines of boxes indicate lower quartile, median, and upper quartile, respectively. Whiskers indicate minima and maxima, and crosshairs indicate means. (b) Mean fluorescence intensity of QPIHPNNM, after autofluorescence subtraction. Fluorescence signal from dysplasia is at least five-fold greater than from all other tissues.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ex vivo confocal microscopy images. (a) QPIHPNNM shows binding to single epithelial cells (arrow). (b) Minimal binding was revealed on using the GGGAGGGA peptide. (c) Histology confirms dysplastic crypts in adenoma biopsy specimens. Scale bar = 20 µm.

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