Abstract

We introduce a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber to simulate a retinal cone photoreceptor mosaic and the directionality selective mechanism broadly known as the Stiles-Crawford effect. Experimental measurements are realized across the visible spectrum to study waveguide coupling and directionality at different managed waveguide parameters. The crystal fiber method is a hybrid tool between theory and a real biological sample and a valuable addition as a retina model for real eye simulations.

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. Z. Hui, Z. Guiliang, and D. Wang, “Super-Gaussian window function and its applications,” in Circuits and Systems, Conference Proceedings China, Shenzhen, 1991, pp. 595–598.
  24. J. M. Enoch and G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12(7), 497–503 (1973).
    [PubMed]
  25. N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. L. Sidman, “The structure and concentration of solids in photoreceptor cells studied by refractometry and interference microscopy,” J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3(1), 15–30 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Vohnsen, “On the spectral relation between the first and second Stiles-Crawford effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(20), 2261–2271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 275(1653), 2777–2786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

K. Nikolova, I. Panchev, and S. Sainov, “Optical characteristics of oil, obtained from sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.–Elaeagnaceae),” Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223(6), 843–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

2005

2003

2001

1998

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch and G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12(7), 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

1965

1963

1960

1958

1957

R. Barer, “Refractometry and interferometry of living cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47(6), 545–556 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sidman, “The structure and concentration of solids in photoreceptor cells studied by refractometry and interference microscopy,” J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3(1), 15–30 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949

1939

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 127(846), 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Badizadegan, K.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

C. R. Rosberg, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, P. D. Rasmussen, O. Bang, W. Krolikowski, A. Bjarklev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12145–12150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Barer, R.

Bennet, F. H.

Berendschot, T. J.

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

Bjarklev, A.

Burns, S. A.

Calvo, M. L.

Choi, W.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, G. A.

Geschke, O.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

He, J. C.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickmann, J.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Hope, G. M.

J. M. Enoch and G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12(7), 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

Iglesias, I.

Jensen, J. B.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krolikowski, W.

Lakshminarayan, V.

Limeres, J.

Lue, N.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malitson, I.

Marcos, S.

Meneghetti, M.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

Nikolova, K.

K. Nikolova, I. Panchev, and S. Sainov, “Optical characteristics of oil, obtained from sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.–Elaeagnaceae),” Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223(6), 843–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panchev, I.

K. Nikolova, I. Panchev, and S. Sainov, “Optical characteristics of oil, obtained from sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.–Elaeagnaceae),” Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223(6), 843–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, L. H.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Popescu, G.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, P. D.

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Rosberg, C. R.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sainov, S.

K. Nikolova, I. Panchev, and S. Sainov, “Optical characteristics of oil, obtained from sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.–Elaeagnaceae),” Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223(6), 843–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sidman, R. L.

R. L. Sidman, “The structure and concentration of solids in photoreceptor cells studied by refractometry and interference microscopy,” J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3(1), 15–30 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souza, R. F.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 127(846), 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Toraldo di Francia, G.

van de Kraats, J.

van Norren, D.

Vohnsen, B.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 275(1653), 2777–2786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagers, N. P.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Biomolecule detection with integrated evanescent-wave microstructured optical fibre sensor,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006, 1–6 (2006).

Eur. Food Res. Technol.

K. Nikolova, I. Panchev, and S. Sainov, “Optical characteristics of oil, obtained from sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.–Elaeagnaceae),” Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223(6), 843–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol.

J. M. Enoch and G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12(7), 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol.

R. L. Sidman, “The structure and concentration of solids in photoreceptor cells studied by refractometry and interference microscopy,” J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3(1), 15–30 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt.

B. Vohnsen, “On the spectral relation between the first and second Stiles-Crawford effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(20), 2261–2271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, M. Meneghetti, and J. Hickmann, “Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1591–1594 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Biol. Sci.

G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 275(1653), 2777–2786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 127(846), 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, “The Stiles-Crawford effect--explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. Lakshminarayanan, and J. M. Enoch, “Biological waveguides,” in Handbook of Optics Vol. III, 2nd ed., M Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Chap. 9.

Z. Hui, Z. Guiliang, and D. Wang, “Super-Gaussian window function and its applications,” in Circuits and Systems, Conference Proceedings China, Shenzhen, 1991, pp. 595–598.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup: (a) Illumination for SCE measurements (* not to scale), (b) optical setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LF-PCF fiber bundle: (a-b) region used for the SSC measurements (red), and (b-c) section of fiber cladding (LMA-20: dinter = 13.2µm and dwg = 6.4µm) where nsilica and noil (T) are the indices of refraction of Silica and Castor Oil (managed by temperature), respectively).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical excitation of the retinal cone photoreceptor [9]: (a) from the inner to the outer segment for the SCE case and (b) backward-propagating for the OSCE.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimentally determined pupil apodization effect at different waveguide parameters of the LF-PCF; section of fiber cladding: (b) multimode patterns at 25°C (V=7.00), and (c) single-mode at 73°C (V=1.57).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)Wavelength dependence of the measured directionality for the LF-PCF (dots) and corresponding waveguide-model results [8] for different A values (A=1.185µm, 1.326µm, and 1.533µm). (b) Waveguide numerical results for photoreceptors of di =2.0µm (black line) and di =2.5µm (red line) using the same A values as the LF-PCF method. The numerical results shown are based on the above-indicated indices and dimensions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Wavelength dependence of the directionality obtained using the LF-PCF (dots) for the single-mode condition, A=1.08µm. (b) Waveguide numerical results for photoreceptors of di =2.0µm (black line) and di =2.5µm (red line). The numerical results correspond to the waveguide model (solid line) [8] and the analytical approximation (dotted curve) [9].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Waveguide modes and SCC directionality at different temperatures (λ = 620nm)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P total ( θ , λ ) = Σ m = 0 M E exp ( i 2 π n eye θ x λ ) ψ m * d x d y 2
V ( T ) = ( π d i λ ) n oil 2 ( T ) n silica 2
ρ sosc = log ( e ) ( π n glass w λ f ) 2

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