Abstract

Non-invasive depth-resolved measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels in discrete blood vessels may have implications for diagnosis and treatment of various pathologies. We introduce a novel Dual-Wavelength Photothermal (DWP) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for non-invasive depth-resolved measurement of SaO2 levels in a blood vessel phantom. DWP OCT SaO2 is linearly correlated with blood-gas SaO2 measurements. We demonstrate 6.3% precision in SaO2 levels measured a phantom blood vessel using DWP-OCT with 800 and 765 nm excitation wavelengths. Sources of uncertainty in SaO2 levels measured with DWP-OCT are identified and characterized.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (6)

2009 (4)

F. Robles, R. N. Graf, and A. Wax, “Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with simultaneously high spectral and temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6799–6812 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Are quantitative attenuation measurements of blood by optical coherence tomography feasible?” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1435–1437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Sirotin and A. Das, “Anticipatory haemodynamic signals in sensory cortex not predicted by local neuronal activity,” Nature 457(7228), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. C. McMorrow and M. G. Mythen, “Pulse oximetry,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 12(3), 269–271 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (5)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, X. Q. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography in studies of optical clearing, sedimentation, and aggregation of immersed blood,” Appl. Opt. 41(1), 258–271 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Grap, “Pulse oximetry: update 2002,” Crit. Care Nurse 22, 8 (2002).

V. Kamat, “Pulse oximetry,” Ind. J. Anaesthesia 46, 261–268 (2002).

2000 (4)

1999 (1)

H. El-Kashef and M. A. Atia, “Wavelength and temperature dependence properties of human blood-serum,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(2), 181–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. A. Boas, K. K. Bizheva, and A. M. Siegel, “Using dynamic low-coherence interferometry to image Brownian motion within highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 319–321 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

K. Dalziel and J. R. P. O’Brien, “Side reactions in the deoxygenation of dilute oxyhaemoglobin solutions by sodium dithionite,” Biochem. J. 67(1), 119–124 (1957).
[PubMed]

1934 (1)

W. A. Craft and L. H. Moe, “The hemoglobin level of pigs at various ages,” J. Anim. Sci. 12, 127–131 (1934).

Aalders, M. C. G.

Adler, D. C.

Andermann, M. L.

Atia, M. A.

H. El-Kashef and M. A. Atia, “Wavelength and temperature dependence properties of human blood-serum,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(2), 181–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Azzopardi, D.

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Baranov, S.

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Paranjape, R. Kuranov, S. Baranov, L. L. Ma, J. W. Villard, T. Wang, K. V. Sokolov, M. D. Feldman, K. P. Johnston, and T. E. Milner, “Depth resolved photothermal OCT detection of macrophages in tissue using nanorose,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 2–16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K. K.

D. A. Boas, K. K. Bizheva, and A. M. Siegel, “Using dynamic low-coherence interferometry to image Brownian motion within highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 319–321 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blake, A. S. T.

A. S. T. Blake, G. W. Petley, and C. D. Deakin, “Effects of changes in packed cell volume on the specific heat capacity of blood: implications for studies measuring heat exchange in extracorporeal circuits,” Br. J. Anaesth. 84(1), 28–32 (2000).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bolay, H.

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgansky-Eliash, Z.

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cady, E. B.

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407(6801), 249–257 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

Chowdhury, S.

Cohen, D. W.

Connolly, J. L.

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Craft, W. A.

W. A. Craft and L. H. Moe, “The hemoglobin level of pigs at various ages,” J. Anim. Sci. 12, 127–131 (1934).

Creazzo, T. L.

Crow, M. J.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

Dalziel, K.

K. Dalziel and J. R. P. O’Brien, “Side reactions in the deoxygenation of dilute oxyhaemoglobin solutions by sodium dithionite,” Biochem. J. 67(1), 119–124 (1957).
[PubMed]

Das, A.

Y. B. Sirotin and A. Das, “Anticipatory haemodynamic signals in sensory cortex not predicted by local neuronal activity,” Nature 457(7228), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Deakin, C. D.

A. S. T. Blake, G. W. Petley, and C. D. Deakin, “Effects of changes in packed cell volume on the specific heat capacity of blood: implications for studies measuring heat exchange in extracorporeal circuits,” Br. J. Anaesth. 84(1), 28–32 (2000).
[PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Devor, A.

Dunn, A. K.

El-Kashef, H.

H. El-Kashef and M. A. Atia, “Wavelength and temperature dependence properties of human blood-serum,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(2), 181–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

Feldman, M. D.

A. S. Paranjape, R. Kuranov, S. Baranov, L. L. Ma, J. W. Villard, T. Wang, K. V. Sokolov, M. D. Feldman, K. P. Johnston, and T. E. Milner, “Depth resolved photothermal OCT detection of macrophages in tissue using nanorose,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 2–16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gabriele, M. L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R. N.

Grap, M. J.

M. J. Grap, “Pulse oximetry: update 2002,” Crit. Care Nurse 22, 8 (2002).

Grinvald, A.

