Abstract

We employed deep UV (DUV) Raman spectroscopy for characterization of molecular photodamage in cells. 244 nm light excitation Raman spectra were measured for HeLa cells exposed to the excitation light for different durations. In the spectra obtained with the shortest exposure duration (0.25 sec at 16 µW/µm2 irradiation), characteristic resonant Raman bands of adenine and guanine at 1483 cm−1 and tryptophan and tyrosine at 1618 cm−1 were clearly visible. With increasing exposure duration (up to 12.5 sec), these biomolecular Raman bands diminished, while a photoproduct Raman band at 1611 cm−1 grew. By exponential function fitting analyses, intensities of these characteristic three bands were correlated with sample exposure duration at different intensities of excitation light. We then suggest practical excitation conditions effective for DUV Raman observation of cells without photodamage-related spectral distortion.

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    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).
  5. R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
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  14. M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
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  21. M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
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2010

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

2009

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Schmitt and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy at the beginning of the twenty-first century,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1-3), 20–28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwanaga, N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Slow Ca(2+) wave stimulation using low repetition rate femtosecond pulsed irradiation,” Opt. Express 14(2), 717–725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J.-L. Ravanat, T. Douki, and J. Cadet, “Direct and indirect effects of UV radiation on DNA and its components,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63(1-3), 88–102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Yazdi, N. Ramanujam, R. Lotan, M. F. Mitchell, W. Hittelman, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy at 257 nm excitation of normal and malignant cultured breast and cervical cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53(1), 82–85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

K. Lao and A. N. Glazer, “Ultraviolet-B photodestruction of a light-harvesting complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(11), 5258–5263 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. Görner, “Photochemistry of DNA and related biomolecules: quantum yields and consequences of photoionization,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 26(2), 117–139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Sureau, L. Chinsky, C. Amirand, J. P. Ballini, M. Duquesne, A. Laigle, P. Y. Turpin, and P. Vigny, “An ultraviolet micro-Raman spectrometer: resonance Raman spectroscopy within single living cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44(6), 1047–1051 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

C. R. Johnson, M. Ludwig, and S. A. Asher, “Ultraviolet resonance Raman characterization of photochemical transients of phenol, tyrosine, and tryptophan,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108(5), 905–912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Nocentini and L. Chinsky, “In vivo studies of nucleic acid by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy on eucaryotic living cells,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14(1), 9–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1963

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. C. Bolton and J. J. Weiss, “Hypochromism in the ultra-violet absorption of nucleic acids and related structures,” Nature 195(4842), 666–668 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amirand, C.

Asher, S. A.

V. Pajcini, C. H. Munro, R. W. Bormett, R. E. Witkowski, and S. A. Asher, “UV Raman microspectroscopy: spectral and spatial selectivity with sensitivity and simplicity,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51(1), 81–86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Johnson, M. Ludwig, and S. A. Asher, “Ultraviolet resonance Raman characterization of photochemical transients of phenol, tyrosine, and tryptophan,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108(5), 905–912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baek, M.

Balakrishnan, G.

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ballini, J. P.

Bartels, T.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, M.

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, K.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bockmeyer, C. L.

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, H. C.

H. C. Bolton and J. J. Weiss, “Hypochromism in the ultra-violet absorption of nucleic acids and related structures,” Nature 195(4842), 666–668 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bormett, R. W.

Britt, D.

Britton, K. A.

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cadet, J.

J.-L. Ravanat, T. Douki, and J. Cadet, “Direct and indirect effects of UV radiation on DNA and its components,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63(1-3), 88–102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinsky, L.

F. Sureau, L. Chinsky, C. Amirand, J. P. Ballini, M. Duquesne, A. Laigle, P. Y. Turpin, and P. Vigny, “An ultraviolet micro-Raman spectrometer: resonance Raman spectroscopy within single living cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44(6), 1047–1051 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Nocentini and L. Chinsky, “In vivo studies of nucleic acid by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy on eucaryotic living cells,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14(1), 9–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. A.

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, R. A.

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cramer, K.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalterio, R. A.

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deigner, H.-P.

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doty, P.

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Douki, T.

J.-L. Ravanat, T. Douki, and J. Cadet, “Direct and indirect effects of UV radiation on DNA and its components,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63(1-3), 88–102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duquesne, M.

