Abstract

We present a portable ultrafast Semiconductor Disk Laser (SDL) (or vertical extended cavity surface emitting laser—VECSELs), to be used for nonlinear microscopy. The SDL is modelocked using a quantum-dot semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), delivering an average output power of 287 mW, with 1.5 ps pulses at 500 MHz and a central wavelength of 965 nm. Specifically, despite the fact of having long pulses and high repetition rates, we demonstrate the potential of this laser for Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) expressing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in a set of neuronal processes and cell bodies. Efficient TPEF imaging is achieved due to the fact that this wavelength matches the peak of the two-photon action cross section of this widely used fluorescent marker. The SDL extended versatility is shown by presenting Second Harmonic Generation images of pharynx, uterus, body wall muscles and its potential to be used to excite other different commercial dyes. Importantly this non-expensive, turn-key, compact laser system could be used as a platform to develop portable nonlinear bio-imaging devices.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I, G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33–167
  5. D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100-fs passively mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2143–2145 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Svoboda, W. Denk, W. H. Knox, and S. Tsuda, “Two-photon-excitation scanning microscopy of living neurons with a saturable Bragg reflector mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlFl laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1411–1413 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Girkin and G. McConnell, “Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 67(1), 8–14 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Sakadžic, U. Demirbas, T. R. Mempel, A. Moore, S. Ruvinskaya, D. A. Boas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multi-photon microscopy with a low-cost and highly efficient Cr:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20848–20863 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Robertson, D. Armstrong, M. J. P. Dymott, A. I. Ferguson, and G. L. Hogg, “Two-photon fluorescence microscopy with a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Appl. Opt. 36(12), 2481–2483 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. C. Millard, P. W. Wiseman, D. N. Fittinghoff, K. R. Wilson, J. A. Squier, and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy by use of a compact, femtosecond fiber laser source,” Appl. Opt. 38(36), 7393–7397 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Kuramoto, N. Kitajima, H. C. Guo, Y. Furushima, M. Ikeda, and H. Yokoyama, “Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2726–2728 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Taira, T. Hashimoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Two-photon fluorescence imaging with a pulse source based on a 980-nm gain-switched laser diode,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2454–2458 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Yokoyama, H. C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. König, T. W. Becker, P. Fischer, I. Riemann, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Pulse-length dependence of cellular response to intense near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopes,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 113–115 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, A. P. Vasil’ev, and E. U. Rafailov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked operation of a solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1444–1446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. J. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Developmental Recourse for Biophysical Imaging Optoelectronics, “Two photon action cross sections” (Cornel University, 2010), http://www.drbio.cornell.edu/cross_sections.html
  28. I. A. Hope, C. elegans a Practical Approach (Oxford University Press, 1999), Chap. 2.
  29. Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging, “Suitable dyes for multi-photon” (Zeiss virtual campus 2011), http://www.zeiss.com/C12567BE00472A5C/EmbedTitelIntern/MultiphotonSuitableDyes/$File/MultiphotonSuitableDyes.pdf
  30. S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. White and E. Stelzer, “Photobleaching GFP reveals protein dynamics inside live cells,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 61–65 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Girkin and G. McConnell, “Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 67(1), 8–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

1997 (2)

G. Robertson, D. Armstrong, M. J. P. Dymott, A. I. Ferguson, and G. L. Hogg, “Two-photon fluorescence microscopy with a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Appl. Opt. 36(12), 2481–2483 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, W. H. Knox, and S. Tsuda, “Two-photon-excitation scanning microscopy of living neurons with a saturable Bragg reflector mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlFl laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1411–1413 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acker, H.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akemann, W.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-Ortega, C.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amat-Roldan, I.

Armstrong, D.

Artigas, D.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aviles-Espinosa, R.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, B. J.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbarin, Y.

Baur, D.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, R. J.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, T. W.

Bellancourt, A. R.

Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bestvater, F.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brovelli, L. R.

Brown, C. T. A.

Chen, Z. P.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. B.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubitt, A. B.

R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demirbas, U.

Denk, W.

Dimitrov, D.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dymott, M. J. P.

Emanuel, M. A.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

Feurer, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fluck, R.

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furushima, Y.

Girkin, J. M.

J. M. Girkin and G. McConnell, “Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 67(1), 8–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golling, M.

Guo, H. C.

Hacker, M.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K. J.

Harms, G. S.

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

Heckel-Pompey, A.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, R.

R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

Hogg, G. L.

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, T.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

Isacoff, E. Y.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

Iwamoto, Y.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, L.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaenders, W. G.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaertner, F. X.

Kamp, M.

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

D. J. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100-fs passively mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khatchatouriants, A.

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitajima, N.

Knöpfel, T.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

Koester, H. J.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

Kopf, D.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100-fs passively mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhlicke, U.

T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuramoto, M.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lawrence, J. R.

T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L.

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lommerse, P. H. M.

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Estimation of the effective orientation of the SHG source in primary cortical neurons,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14418–14425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maas, D. J.

Mathew, M.

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

J. M. Girkin and G. McConnell, “Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 67(1), 8–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliam, A.

Mempel, T. R.

Millard, A. C.

Moore, A.

Moser, M.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

Mutoh, H.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neu, T. R.

