Abstract

Cone photoreceptors in the living human eye have recently been imaged with micron-scale resolution in all three spatial dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. While these advances have allowed non-invasive study of the three-dimensional structure of living human cones, studies of their function and physiology are still hampered by the difficulties to monitor the same cells over time. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of cone monitoring using ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Critical to this is incorporation of a high speed CMOS camera (125 KHz) and a novel feature-based, image registration/dewarping algorithm for reducing the deleterious effects of eye motion on volume images. Volume movies were acquired on three healthy subjects at retinal eccentricities from 0.5° to 6°. Image registration/dewarping reduced motion artifacts in the movies from 15 μm to 1.3 μm root mean square, the latter sufficient for identifying and tracking cones. Cone row-to-row spacing and outer segment lengths were consistent with that reported in the literature. Cone length analysis demonstrates that UHR-AO-OCT is sufficiently sensitive to measure real length differences between cones in the same 0.5° retinal patch, and requires no more than five measurements of OS length to achieve 95% confidence. We know of no other imaging modality that can monitor foveal or parafoveal cones over time with comparable resolution in all three dimensions.

© 2011 OSA

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R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. I. Yellott., “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22(9), 1205–1210 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Arathorn, D. W.

Armington, J. C.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6213–6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Besecker, J.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Besecker, J. R.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bilonick, R. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, B.

Bouma, B.

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Brown, J. M.

Bruestle, J.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Cable, A.

Carroll, J.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Považay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, W. Gao, J. M. Brown, S. M. Jones, R. S. Jonnal, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, and D. T. Miller, “Retinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21634–21651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Y.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Chui, T. Y.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Derby, J. C.

Drexler, W.

Dubis, A. M.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernández, E. J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gorczynska, I.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Hammer, D. X.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Hubel, D. H.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, J.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Kolbitsch, C.

Koperda, E.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macknik, S. L.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez-Conde, S.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAllister, J. T.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, W. Gao, J. M. Brown, S. M. Jones, R. S. Jonnal, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, and D. T. Miller, “Retinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21634–21651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monson, B. K.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Oliver, S. S.

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Ostler, S.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packer, O.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Parker, A.

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

Ratliff, F.

Rha, J.

Riggs, L. A.

Roorda, A.

Sattmann, H.

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepien, K. E.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, C. G.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, D. M.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Thorn, K. E.

Tiruveedhula, P.

Torti, C.

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T. E.

Vogel, C. R.

Wang, Q.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yellott, J. I.

J. I. Yellott., “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22(9), 1205–1210 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(4), 1571–1579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Rev. Neurosci.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Považay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, W. Gao, J. M. Brown, S. M. Jones, R. S. Jonnal, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, and D. T. Miller, “Retinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21634–21651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vivo investigation of human cone photoreceptors with SLO/OCT in combination with 3D motion correction on a cellular level,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13935–13944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, C. R. Vogel, and A. Roorda, “Design of an integrated hardware interface for AOSLO image capture and cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17841–17858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 487–497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6213–6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous SLO/OCT imaging of the human retina with axial eye motion correction,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16922–16932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Hermann, B. Považay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11083–11094 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, Q. Wang, J. Bruestle, J. Besecker, W. Gao, R. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7550(755010), 755010, 755010-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236(4801), 579–582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Res. 50(8), 810–817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Yellott., “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22(9), 1205–1210 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” in Proc. SPIE 5688 145 (2005)

ANSI Z136, 1 “Safe use of lasers” (Laser Institute of America, 2007).

W. S. Rasband, “ImageJ” (U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 1997–2009) http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/ .

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (MIT Press, 2001).

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