Elliott, S.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Ghiamati, E.

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Glazer, A. N.

K. Lao and A. N. Glazer, “Ultraviolet-B photodestruction of a light-harvesting complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(11), 5258–5263 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Görner, H.

H. Görner, “Photochemistry of DNA and related biomolecules: quantum yields and consequences of photoionization,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 26(2), 117–139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratzer, W. B.

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, T.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harz, M.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hittelman, W.

Hu, N.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Imamura, Y.

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwanaga, S.

Johnson, C. R.

C. R. Johnson, M. Ludwig, and S. A. Asher, “Ultraviolet resonance Raman characterization of photochemical transients of phenol, tyrosine, and tryptophan,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108(5), 905–912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kamemoto, L.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Kaminaka, S.

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Kentouche, K.

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitagawa, T.

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozitskaya, S.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, M.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laigle, A.

Lampen, P.

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lao, K.

K. Lao and A. N. Glazer, “Ultraviolet-B photodestruction of a light-harvesting complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(11), 5258–5263 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

Ludwig, M.

C. R. Johnson, M. Ludwig, and S. A. Asher, “Ultraviolet resonance Raman characterization of photochemical transients of phenol, tyrosine, and tryptophan,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108(5), 905–912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mariani, M. M.

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misra, A.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Mitchell, M. F.

Munro, C. H.

Nelson, W. H.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Baek, W. H. Nelson, D. Britt, and J. F. Sperry, “UV-excited resonance Raman spectra of heat denatured lysozyme and staphylococcus epidermidis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42(7), 1312–1314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, U.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nocentini, S.

S. Nocentini and L. Chinsky, “In vivo studies of nucleic acid by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy on eucaryotic living cells,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14(1), 9–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pajcini, V.

Pevsner, A.

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popp, J.

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schmitt and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy at the beginning of the twenty-first century,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1-3), 20–28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Ravanat, J.-L.

J.-L. Ravanat, T. Douki, and J. Cadet, “Direct and indirect effects of UV radiation on DNA and its components,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63(1-3), 88–102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Robertson, J.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rösch, P.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, M. P.

M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, U.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schmitt and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy at the beginning of the twenty-first century,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1-3), 20–28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Shingu, M.

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

Sperry, J. F.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Baek, W. H. Nelson, D. Britt, and J. F. Sperry, “UV-excited resonance Raman spectra of heat denatured lysozyme and staphylococcus epidermidis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42(7), 1312–1314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spiro, T. G.

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sureau, F.

Thomas, G. J.

M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyoda, T.

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turpin, P. Y.

Vigny, P.

Voet, D.

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Vohník, S.

M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, J. J.

H. C. Bolton and J. J. Weiss, “Hypochromism in the ultra-violet absorption of nucleic acids and related structures,” Nature 195(4842), 666–668 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witkowski, R. E.

Wood, B. R.

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdi, Y.

Yu, Q.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Ziebuhr, W.

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinin, P. V.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

Anal. Chem.

M. Harz, M. Krause, T. Bartels, K. Cramer, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Minimal invasive gender determination of birds by means of UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 1080–1086 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, T. Hamilton, W. H. Nelson, S. Elliott, J. F. Sperry, and M. Wu, “UV Raman spectral intensities of E. coli and other bacteria excited at 228.9, 244.0, and 248.2 nm,” Anal. Chem. 73(14), 3432–3440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.)

M. M. Mariani, P. Lampen, J. Popp, B. R. Wood, and V. Deckert, “Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1154–1161 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biophys. J.

M. P. Russell, S. Vohník, and G. J. Thomas., “Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1607–1612 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers

D. Voet, W. B. Gratzer, R. A. Cox, and P. Doty, “Absorption spectra of nucleotides, polynucleotides, and nucleic acids,” Biopolymers 1(3), 193–208 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. Harz, R. A. Claus, C. L. Bockmeyer, M. Baum, P. Rösch, K. Kentouche, H.-P. Deigner, and J. Popp, “UV-resonance Raman spectroscopic study of human plasma of healthy donors and patients with thrombotic microangiopathy,” Biopolymers 82(4), 317–324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem

