Abstract

In vitro cell experiments have been performed to detect and monitor the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin simultaneously by photoacoustic molecular imaging (PMI). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were grown on gelatin-coated glass slides and stimulated with inflammatory cytokines to induce the expression of the inflammatory biomarkers, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Gold nanorods (GNRs) of aspect ratio (AR) 1:3 with absorption centered at 715 nm conjugated to anti-ICAM-1 antibody and GNRs of AR 1:3.5 with absorption centered at 800 nm conjugated to anti-E-selectin were exposed to HUVECs with different stimulation conditions. A focused high frequency ultrasonic transducer (60 MHz, f/1.5) was used to scan the photoacoustic (PA) signal over the top surface of the cell containing slides. Averaged PA signal intensity from the stimulated cells was about 3 folds higher (~10 dB) compared to the un-stimulated cells for both ICAM-1 and E-selectin. The strong binding of GNRs to the stimulated HUVEC cells was evidenced by fluorescence imaging. Exposure of HUVEC cells to GNRs conjugated to isotype control antibodies confirms a low level non-specific binding. Also, at 0, 2, 6, and 24 hours after inflammatory stimulation, the HUVECs were exposed to GNRs conjugated anti-ICAM-1 antibody and anti-E-selectin antibody. PA intensity at each stage of inflammation compares well with fluorescence imaging and rt-PCR quantification.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging to differentiate atherosclerotic plaques,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3362–3367 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir 22(1), 32–41 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Gole and C. J. Murphy, “Biotin-streptavidin-induced aggregation of gold nanorods: tuning rod-rod orientation,” Langmuir 21(23), 10756–10762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 352(16), 1685–1695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Mitka, “Biomarkers for coronary heart disease: predictive value or background noise?” JAMA 292(23), 2824–2825 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods (NRs) Using Seed-Mediated Growth Method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Verma, M. R. Buchanan, and T. J. Anderson, “Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,” Circulation 108(17), 2054–2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Verma and T. J. Anderson, “Fundamentals of endothelial function for the clinical cardiologist,” Circulation 105(5), 546–549 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation 105(9), 1135–1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Murphy and N. R. Jana, “Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(1), 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. T. Kovanen, M. Kaartinen, and T. Paavonen, “Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction,” Circulation 92(5), 1084–1088 (1995).
[PubMed]

1990

J. Doukas and J. S. Pober, “IFN-gamma enhances endothelial activation induced by tumor necrosis factor but not IL-1,” J. Immunol. 145(6), 1727–1733 (1990).
[PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J. S.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Amirian, J. H.

Anderson, T. J.

S. Verma, M. R. Buchanan, and T. J. Anderson, “Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,” Circulation 108(17), 2054–2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Verma and T. J. Anderson, “Fundamentals of endothelial function for the clinical cardiologist,” Circulation 105(5), 546–549 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkenazi, S.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Au, L.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bando, M.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

Beaudet, A. L.

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bodapati, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M. R.

S. Verma, M. R. Buchanan, and T. J. Anderson, “Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,” Circulation 108(17), 2054–2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L.

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. D.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E. C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, R. G.

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Connor, E. E.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copland, J. A.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, K. C.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

Day, M.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

De La Zerda, A.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denny, M. F.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Doukas and J. S. Pober, “IFN-gamma enhances endothelial activation induced by tumor necrosis factor but not IL-1,” J. Immunol. 145(6), 1727–1733 (1990).
[PubMed]

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J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eghtedari, M.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods (NRs) Using Seed-Mediated Growth Method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
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S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging to differentiate atherosclerotic plaques,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3362–3367 (2008).
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Ermilov, S. A.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fanslow, W. C.

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
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C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gole, A.

A. Gole and C. J. Murphy, “Biotin-streptavidin-induced aggregation of gold nanorods: tuning rod-rod orientation,” Langmuir 21(23), 10756–10762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govorov, A. O.

J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
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R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
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Hafner, J.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
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G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 352(16), 1685–1695 (2005).
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R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
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Hu, S.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

Jana, N. R.

C. J. Murphy and N. R. Jana, “Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(1), 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, P. P.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. T. Kovanen, M. Kaartinen, and T. Paavonen, “Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction,” Circulation 92(5), 1084–1088 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kaplan, M. J.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karmann, K.

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kefer, J.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

Keren, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N. A.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kovanen, P. T.

P. T. Kovanen, M. Kaartinen, and T. Paavonen, “Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction,” Circulation 92(5), 1084–1088 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lanza, G. M.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lapotko, D.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larson, T.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levi, J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
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P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Libby, P.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation 105(9), 1135–1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litovsky, S. H.

Liu, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir 22(1), 32–41 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, T.-J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malik, A. B.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mallidi, S.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mamedova, N.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mamedova, N. N.

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maseri, A.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation 105(9), 1135–1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitka, M.