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. H. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1162–1164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izhaky, D.

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407(6801), 249–257 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. P.

Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalkman, J.

J. Kalkman, R. Sprik, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Path-length-resolved diffusive particle dynamics in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(19), 198302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamat, V.

V. Kamat, “Pulse oximetry,” Ind. J. Anaesthesia 46, 261–268 (2002).

Kemp, N.

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kuranov, R.

Kuranov, R. V.

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

Lee, H. C.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. W.

Ma, L. L.

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElroy, A. B.

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McMorrow, R. C.

R. C. McMorrow and M. G. Mythen, “Pulse oximetry,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 12(3), 269–271 (2006).
[PubMed]

Mik, E. G.

Milner, T. E.

A. S. Paranjape, R. Kuranov, S. Baranov, L. L. Ma, J. W. Villard, T. Wang, K. V. Sokolov, M. D. Feldman, K. P. Johnston, and T. E. Milner, “Depth resolved photothermal OCT detection of macrophages in tissue using nanorose,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 2–16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moe, L. H.

W. A. Craft and L. H. Moe, “The hemoglobin level of pigs at various ages,” J. Anim. Sci. 12, 127–131 (1934).

Mondelblatt, A.

Moskowitz, M. A.

Mythen, M. G.

R. C. McMorrow and M. G. Mythen, “Pulse oximetry,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 12(3), 269–271 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nelson, D. A.

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

O’Brien, J. R. P.

K. Dalziel and J. R. P. O’Brien, “Side reactions in the deoxygenation of dilute oxyhaemoglobin solutions by sodium dithionite,” Biochem. J. 67(1), 119–124 (1957).
[PubMed]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paranjape, A. S.

Petley, G. W.

A. S. T. Blake, G. W. Petley, and C. D. Deakin, “Effects of changes in packed cell volume on the specific heat capacity of blood: implications for studies measuring heat exchange in extracorporeal circuits,” Br. J. Anaesth. 84(1), 28–32 (2000).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Robles, F.

Robles, F. E.

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. M.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, K. K. Bizheva, and A. M. Siegel, “Using dynamic low-coherence interferometry to image Brownian motion within highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 319–321 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirotin, Y. B.

Y. B. Sirotin and A. Das, “Anticipatory haemodynamic signals in sensory cortex not predicted by local neuronal activity,” Nature 457(7228), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K. V.

Sprik, R.

J. Kalkman, R. Sprik, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Path-length-resolved diffusive particle dynamics in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(19), 198302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Taber, J.

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, K. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. T.

Tsai, T. H.

Tuchin, V. V.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Villard, J. W.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, X. Q. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography in studies of optical clearing, sedimentation, and aggregation of immersed blood,” Appl. Opt. 41(1), 258–271 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y. H.

Wang, Y. M.

Wax, A.

Wiesel, T. N.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

Xu, X. Q.

Yang, C. C.

Yang, C. H.

Yi, J.

Zhao, Y. H.

Zhou, C.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochem. J. (1)

K. Dalziel and J. R. P. O’Brien, “Side reactions in the deoxygenation of dilute oxyhaemoglobin solutions by sodium dithionite,” Biochem. J. 67(1), 119–124 (1957).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Anaesth. (1)

A. S. T. Blake, G. W. Petley, and C. D. Deakin, “Effects of changes in packed cell volume on the specific heat capacity of blood: implications for studies measuring heat exchange in extracorporeal circuits,” Br. J. Anaesth. 84(1), 28–32 (2000).
[PubMed]

Br. Med. Bull. (1)

E. O. R. Reynolds, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi, D. T. Delpy, E. B. Cady, M. Cope, and S. Wray, “New non-invasive methods for assessing brain oxygenation and haemodynamics,” Br. Med. Bull. 44(4), 1052–1075 (1988).
[PubMed]

Crit. Care Nurse (1)

M. J. Grap, “Pulse oximetry: update 2002,” Crit. Care Nurse 22, 8 (2002).

Curr. Opin. Crit. Care (1)

R. C. McMorrow and M. G. Mythen, “Pulse oximetry,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 12(3), 269–271 (2006).
[PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, N. Kemp, S. Baranov, J. Taber, M. D. Feldman, and T. E. Milner, “Gas-cell referenced swept source phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1524–1526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ind. J. Anaesthesia (1)