U. Neugebauer, U. Schmid, K. Baumann, W. Ziebuhr, S. Kozitskaya, V. Deckert, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Towards a detailed understanding of bacterial metabolism--spectroscopic characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” ChemPhysChem 8(1), 124–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

C. R. Johnson, M. Ludwig, and S. A. Asher, “Ultraviolet resonance Raman characterization of photochemical transients of phenol, tyrosine, and tryptophan,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108(5), 905–912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Microbiol. Methods

R. Manoharan, E. Ghiamati, R. A. Dalterio, K. A. Britton, W. H. Nelson, and J. F. Sperry, “UV resonance Raman spectra of bacteria, bacterial spores, protoplasts and calcium dipicolinate,” J. Microbiol. Methods 11(1), 1–15 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

H. Görner, “Photochemistry of DNA and related biomolecules: quantum yields and consequences of photoionization,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 26(2), 117–139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Ravanat, T. Douki, and J. Cadet, “Direct and indirect effects of UV radiation on DNA and its components,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63(1-3), 88–102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. A

Q. Wu, G. Balakrishnan, A. Pevsner, and T. G. Spiro, “Histidine photodegradation during UV resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(40), 8047–8051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

M. Schmitt and J. Popp, “Raman spectroscopy at the beginning of the twenty-first century,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1-3), 20–28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nocentini and L. Chinsky, “In vivo studies of nucleic acid by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy on eucaryotic living cells,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14(1), 9–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman. Spectrosc.

P. V. Zinin, A. Misra, L. Kamemoto, Q. Yu, N. Hu, and S. K. Sharma, “Visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of themonocytes/macrophages (U937) cells,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 41, 268–274 (2010).

J. Virol. Methods

S. Kaminaka, Y. Imamura, M. Shingu, T. Kitagawa, and T. Toyoda, “Studies of bovine enterovirus structure by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Virol. Methods 77(2), 117–123 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

H. C. Bolton and J. J. Weiss, “Hypochromism in the ultra-violet absorption of nucleic acids and related structures,” Nature 195(4842), 666–668 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

K. Lao and A. N. Glazer, “Ultraviolet-B photodestruction of a light-harvesting complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(11), 5258–5263 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Roy, Strategies for the Minimisation of UV-Induced Damage (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2000), Chap. 7.

W. F. Vincent and P. J. Neale, Mechanisms of UV Damage to Aquatic Organisms (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2000), Chap 6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Raman spectra of desiccated cells obtained at different durations of sample exposure (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 sec) at 16 µW/µm2 irradiation. Each spectrum is shifted vertically for clear comparison. (b-d) shows the intensity of Raman band at (b) 1483, (c) 1618, and (d) 1611 cm−1 plotted over sample exposure duration, and their corresponding fitting curves. Each spectrum was built-up from 200 different sample positions, with the signal accumulated at the detector. This was repeated 3 times and the error bars were set to the standard deviations between the 3 measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectra of desiccated cells obtained at different durations of sample exposure (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 sec) at 1.6 µW/µm2 irradiation. Each spectrum is shifted vertically for clear comparison. (b-d) shows the intensity of the Raman band at (b) 1483, (c) 1618, and (d) 1611 cm−1 plotted on sample exposure duration, and their fitting curves. The error bars were assigned in the same manner as for Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The intensity of the thymine band at 1652 cm−1 plotted on sample exposure duration for 1.6 µW/µm2 irradiation and its fitting curve. The error bars were assigned in the same manner as for Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of live cells in Tyrode’s solution for different durations of sample exposure (5, 10, 15 sec). Spectra were smoothed by Loess fitting. Each spectrum is shifted vertically for clear comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of (a) fixed cells in Tyrode’s solution, (b) live cells in Trolox Tyrode’s solution, for different durations of sample exposure (5, 10, 15 sec). Spectra were smoothed by Loess fitting. Each spectrum is shifted vertically for clear comparison.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Raman band assignments for DUV Raman spectrum of an intact cellular sample a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Time constants obtained by the curve fitting

Tables Icon

Table 3 Effective or allowable maximum energy of excitation light exposure

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M u l t i L o r ( x ) = y 0 + a x + i = 1 n b i ( x x i ) + 2 σ i 2
I = b i ( x x i ) 2 + σ i 2 d x
F ( t ) = y 0 + i = 1 m A i exp ( t τ i )

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