M. Mitka, “Biomarkers for coronary heart disease: predictive value or background noise?” JAMA 292(23), 2824–2825 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

A. Gole and C. J. Murphy, “Biotin-streptavidin-induced aggregation of gold nanorods: tuning rod-rod orientation,” Langmuir 21(23), 10756–10762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Murphy and N. R. Jana, “Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(1), 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mwamuka, J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikoobakht, B.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods (NRs) Using Seed-Mediated Growth Method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niles, W. D.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oralkan, O.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paavonen, T.

P. T. Kovanen, M. Kaartinen, and T. Paavonen, “Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction,” Circulation 92(5), 1084–1088 (1995).
[PubMed]

Pan, D.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pao, K. C.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pober, J. S.

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Doukas and J. S. Pober, “IFN-gamma enhances endothelial activation induced by tumor necrosis factor but not IL-1,” J. Immunol. 145(6), 1727–1733 (1990).
[PubMed]

Popov, V. L.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rahman, A.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ridker, P. M.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation 105(9), 1135–1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogach, A. L.

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Senpan, A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sethuraman, S.

Shieh, D. B.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalling, R. W.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging to differentiate atherosclerotic plaques,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3362–3367 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. R.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K. V.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studer, J.

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, J. L.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tam, J.

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Z.

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaithilingam, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velji, R.

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, S.

S. Verma, M. R. Buchanan, and T. J. Anderson, “Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,” Circulation 108(17), 2054–2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Verma and T. J. Anderson, “Fundamentals of endothelial function for the clinical cardiologist,” Circulation 105(5), 546–549 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. R. C.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C. W.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickline, S. A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wu, Y. N.

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, M. D.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavaleta, C.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

C. J. Murphy and N. R. Jana, “Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(1), 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol.

A. Rahman, J. Kefer, M. Bando, W. D. Niles, and A. B. Malik, “E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation and NF-kappaB activation,” Am. J. Physiol. 275(3 Pt 1), L533–L544 (1998).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. A. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 064701 (2007).

K. Kim, S. W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods (NRs) Using Seed-Mediated Growth Method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation 105(9), 1135–1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Kovanen, M. Kaartinen, and T. Paavonen, “Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction,” Circulation 92(5), 1084–1088 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. Verma and T. J. Anderson, “Fundamentals of endothelial function for the clinical cardiologist,” Circulation 105(5), 546–549 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Verma, M. R. Buchanan, and T. J. Anderson, “Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,” Circulation 108(17), 2054–2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

FASEB J.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, J. S. Allen, H. Zhang, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons,” FASEB J. fj.10-171728 (2010).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

B. Wang, J. L. Su, A. B. Karpiouk, K. V. Sokolov, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 588–599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

P. C. Li, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. D. Chen, K. C. Pao, C. R. C. Wang, Y. N. Wu, and D. B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Med.

R. G. Collins, R. Velji, N. V. Guevara, M. J. Hicks, L. Chan, and A. L. Beaudet, “P-Selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficiency substantially protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” J. Exp. Med. 191(1), 189–194 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karmann, W. Min, W. C. Fanslow, and J. S. Pober, “Activation and homologous desensitization of human endothelial cells by CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1,” J. Exp. Med. 184(1), 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Immunol.

J. Doukas and J. S. Pober, “IFN-gamma enhances endothelial activation induced by tumor necrosis factor but not IL-1,” J. Immunol. 145(6), 1727–1733 (1990).
[PubMed]

JAMA

M. Mitka, “Biomarkers for coronary heart disease: predictive value or background noise?” JAMA 292(23), 2824–2825 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir 22(1), 32–41 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gole and C. J. Murphy, “Biotin-streptavidin-induced aggregation of gold nanorods: tuning rod-rod orientation,” Langmuir 21(23), 10756–10762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 6(5), 341–349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med.

G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 352(16), 1685–1695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

Y. Wang, Z. Tang, S. Tan, and N. A. Kotov, “Biological assembly of nanocircuit prototypes from protein-modified CdTe nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 243–248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. O. Govorov, J. Dulka, and N. A. Kotov, “Bioconjugates of CdTe nanowires and Au Nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton interactions, luminescence enhancement, and collective effects,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2323–2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, W. Chen, and J. Studer, “Antigen/antibody immunocomplex from CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates,” Nano Lett. 2(8), 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Mamedova, N. A. Kotov, A. L. Rogach, and J. Studer, “Albumin-CdTe nanoparticle bioconjugates: preparation, structure, and interunit energy transfer with antenna effect,” Nano Lett. 1(6), 281–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T.-J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

A. Conjusteau, S. A. Ermilov, D. Lapotko, H. Liao, J. Hafner, M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Metallic nanoparticles as optoacoustic contrast agents for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860K, 60860K-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Small

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S.H. Ha, J.S. Kim, S. Tripathy, A. Carson, M. Grata, A. Agarwal, N.A. Kotov, F.S. Villanueva, and K. Kim, “Simultaneous photoacoustic detection of multiple inflammatory biomarkers using bioconjugated gold nanorods as selective targeting agents,” presented at 2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), San Diego, California, USA, Oct. 11–14, 2010.