T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perron, A.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petegnief, V.

Pieribone, V. A.

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planas, A. M.

Porwol, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

Rafailov, E. U.

Riemann, I.

Robertson, G.

Rothman, Z.

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudin, B.

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sakadžic, S.

Santos, S. I.

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, S. I. C. O.

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

Schmidt, T.

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

Shear, J. B.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Skidmore, J. A.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soria, G.

Spiess, E.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Stelzer, E.

J. White and E. Stelzer, “Photobleaching GFP reveals protein dynamics inside live cells,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 61–65 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobrawa, G.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Südmeyer, T.

Svoboda, K.

Taira, K.

Takashima, K.

Tang, S.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, H.

Toth, K.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treinin, M.

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuda, S.

Uhl, R.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustinov, V. M.

Vasil’ev, A. P.

Webb, W. W.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingarten, K. J.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100-fs passively mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J.

J. White and E. Stelzer, “Photobleaching GFP reveals protein dynamics inside live cells,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 61–65 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

Wiseman, P. W.

Wotzlaw, C.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoda, T.

Yokoyama, H.

Zalvidea, D.

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “All-in-one dispersion-compensating saturable absorber mirror for compact femtosecond laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 486–488 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhukov, A. E.

Zipfel, W.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

T. R. Neu, U. Kuhlicke, and J. R. Lawrence, “Assessment of fluorochromes for two-photon laser scanning microscopy of biofilms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(2), 901–909 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamage,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khatchatouriants, A. Lewis, Z. Rothman, L. Loew, and M. Treinin, “GFP is a selective non-linear optical sensor of electrophysiological processes in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biophys. J. 79(5), 2345–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain Cell Biol. (1)

B. J. Baker, H. Mutoh, D. Dimitrov, W. Akemann, A. Perron, Y. Iwamoto, L. Jin, L. B. Cohen, E. Y. Isacoff, V. A. Pieribone, T. Hughes, and T. Knöpfel, “Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential,” Brain Cell Biol. 36(1-4), 53–67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Blab, P. H. M. Lommerse, L. Cognet, G. S. Harms, and T. Schmidt, “Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 350(1-2), 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

R. Aviles-Espinosa, S. I. Santos, A. Brodschelm, W. G. Kaenders, C. Alonso-Ortega, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Third-harmonic generation for the study of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

J. M. Girkin and G. McConnell, “Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 67(1), 8–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Heim, A. B. Cubitt, and R. Y. Tsien, “Improved green fluorescence,” Nature 373(6516), 663–664 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Mathew, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Zalvidea, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(7), 073701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol. (1)

J. White and E. Stelzer, “Photobleaching GFP reveals protein dynamics inside live cells,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 61–65 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Developmental Recourse for Biophysical Imaging Optoelectronics, “Two photon action cross sections” (Cornel University, 2010), http://www.drbio.cornell.edu/cross_sections.html

I. A. Hope, C. elegans a Practical Approach (Oxford University Press, 1999), Chap. 2.

Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging, “Suitable dyes for multi-photon” (Zeiss virtual campus 2011), http://www.zeiss.com/C12567BE00472A5C/EmbedTitelIntern/MultiphotonSuitableDyes/$File/MultiphotonSuitableDyes.pdf

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I, G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33–167

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic experimental setup used for nonlinear imaging. The red path corresponds to the fundamental excitation beam centered at 965nm, the blue path to the SHG emission and the green path to the TPEF emission. L# are lenses; GM are the galvanometric mirrors; OL is the objective lens (40x, NA = 1.3), CO is the condenser optics (NA = 1.4); F1 ad F2 are the band pass filters (F1 transmittance = 330 – 670 nm and F2 transmittance = 475 – 485 nm); and PMT are the photo multiplier tubes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TPEF images from a) green fluorescent beads and b) mouse intestine section labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 WGA (mucus of goblet cells), Alexa Fluor 568 phalloidin (filamentous actin prevalent in the brush border), and SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain (nuclei of goblet cells). All the images are 500x500 pixels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D projections of a) TPEF signal from neurons forming the nerve ring expressing GFP (blue) and b) SHG signal from the pharyngeal region (orange) of the C. elegans nematode. c) Merged TPEF (Green) and SHG (red) images of both structures. The 3D projection is composed of 55 stacks separated 1 μm. A single XY optical section was taken in less than 2 seconds. For the SHG image an average of 10 frames was applied to improve the signal to noise ratio. All the images are 500x500 pixels

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D projections of a) TPEF (blue) of a set of motoneurons expressing GFP and b) SHG (orange) signal of the muscles in the vulval region in a C. elegans mid body region. c) Merged TPEF (Green) and SHG (red) images. The 3D projection is composed of 50 stacks separated 1 μm. A single XY optical section was taken in less than 2 seconds. For the SHG image an average of 10 frames was applied to improve the signal to noise ratio. All the images are 500x500 pixels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TPEF images from different dyes in solution. All the images are 500x500 pixels. PMT voltages are Fluo 4: 819 V, Ca-Green: 757 V, DiO: 711 V, Fluorescein: 510 V, JC1: 478 V and Phantom (paint): 572 V. The field of view of all the images is of 40x40 μm.

Metrics