Abstract

A novel approach for applanation-free femtosecond refractive surgery with the help of a contact liquid layer is presented. A laboratory device for performing corneal procedures is described based on a femtosecond-laser system which has been tested and evaluated by processing ex vivo pig eyes. With its help, flap cuttings for different flap thicknesses were performed. The accomplished corneal surfaces are comparable to already published results. The reproducibility of the flap thicknesses is very good, with a standard deviation of 10 µm. The processing and removal of an intrastromal lenticule as thin as 30 µm could be shown. The extraction of such lenticule through a corneal side channel could also be accomplished successfully and is a promising improvement of the overall surgery procedure.

© 2011 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of commercially available femtosecond lasers in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S102–S107 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  3. W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Jablonski-Stiemke and H. F. Edelhauser, “Storage of human corneas in dextran and chondroitin sulfate-based corneal storage medium: changes in stromal free sodium,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(5), 627–632 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  6. E. Faktorovich, Femtodynamics: A Guide to Laser Settings and Procedure Techniques to Optimize Outcomes with Femtosecond Lasers (Slack Inc., 2009).
  7. H. Graener, J. Lange, G. Seifert, F. Fankhauser, T. Hollerbach, and T. Magnago, “Device attachable to an eye” European Patent Application no. EP 000002030598A1 ( published March 4,2009).
  8. Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Miclea, U. Skrzypczak, S. Faust, F. Fankhauser, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, “Nonlinear refractive index of porcine cornea studied by z-scan and self-focusing during femtosecond laser processing,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3700–3707 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. Glezer, A. Kim, and E. Mazur, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds,” Opt. Express 10(3), 196–203 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Z. Reinstein, Accuracy and reproducibility of flat thickness with the VisuMax ® femtosecond laser system,” http://www.zeiss.de/88256DE3007B916B/0/4E93C2E4FF237ECAC12573A200505AC7/$file/accuracy_reproducibility.pdf

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of commercially available femtosecond lasers in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S102–S107 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. M. Jablonski-Stiemke and H. F. Edelhauser, “Storage of human corneas in dextran and chondroitin sulfate-based corneal storage medium: changes in stromal free sodium,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(5), 627–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bischoff, M.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bissmann, W.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blum, M.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bor, Z.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, W. E.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvano, C. J.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, A. W.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, J. E.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crnic-Rein, T. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drommer, W.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edelhauser, H. F.

M. M. Jablonski-Stiemke and H. F. Edelhauser, “Storage of human corneas in dextran and chondroitin sulfate-based corneal storage medium: changes in stromal free sodium,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(5), 627–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

Faust, S.

Gille, A.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, E.

Glucksberg, M. R.

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstick, T. K.

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graener, H.

Han, M.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heisterkamp, A.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hetzel, U.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, P. D.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jablonski-Stiemke, M. M.

M. M. Jablonski-Stiemke and H. F. Edelhauser, “Storage of human corneas in dextran and chondroitin sulfate-based corneal storage medium: changes in stromal free sodium,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(5), 627–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastis, G. A.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, A.

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunert, K.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of commercially available femtosecond lasers in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S102–S107 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maatz, G.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Miclea, M.

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russmann, C.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C.

Seifert, G.

Sekundo, W.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skrzypczak, U.

Sticker, M.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobrawa, G.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suárez, C.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thall, E. H.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, A. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welling, H.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissue,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. M. Jablonski-Stiemke and H. F. Edelhauser, “Storage of human corneas in dextran and chondroitin sulfate-based corneal storage medium: changes in stromal free sodium,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(5), 627–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(6), 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of commercially available femtosecond lasers in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S102–S107 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

Y. L. Kim, J. T. Walsh, T. K. Goldstick, and M. R. Glucksberg, “Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

E. Faktorovich, Femtodynamics: A Guide to Laser Settings and Procedure Techniques to Optimize Outcomes with Femtosecond Lasers (Slack Inc., 2009).

H. Graener, J. Lange, G. Seifert, F. Fankhauser, T. Hollerbach, and T. Magnago, “Device attachable to an eye” European Patent Application no. EP 000002030598A1 ( published March 4,2009).

D. Z. Reinstein, Accuracy and reproducibility of flat thickness with the VisuMax ® femtosecond laser system,” http://www.zeiss.de/88256DE3007B916B/0/4E93C2E4FF237ECAC12573A200505AC7/$file/accuracy_reproducibility.pdf

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics