Abstract

Optical biopsy facilitates in vivo disease diagnoses by providing a real-time in situ view of tissue in a clinical setting. Fluorescence confocal microendoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are two methods that have demonstrated significant potential in this context. These techniques provide complementary viewpoints. The high resolution and contrast associated with confocal systems allow en face visualization of sub-cellular details and cellular organization within a thin layer of biological tissue. OCT provides cross-sectional images showing the tissue micro-architecture to a depth beyond the reach of confocal systems. We present a novel design for a bench-top imaging system that incorporates both confocal and OCT modalities in the same optical train allowing the potential for rapid switching between the two imaging techniques. Preliminary results using simple phantoms show that it is possible to realize both confocal microendoscopy and OCT through a fiber bundle based imaging system.

© 2011 OSA

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2009 (3)

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, “Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5763–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1976 (1)

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alberts, D. S.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, D.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonnema, G. T.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, K.

Chidley, M.

Darzynkiewicz, Z.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gmitro, A. F.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, “Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5763–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Gmitro and D. Aziz, “Confocal microscopy through a fiber-optic imaging bundle,” Opt. Lett. 18(8), 565–567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatch, K. D.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

Kang, D.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kano, A.

Kho, K. W.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korde, V. R.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamurthy, C.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroto, S. M.

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makhlouf, H.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancer, K.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melamed, M. R.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olivo, M.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, K. A.

Pierce, M. C.

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ra, H.

Ranger-Moore, J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rouse, A. R.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, “Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5763–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saboda, K.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salasche, S. J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpless, T.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, H.-J.

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slayton, L. D.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solgaard, O.

Soo, K. C.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanbakuchi, A. A.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, “Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thong, P. S. P.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Traganos, F.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udovich, J. A.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5763–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakhtin, A. B.

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warneke, J. A.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, W. R.

Xu, W.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Gastroenterology (1)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, “Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. P. Thong, M. Olivo, K. W. Kho, W. Zheng, K. Mancer, M. Harris, and K. C. Soo, “Laser confocal endomicroscopy as a novel technique for fluorescence diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Darzynkiewicz, F. Traganos, T. Sharpless, and M. R. Melamed, “Lymphocyte stimulation: a rapid multiparameter analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(8), 2881–2884 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7172, 717206, 717206-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Informa Healthcare, New York, 2001), Chap. 1.

National Cancer Institute, “Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Stat Fact Sheets: Ovary” (2010), http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html#survival .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the multispectral fluorescence confocal microendoscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image results of excised human esophagus samples stained with acridine orange. The standard channel of the fluorescence confocal microendoscope was used to image (a) normal esophageal tissue and (b) Barrett’s esophagus tissue. The multispectral modality of the system was utilized to image another tissue sample from a patient diagnosed with Barrett’s esophagus. The images at an emission wavelength of 540 nm and 670 nm are shown in (c) and (d). The multispectral results also show the emission spectrum associated with the location in the sample marked by a white cross.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of the combined fluorescence confocal imaging and SD-OCT imaging instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferograms (left) and reconstructed OCT images (right) of various samples obtained from the SD-OCT modality without the fiber bundle. The samples were: (a) a 150 µm thick microscope coverslip, (b) a 1 mm thick microscope glass slide, and (c) a piece of onion skin. The arrows indicate the location of the bottom surface of the glass samples or the layer of onion skin respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Background subtracted interferogram (left) and reconstructed OCT image (right) of a 150 µm thick coverslip obtained from the SD-OCT modality with the fiber bundle. The arrow indicates the bottom surface of the coverslip.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance of the multispectral fluorescence confocal microendoscope

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