V. Kamat, “Pulse oximetry,” Ind. J. Anaesthesia 46, 261–268 (2002).

J. Anim. Sci. (1)

W. A. Craft and L. H. Moe, “The hemoglobin level of pigs at various ages,” J. Anim. Sci. 12, 127–131 (1934).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Izhaky, D. A. Nelson, Z. Burgansky-Eliash, and A. Grinvald, “Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 53(4), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Sirotin and A. Das, “Anticipatory haemodynamic signals in sensory cortex not predicted by local neuronal activity,” Nature 457(7228), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407(6801), 249–257 (2000).
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D. J. Faber and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Are quantitative attenuation measurements of blood by optical coherence tomography feasible?” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1435–1437 (2009).
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C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, D. C. Adler, H. C. Lee, D. W. Cohen, A. Mondelblatt, Y. H. Wang, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography in ex vivo human breast tissues using gold nanoshells,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 700–702 (2010).
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J. Yi and X. Li, “Estimation of oxygen saturation from erythrocytes by high-resolution spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2094–2096 (2010).
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A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
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D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
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Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
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R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, K. K. Bizheva, and A. M. Siegel, “Using dynamic low-coherence interferometry to image Brownian motion within highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 319–321 (1998).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. K. Wang, “Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(13), 2281–2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Kalkman, R. Sprik, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Path-length-resolved diffusive particle dynamics in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(19), 198302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual Wavelength Photothermal (DWP)-OCT. A tunable Ti:Al2O3 laser was utilized as an excitation source (765 and 800 nm). Excitation laser light was intensity modulated at 42 Hz with a mechanical chopper and delivered to the blood sample through a multimode 50 µm core-diameter fiber (NA = 0.22). Relative intensity of excitation laser light on the blood sample was calibrated with a 4% partial reflector. Probe OCT light (1328 nm) emitted from a single mode fiber was focused on the blood sample from the topside with a GRIN lens. A reference reflector (5%) provides the OCT reference optical signal. Inset in the upper right corner shows absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Dashed lines indicate laser excitation wavelengths (765 nm and 800 nm) utilized in the reported experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A) Blood vessel phantom geometry, B) M-mode intensity map, C) intensity OCT A-scan, and D) M-mode phase map. The lines of constant phase in the M-mode phase map and spikes on the intensity OCT map and A-scan correspond to: 1 – the upper air-vessel interface (optical pathlength, op = 73 µm), 2 – upper vessel-blood interface (op = 187 µm), 3 – lower blood-vessel interface (op = 572 µm), 4 – vessel-epoxy interface (op = 676 µm), 5 - epoxy-glass slide interface (op = 749 µm). The blue arrows in the Intensity map indicate boundary between RBC poor blood plasma and RBC dense layer due to sedimentation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A) Optical pathlength (op) variation at depth 5 (linear trend subtracted) in response to laser excitation (blood-gas SaO2 = 18.5%, excitation at 800 nm at 42 Hz). B) Amplitude of op variation at depths 1-5 vs laser excitation modulation frequency (grey trace in Fig. 3B is magnitude of fast Fourier transform of op depicted in A).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical path (op) variation amplitude per 1 mW power of excitation light vs. reference avoximeter readings. OP variations are at depths 1, 2, 3, 5 for A) 765 nm and B) 800 nm excitation light. ΔOP variations between depths 3 and 2 (Δop32 ) and between depths 5 and 1 (Δop51 ) that was used for calculating of SaO2 levels for C) 765 nm and D) 800 nm excitation light. Error bars are mean ± SD, n = 3-5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SaO2 levels measured with DWP-OCT (765 nm and 800 nm excitation light) vs. reference avoximeter readings. DWP-OCT SaO2 levels were calculated from measured Δop51 between depths d5-d1 (diamonds) and Δop32 between depth d3-d2 (squares) Error bars are mean ± SD, n = 3-5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT Intensity SNR, op SNR and op amplitude measured at five depths indicated in Fig. 2. The op SNR and op amplitude was measured at A) 765 nm and B) 800 nm excitation wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical pathlength (op) variation at depth 5 shown in Fig. 3 where linear trend is not subtracted in response to laser excitation (blood-gas SaO2 = 18.5%, excitation at 800 nm at 42 Hz). The orange line without oscillations is a running average over one period of oscillations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical signal and noise levels at five depths (SaO2 = 18%) shown in Fig. 2. Here dB is computed as 20•Log 10(SNR).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Major parameters used in results and discussion section.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ o p 1 = k τ I 1 ( 1 e μ a 1 l ) ,
Δ o p 2 = k τ I 2 ( 1 e μ a 2 l ) ,
μ a 1 = α d 1 c d + α o 1 c o ,
μ a 2 = α d 2 c d + α o 2 c o ,
μ a 1 = T H b [ S a O 2 ( α o 1 α d 1 ) + α d 1 ] ,
μ a 2 = T H b [ S a O 2 ( α o 2 α d 2 ) + α d 2 ] .
Δ o p 1 = k τ I 1 μ a 1 l ,
Δ o p 2 = k τ I 2 μ a 2 l .
S a O 2 = α d 1 χ 12 α d 2 α o 2 + α d 1 α d 2 α o 1 ,
χ 12 = Δ o p 1 I 2 Δ o p 2 I 1 .
Δ T = μ a d 2 Φ 02 ρ c = 0.033 ​​ K
Δ T 1 s = Δ o p 1 s Δ o p τ Δ T = ( 0.16 ± 0.073 ) ​  K .
Δ S a O 2 = δ χ 12 ( α d 1 α o 2 + α d 1 α d 2 α o 1 S a O 2 ) ,

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