Abstract

We applied hyperspectral imaging to measure spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible range and an iterative inversion method based on forward Monte Carlo modeling to quantify optical properties of two-layered tissue models. We validated the inversion method using spectra experimentally measured from liquid tissue mimicking phantoms with known optical properties. Results of fitting simulated data showed that simultaneously considering the spatial and spectral information in the inversion process improves the accuracies of estimating the optical properties and the top layer thickness in comparison to methods fitting reflectance spectra measured with a single source-detector separation or fitting spatially-resolved reflectance at a single wavelength. Further development of the method could improve noninvasive assessment of physiological status and pathological conditions of stratified squamous epithelium and superficial stroma.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (6)

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Cen and R. F. Lu, “Quantification of the optical properties of two-layer turbid materials using a hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5612–5623 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Z. Wang, H. Z. Yang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Measurement of internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths: Development and implementation of a fiberoptic-based system,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8685–8703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1989 (1)

A’Amar, O.

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Agrawal, A.

Aguilar, G.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, “Sensitivity of spatially resolved reflectance signals to coincident variations in tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 49(22), 4310–4320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aruna, P.

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

Bean, S. M.

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, R. C.

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Pham, F. Bevilacqua, T. Spott, J. S. Dam, B. J. Tromberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Quantifying the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissuelike turbid media over a broad spectral range with noncontact Fourier-transform hyperspectral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 39(34), 6487–6497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr-Locke, D. L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cartwright, P. S.

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cen, H. Y.

Chance, B.

Chang, V. T. C.

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Charvet, I.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadani, F.

Dalgaard, T.

Dam, J. S.

Dasari, R.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
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Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
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A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
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J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
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S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
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Feld, M. S.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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[PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
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Follen, M.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
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S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
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P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
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Grillone, G.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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Hibst, R.

Hull, E. L.

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

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P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
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Kim, A.

Koelink, M. H.

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
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Lai, P.-J.

Lang, R.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
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Liu, Q.

Lu, R. F.

MacAulay, C.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
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Manoharan, R.

Mardirossian, V.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

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R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Ory, G.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
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V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
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G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
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Patterson, M. S.

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
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Pedersen, C. B.

Perelman, L. T.

Pfefer, J.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Pham, T. H.

Pilon, L.

Pistey, R.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
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Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Scaling method for fast Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse reflectance spectra from multilayered turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(4), 1011–1025 (2007).
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G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Richards-Kortum, R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, M.

Schwarz, R. A.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
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Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spott, T.

St. Ghislain, M.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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Steiner, R.

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
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Sung, K.-B.

Svaasand, L. O.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
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Tsay, T. T.

Tseng, T.-Y.

Utzinger, U.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
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van den Bergh, H.

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
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R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
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Cancer Res. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 495–503 (2003).
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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Monte Carlo model to describe depth selective fluorescence spectra of epithelial tissue: applications for diagnosis of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064012 (2008).
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S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
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S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
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D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064027 (2006).
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D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
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R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
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V. T. C. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
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Opt. Express (3)

Oral Oncol. (1)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. One source fiber and an imaging fiber bundle formed a simple fiber package whose distal end was in contact with the sample. The proximal end of the fiber bundle was positioned at the focal plane of the objective for the acquisition of hyperspectral images of the sample via the fiber bundle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the proximal end of the fiber bundle captured with the microscope objective. The center of the fiber bundle and the pixel with the highest intensity determine the line passing through the center of the source fiber. The 8 green circles indicate the regions for measuring diffuse reflectance spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatially-resolved reflectance spectra of phantom 3 with SDSs from 0.4 mm to 1.8 mm and their corresponding fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extracted µa(λ) (red lines) and µs'(λ) (blue lines) of the phantom experiments. The solid lines represent the expected values based on phantom compositions and the dashed lines represent the spectra extracted from DRS data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of simulated diffuse reflectance spectra with noise and curve fitting results at multiple SDSs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MPE of estimating hemoglobin parameters and RMSE% of quantifying µa(λ) and µs'(λ) of the bottom layer with known optical properties of the top layer. The numbers are expressed as mean ± standard deviation among 10 independent runs.

Tables Icon

Table 2 MPE of estimating input parameters and RMSE% of quantifying µa1(λ), µs1'(λ), µa2(λ), and µs2'(λ) of a two-layered tissue model with or without knowing the thickness of the top layer, d. The values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation among 10 independent runs.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of methods used and errors (%) in quantified optical properties of two-layered tissue models with the thickness of the top layer known.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ a ( λ ) = f H b [ S t O 2 μ a o x y ( λ ) + ( 1 S t O ) 2 μ a d e o x y ( λ ) ]
μ s ' ( λ ) = A λ k
μ a 1 ( λ ) = C μ e p i ( λ )
M P E ( % ) = i = 1 n ( X f i X t i X t i ) n × 100 %
R M S E % = i = 1 m [ ( X f i X t i X t i ) × 100 ] 2 m %

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