Abstract

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are designed for implantation for vision correction following cataract removal. The IOL typically replaces a cataractous natural lens that exhibits very high levels of light scattering. The amount of scattering is significantly reduced with an IOL, though it is rarely quantified and both the surface and the bulk of the intraocular lens may contribute to light scatter at some level, and in some cases potentially affecting patients’ post-operative quality of vision. The purpose of this paper is to describe two complementary in-vitro quantitative methods for measuring light scatter caused by IOLs. The first method directly measures light scatter from the lens in one plane for angles larger than two degrees. The second method measures light scatter in an eye model including the focal point out to three degrees in the image plane. The measured amount of light scatter from an IOL is typically lower than that found in healthy donor crystalline lenses of various ages that are used as a basis for comparison.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. J. J. Vos, “Disability glare,” CIE Report 135/1 (CIE, 1999).
  2. P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity. I. Introductory and historical,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).
  3. W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 104(731), 322–355 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. L. Holladay, “The fundamentals of glare and visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(4), 271–319 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(6), 1157–1166 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  7. ISO 11979–2, “Opthalmic implants–Intraocular lenses–Part 2: optical properties and test methods” (1999).
  8. M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)
  9. S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6595–6605 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).
  11. T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6595–6605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)

1999 (1)

J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).

1996 (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(6), 1157–1166 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1929 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 104(731), 322–355 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

1911 (1)

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity. I. Introductory and historical,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Barraquer, R. I.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, C.

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity. I. Introductory and historical,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Coeckelbergh, T.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coppens, J. E.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emesz, M.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franssen, L.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabner, G.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heine, C.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).

Holladay, L. L.

Hooymans, J. M. M.

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansonius, N. M.

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooijman, A. C.

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koopmans, S. A.

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, A.

J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).

Michael, R.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nischler, C.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norrby, S.

Piers, P.

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6595–6605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)

Portney, V.

J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 104(731), 322–355 (1929).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(6), 1157–1166 (1996).
[PubMed]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Mooren, M.

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6595–6605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)

van Gaalen, K. W.

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Rijn, L. J.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, H.

M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)

Wilhelm, H.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. J. van Rijn, R. Michael, C. Heine, T. Coeckelbergh, C. Nischler, H. Wilhelm, G. Grabner, M. Emesz, R. I. Barraquer, J. E. Coppens, and L. Franssen, “Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(3), 358–363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity. I. Introductory and historical,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(6), 1157–1166 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. van der Mooren, H. Weeber, and P. Piers, “Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, E-abstract 309 (2006)

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

J. T. Holladay, A. Lang, and V. Portney, “Analysis of edge glare phenomena in intraocular lens edge designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25(6), 748–752 (1999).

K. W. van Gaalen, S. A. Koopmans, J. M. M. Hooymans, N. M. Jansonius, and A. C. Kooijman, “Straylight measurements in pseudophakic eyes with natural and dilated pupils: one-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(6), 923–928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 104(731), 322–355 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare,” CIE Report 135/1 (CIE, 1999).

ISO 11979–2, “Opthalmic implants–Intraocular lenses–Part 2: optical properties and test methods” (1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of in vitro setup method 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical examples of acrylic IOLs’ scatter in purified water at 30degrees forward direction. (a) IOL with a center thickness of 0.7mm. (b) IOL with a center thickness of 0.5mm containing micro vacuoles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical straylight level for a monofocal IOL measured in saline using method 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic setup for method 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Five LSF recordings were stitched together with sufficient overlap. For each recording, the legend shows the CCD displacement from the optical axis. The central recording is also used to determine the MTF. In this recording a 8 bits CCD is used

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Method 1 and method 2 combined for a monofocal lens that is essentially free from bulk inhomogenieties. The angular axis is a log scale to illustrate both methods.

Equations (4)

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s(θ,a,p) = PSF(θ,a,p) × θ 2 [degrees 2 / sr].
s lens ( θ,20,1 )   =   1 3 × PSF ( θ,20,1 ) × θ 2 .
s lens ( θ,70,1 ) = ( PSF ( θ,70,1 ) ) - 2 3 × ( PSF ( θ,20,1 ) ) × θ 2 .
PSF(θ) = P(θ) / × P 0 )

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