Abstract

Using scatterplots of 2 or 3 parameters, diffuse optical tomography and fluorescence imaging are combined to improve detectability of breast lesions. Small or low contrast phantom-lesions that were missed in the optical and fluorescence images were detected in the scatterplots. In patient measurements, all tumors were visible and easily differentiated from artifacts and areolas in the scatterplots. The different rate of intake and wash out of the fluorescent contrast agent in the healthy versus malignant tissues was also observed in the scatterplot: this information can be used to discriminate malignant lesion from normal structures.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M. A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6696–6716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Scherleitner and B. G. Zagar, “Optical tomography imaging based on higher order born approximation of diffuse photon density waves,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(4), 1607–1611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Developments toward diagnostic breast cancer imaging using near-infrared optical measurements and fluorescent contrast agents,” Neoplasia 2(5), 388–417 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Bakker, L.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blickman, J. G.

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boetes, C.

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bontus, C.

Brendel, B.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, R. Ziegler, M. van Beek, F. Uhlemann, C. Bontus, and T. Koehler, “Linear image reconstruction for a diffuse optical mammography system in a noncompressed geometry using scattering fluid,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D1–D13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briest, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burock, S.

Canti, G.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

Conant, E. F.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Elias, S.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fels, L.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebauer, B.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J. J.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, A. Poellinger, and P. M. Schlag, “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17016–17033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagen, A.

Hartov, A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawrysz, D. J.

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Developments toward diagnostic breast cancer imaging using near-infrared optical measurements and fluorescent contrast agents,” Neoplasia 2(5), 388–417 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogeveen, Y. L.

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, E.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Intes, X.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehler, T.

Kogel, C. A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Licha, K.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luijten, P.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, A. Poellinger, and P. M. Schlag, “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17016–17033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mali, W.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, R. M.

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meaney, P. M.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moesta, K. T.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucke, J.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nachabe, R.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, T.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, R. Ziegler, M. van Beek, F. Uhlemann, C. Bontus, and T. Koehler, “Linear image reconstruction for a diffuse optical mammography system in a noncompressed geometry using scattering fluid,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D1–D13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orel, S. G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poellinger, A.

Pogue, B. W.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riefke, B.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, A. Poellinger, and P. M. Schlag, “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17016–17033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

Scherleitner, E.

E. Scherleitner and B. G. Zagar, “Optical tomography imaging based on higher order born approximation of diffuse photon density waves,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(4), 1607–1611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, P.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, P. M.

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, A. Poellinger, and P. M. Schlag, “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17016–17033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M. A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6696–6716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

Semmler, W.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Developments toward diagnostic breast cancer imaging using near-infrared optical measurements and fluorescent contrast agents,” Neoplasia 2(5), 388–417 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soho, S. K.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroszczynski, C.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlemann, F.

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Beek, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, R. Ziegler, M. van Beek, F. Uhlemann, C. Bontus, and T. Koehler, “Linear image reconstruction for a diffuse optical mammography system in a noncompressed geometry using scattering fluid,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D1–D13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Ven, S.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Mark, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Voort, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warnick, P.

Wassermann, B.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiethoff, A.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wubbeler, G.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M. A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6696–6716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagar, B. G.

E. Scherleitner and B. G. Zagar, “Optical tomography imaging based on higher order born approximation of diffuse photon density waves,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(4), 1607–1611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, R.

Acad. Radiol. (1)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12(8), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

R. M. Mann, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. G. Blickman, and C. Boetes, “MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 107(1), 1–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

E. Scherleitner and B. G. Zagar, “Optical tomography imaging based on higher order born approximation of diffuse photon density waves,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(4), 1607–1611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green,” Med. Phys. 30(6), 1039–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. van der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van der Mark, M. Van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, P. Luijten, and W. Mali, “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: first clinical experience in patients,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(3), 343–348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Developments toward diagnostic breast cancer imaging using near-infrared optical measurements and fluorescent contrast agents,” Neoplasia 2(5), 388–417 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wubbeler, R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16(2), 147–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance, and W. Semmler, “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(3), 392–398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of experimental tumors in hematoporphyrin derivative-sensitized mice,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(2), 229–236 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2429–2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology 243(2), 350–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Bakker, M. van der Mark, M. van Beek, and M. van der Voort, "Optical Fluorescence Imaging of Breast Cancer," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Biophotonics, Nanophotonics and Metamaterials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 23-25.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized absorption, solid line, and emission, dotted line, spectra of Omocianine dissolved in human serum. The 730 nm wavelength used as excitation is indicated by the vertical line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the medium size phantom-lesion, with dye concentrations of 50 and 10 nM for the lesion and background, respectively. (a) Scatterplot of the fluorescence versus the absorption at 690 nm. (b) Fluorescence image (arbitrary units). (c) Absorption image at 690 nm (mm-1). Every dot in the scatterplot, (a), corresponds to a voxel in the fluorescence and absorption images in (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3-P scatterplot of the fluorescence versus the absorption at 690 nm and with the absorption at 780 nm in a form of a color-scale, of the measurement of the medium size phantom-lesion, dye concentrations of 50 and 10 nM for the lesion and background, respectively. The dots corresponding to the lesion-voxels show high absorption at 780 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of the small phantom-lesion, with dye concentrations of 10 and 5 nM for the lesion and background, respectively. (a) Scatterplot of the fluorescence versus absorption at 690 nm. (b) Absorption image at 690 nm (mm-1). (c) Fluorescence image (arbitrary units). The green voxels in (c) correspond to the suspected area circled with the dashed line in (a). (d) 3-P scatterplot of the fluorescence versus the absorption at 690 nm and with the absorption at 780 nm in a form of a color-scale. The area with voxels correlating to the phantom-lesion position is encircled. (e) Fluorescence image (arbitrary units). The voxels in red show the phantom-lesion position and correspond to the dots circled in (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement of the medium size phantom-lesion, dye concentrations of 50 and 10 nM for the lesion and background, respectively. (a) Scatterplot of the fluorescence versus the absorption at 690 nm. (b) Fluorescence image. The red voxels in (b) correspond to the red dots selected in the scatterplot in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Patient 3. Scatterplots of the fluorescence at 8 hours after dye injection versus the absorption at 690 nm of (a) the ipsilateral breast and (b) the contralateral breast. The dots corresponding to the lesion and areola areas are highlighted in red and green, respectively. Fluorescence image at 8 hours after dye injection of (c) the ipsilateral breast and (d) the contralateral breast. The red and green arrows point at the lesion and areola, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Patient 1. Scatterplots at different time points for the ipsilateral, middle column, and contralateral, right column, breasts. The fluorescence data of these scatterplots were acquired at the time after injection of contrast agent indicated in the left column. The lesion dots are encircled with the solid line and the areola dots with the dashed line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3-P scatterplots of the fluorescence at 8 hours after dye injection versus the absorption at 690 nm and with the total hemoglobin concentration (arbitrary units) as colorscale. (a) Ipsilateral breast of Patient 2. (b) Ipsilateral breast of Patient 5. The solid and dashed lines highlight the dots corresponding to the lesion and areola voxels, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Patient 2. (a) Fluorescence image. Structures with high fluorescence are highlighted with the red and green squares. (b) Scatterplot of the fluorescence at 8 hours after dye injection versus the absorption at 690 nm. The dots corresponding to the voxels highlighted in a) are shown in red and green.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Patient 2. Dye uptake at 4 and 8 hours after the injection of the fluorescent contrast agent in lesion, in red, and in suspected glandular tissue, in blue, of the contralateral breast.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Contrast agent concentrations (nM) in phantom-lesion and background for various lesion-to-background contrasts

Tables Icon

Table 2 Patients’ information

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of the lesion visibility in scatterplot of phantom measurements per lesion size a

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