K. Kim, A. Agarwal, A. M. Mcdonald, R. M. Moore, and D. D. Myers, Jr, R.S. Witte, S.W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M.J. Kaplan, T.W. Wakefield, M. O’Donnell, and N.A. Kotov, “In vivo imaging of inflammatory responses by photoacoustic using cell-targeted gold nanorods (GNRs) as contrast agent,” Proc. SPIE 6856, 68560H.1–68560.H8 (2008).

E. M. Shevach, Current Protocols in Immunology (Wiley, New York, 2002), Chap. 5.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption spectrum of GNRs with aspect ratio of 1:3 (715 nm) and 1:3.5 (800 nm)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set up of photoacoustic molecular imaging. Nd:Yag pulsed Laser, synchronized to the oscilloscope and pulser/receiver, pumps an optical parametric oscillator to generate 5 ns laser pulses at 10 Hz. A focused ultrasonic transducer was used to scan the PA signal over the sample in the water tank.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous photoacoustic molecular imaging of the multiple targeted biomarkers of ICAM-1 and E-selectin. The left panels present bright field ((a) common for both ICAM-1 and E-seletin), fluorescence ((b) ICAM-1, (c) E-selectin) and PA images ((d) ICAM-1, (e) E-selectin) in stimulated conditions. The right panels present bright field ((f) common for both ICAM-1 and E-seletin), fluorescence ((g) ICAM-1, (h) E-selectin) and PA images ((i) ICAM-1, (j) E-selectin) in un-stimulated conditions. The small box in fluorescence image represents the area where PA image was believed to be taken around the center of the well and the large box presents the maximum possible area of misregistration. Note the image sizes are not scaled.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous photoacoustic molecular imaging of the multiple targeted biomarkers of ICAM-1 and E-selectin for control group. The left panels present bright field ((a) common for both anti-IgG of ICAM-1 and E-seletin), fluorescence ((b) anti-IgG for ICAM-1, (c) anti-IgG for E-seletin) and PA images ((d) anti-IgG for ICAM-1, (e) anti-IgG for E-selectin) in stimulated conditions. The right panels present bright field ((f) common for both anti-IgG of ICAM-1 and E-seletin), fluorescence ((g) anti-IgG for ICAM-1, (h) anti-IgG for E-seletin) and PA images ((i) anti-IgG for ICAM-1, (j) anti-IgG for E-seletin) in un-stimulated conditions. The small box in fluorescence image represents the area where PA image was believed to be taken around the center of the well and the large box presents the maximum possible area of misregistration. Note the image sizes are not scaled.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average PA intensity of the multiple targeted biomarkers of (a) ICAM-1 and (b) E-selectin. Blue bar: PA intensity due to exposure of ICAM-1 targeted GNRs to stimulated cells. Red bar: PA intensity due to exposure of E-selectin targeted GNRs to stimulated cells. Black bars: PA intensity due to exposure of ICAM-1or E-selectin targeted GNRs to un-stimulated cells. Green bars: PA intensity due to exposure of control group, including IgG-conjugated GNRs and blank GNRs added to stimulated and un-stimulated cells and cells only. Standard deviation for each group of n = 3 is on top of each scale bar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time course monitoring of single targeted biomarker of ICAM-1 using fluorescence ((a)-(d)) and photoacoustic molecular imaging ((e)-(h)) at 0, 2, 6, and 24 hours post stimulation. The small box in fluorescence image represents the area where PA image was believed to be taken around the center of the well and the large box presents the maximum possible area of misregistration. Note the image sizes are not scaled.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time course monitoring of single targeted biomarker of E-selectin using fluorescence ((a)-(d)) and photoacoustic molecular imaging ((e)-(h)) at 0, 2, 6, and 24 hours post stimulation. The small box in fluorescence image represents the area where PA image was believed to be taken around the center of the well and the large box presents the maximum possible area of misregistration. Note the image sizes are not scaled.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time course monitoring of multiple targeted biomarkers, ICAM-1 and E-selectin using photoacoustic molecular imaging. The left two panels present fluorescence (at t = (a) 0, (e) 2, (i) 6, (m) 24 hours) and corresponding PA images (t = (b) 0, (f) 2, (j) 6, (n) 24 hrs) for GNRs (715 nm) conjugated anti ICAM-1 and the right two panels present fluorescence (at t = (c)0, (g)2, (k)6, (o)24 hrs) and corresponding PA images (at t = (d) 0, (h) 2, (l) 6, (p) 24 hours) for GNRs (800 nm) conjugated anti E-selectin at each time point post stimulation. The small box in fluorescence image represents the area where PA image was believed to be taken around the center of the well and the large box presents the maximum possible area of misregistration. Note the image sizes are not scaled.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average PA intensity at each time point post stimulation for multiple targeted biomarkers of ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Standard deviation for each group of n = 3 is presented on top of each scale bar.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

rt-PCR results of (a) ICAM-1 and (b) E-selectin as function of time (Unit; Fold over baseline)

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