Abstract

The in vivo assessment of superficial tissue has shown great promise in many biomedical applications. Significant efforts have been expended in designing compact fiber-optic probes with short tissue penetration depth targeting the superficial epithelium. In this paper, we present a compact and simple two-channel fiber-optic probe with superior depth selectivity for the superficial tissue. This probe employs a high-index ball-lens with an optimized illumination area and the maximal overlap between light illumination and collection spots, while maintaining sufficient light collection efficiency with minimized specular reflection. Importantly, we show that this probe allows the selection of a constant and shallow physical penetration depth, insensitive to a wide range of tissue-relevant scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors. We demonstrate the capability of this depth-selective fiber-optic probe to accurately quantify the absorber concentration in superficial tissue without the distortion of tissue scattering properties; and characterize the optical properties of superficial skin tissue.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 120–122 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, “Multiple-fiber probe design for fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4712–4721 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Quan and N. Ramanujam, “Relationship between depth of a target in a turbid medium and fluorescence measured by a variable-aperture method,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 104–106 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43(6), 1308–1319 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. T. Nieman, M. Jakovljevic, and K. Sokolov, “Compact beveled fiber optic probe design for enhanced depth discrimination in epithelial tissues,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2780–2796 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Liu, Y. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Amelink and H. J. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, M. P. Bard, and S. A. Burgers, “In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential path-length spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1087–1089 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064042 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt. 36(22), 5655–5661 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Zonios and A. Dimou, “Melanin optical properties provide evidence for chemical and structural disorder in vivo,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8263–8268 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water,” (Oregon Medical Laser Center, 1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .
  21. A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, “Regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) of the human stratum corneum: an ultrastructural analysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 62(4), 415–422 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36(4), 949–957 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, “Melanin optical properties provide evidence for chemical and structural disorder in vivo,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8263–8268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

2003 (3)

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 120–122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, “Regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) of the human stratum corneum: an ultrastructural analysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 62(4), 415–422 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, J.

Amelink, A.

Arifler, D.

Backman, V.

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P.

Bender, J. E.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Boyer, J.

Burgers, S. A.

Chang, S. K.

Dasari, R. R.

Dimou, A.

Drezek, R. A.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Fuselier, T.

Galindo, L. H.

Gardecki, J. A.

Gillenwater, A. M.

Goldberg, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. J.

Hirao, T.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holbrook, K. A.

K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, “Regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) of the human stratum corneum: an ultrastructural analysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 62(4), 415–422 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Hussain, I. A.

Jack, D. A.

Jacques, S. L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaillon, F.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakovljevic, M.

Jameel, M.

Johnson, T. M.

Kanick, S. C.

S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y. L.

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, B.

Kramer, J. R.

Kromin,

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kromine, A.

Kun Chen,

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liu, Q.

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Mack, V.

Matchette, L. S.

Miller, H. D.

Motz, J. T.

Mourant, J. R.

Myakov, A.

Nieman, L.

Nieman, L. T.

Nishioka, N. S.

Odland, G. F.

K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, “Regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) of the human stratum corneum: an ultrastructural analysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 62(4), 415–422 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

Pfefer, J.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Quan, L.

Ramanujam, N.

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Quan and N. Ramanujam, “Relationship between depth of a target in a turbid medium and fluorescence measured by a variable-aperture method,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 104–106 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rogers, J. D.

Ross, A. M.

Roy, H. K.

Roy, M. J.

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

Schwarz, R. A.

Sokolov, K.

Sterenborg, H. J.

Takahashi, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Utzinger, U.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wali, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. M.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang Liu, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.-Q.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Acta Derm. Venereol. (1)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36(4), 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, “Multiple-fiber probe design for fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4712–4721 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43(6), 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt. 36(22), 5655–5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. L. Kim, R. K. Yang Liu, H. K. Wali, M. J. Roy, A. K. Goldberg, Kromin, Kun Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, “Regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) of the human stratum corneum: an ultrastructural analysis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 62(4), 415–422 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(4), 937–951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water,” (Oregon Medical Laser Center, 1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Components arrangement of the depth-selective probe. (a) Front view. (b) Side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The illumination (blue) and collection (red) intensity contour profile of the depth-selective probe. The angle between the illumination and collection beam is calculated to be θ = 37.4° in air and θ = 27.8° in water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The background and tissue reflectance signals from our depth-selective probe with 200μm diameter. The color bar represents irradiance (W/m2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturation curves of the depth-selective probe obtained from both numerical simulations and experiments for μs = 200 cm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of sampling depth on the fiber core diameters of the depth-selective probe (μs = 200 cm−1, g = 0.87, μa = 5 cm−1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of (a) scattering coefficient in the range from 50 to 300cm−1 with a fixed anisotropy factor g of 0.87 and absorption coefficient μa of 5cm−1, (b) anisotropy factor a wide range from 0.80 to 0.96 with a fixed scattering coefficient μs of 200 cm−1 and absorption coefficient μa of 5cm−1, and (c) absorption coefficient in a range from 0 to 15 cm−1 with a fixed scattering coefficient μs of 121cm−1 and anisotropy factor g of 0.87 on the penetration depths of different fiber-optic probes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Representative reflectance spectra of the tissue model with the hemoglobin concentration of 1g/L, 8g/L and 15g/L, separately. The calculated hemoglobin coefficients from (b) the depth-selective probe and (c) the SRP with 200μm core diameter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance spectra from three skin tissue sites: (a) fingertip (b) lip and (c) volar forearm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Major Tissue Properties of Three Skin Sites

Equations (3)

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R ( λ ) = I s ( λ ) I b g ( λ ) I r e f ( λ ) I b g ( λ )
R ( λ ) = I s c a t t e r i n g ( λ ) exp ( α H b O 2 A H b O 2 ( λ ) α H b A H b ( λ ) )
R ( λ ) = λ β exp ( α H b O 2 A H b O 2 ( λ ) α H b A H b ( λ ) )

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