Abstract

Smoke inhalation injury is frequently accompanied by cyanide poisoning that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality, and methods are needed to quantitatively determine extent of airway injury. We utilized a 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) constructed with a swept-source laser to investigate morphological airway changes following smoke and cyanide exposure in rabbits. The thickness of the mucosal area between the epithelium and cartilage in the airway was measured and quantified. 3-D endoscopic FD-OCT was able to detect significant increases in the thickness of the tracheal walls of the rabbit beginning almost immediately after smoke inhalation injuries which were similar to those with combined smoke and cyanide poisoning.

©2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, B. Ka, and F. Murad, “Nitric oxide accelerates the recovery from burn wounds,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 624–631 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Eckstein and P. M. Maniscalco, “Focus on smoke inhalation--the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning,” Prehosp. Disaster Med. 21(2), s49–s55 (2006).
[PubMed]

P. M. Maniscalco, “From Smoke Inhalation to Chemical Attacks: Acute Cyanide Poisoning in the Prehospital Setting,” Prehosp. Disaster Med. 21, s38–s39 (2006).

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

R. L. Sheridan, “Airway management and respiratory care of the burn patient,” Int. Anesthesiol. Clin. 38(3), 129–145 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

T. Muehlberger, D. Kunar, A. Munster, and M. Couch, “Efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of inhalation injuries,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(9), 1003–1007 (1998).
[PubMed]

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astier, A.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barriot, P.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batchinsky, A.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baud, F. J.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bismuth, C.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booke, M.

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourdon, R.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-11-1236 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Burke, A. S.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burney, T.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancio, L. C.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Z.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-11-1236 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Cioffi, W. G. J.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Cobb, M. J.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Couch, M.

T. Muehlberger, D. Kunar, A. Munster, and M. Couch, “Efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of inhalation injuries,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(9), 1003–1007 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cox, R. A.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Eckstein, M.

M. Eckstein and P. M. Maniscalco, “Focus on smoke inhalation--the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning,” Prehosp. Disaster Med. 21(2), s49–s55 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ehardt, J. S.

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fedder, G. K.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-21-7-543 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G Colt, H.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S. G.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanna, N. M.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawkins, H. K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herndon, D. N.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinder, F.

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

Howard, M. L.

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hudson, L. D.

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Johnson, A. A.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Jordan, B.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, W. G.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ka, B.

H. Zhu, B. Ka, and F. Murad, “Nitric oxide accelerates the recovery from burn wounds,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 624–631 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katahira, J.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimmey, M. B.

Kreuter, K.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kunar, D.

T. Muehlberger, D. Kunar, A. Munster, and M. Couch, “Efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of inhalation injuries,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(9), 1003–1007 (1998).
[PubMed]

Lebeau, B.

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Lecarpentier, Y.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legendre, C.

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linares, H. A.

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lioret, N.

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Liu, G.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. M.

Loick, H. M.

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahon, S.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maillard, D.

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Maniscalco, P. M.

M. Eckstein and P. M. Maniscalco, “Focus on smoke inhalation--the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning,” Prehosp. Disaster Med. 21(2), s49–s55 (2006).
[PubMed]

P. M. Maniscalco, “From Smoke Inhalation to Chemical Attacks: Acute Cyanide Poisoning in the Prehospital Setting,” Prehosp. Disaster Med. 21, s38–s39 (2006).

Masanes, M. J.

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Masanès, M. J.

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, A. D. J.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Meyer, J.

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

Muehlberger, T.

T. Muehlberger, D. Kunar, A. Munster, and M. Couch, “Efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of inhalation injuries,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(9), 1003–1007 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mukai, D.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

Munster, A.

T. Muehlberger, D. Kunar, A. Munster, and M. Couch, “Efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of inhalation injuries,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(9), 1003–1007 (1998).
[PubMed]

Murad, F.

H. Zhu, B. Ka, and F. Murad, “Nitric oxide accelerates the recovery from burn wounds,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 624–631 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narula, N.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Ogura, H.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Pan, Y. T.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M.

Prien, T.

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruitt, B. A. J.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riou, B.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, D.

H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

Saizy, R.

M. J. Masanès, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, “Using bronchoscopy and biopsy to diagnose early inhalation injury. Macroscopic and histologic findings,” Chest 107(5), 1365–1369 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Masanes, C. Legendre, N. Lioret, D. Maillard, R. Saizy, and B. Lebeau, ““Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Early Diagnosis of Subglottal Inhalation Injury - Comparative Value in the Assessment of Prognosis,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 36, 59–67 (1994).

Salsbury, J. R.

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmalstieg, F. C.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, R. L.

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

R. L. Sheridan, “Airway management and respiratory care of the burn patient,” Int. Anesthesiol. Clin. 38(3), 129–145 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soejima, K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stothert, J. C.

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thorning, D. R.

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toffis, V.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traber, D. L.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
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F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
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D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traber, L. D.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
[PubMed]

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, A.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, P. H.

Tromberg, B. J.

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, L.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vicaut, E.

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walton, R.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissman, N. J.

Xie, H. K.

Yang, C. H.

Yershov, A.

U. Mahmood, N. M. Hanna, S. Han, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, B. Jordan, A. Yershov, R. Walton, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of rabbit tracheal inflammation using optical coherence tomography,” Chest 130(3), 863–868 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
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J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, B. Ka, and F. Murad, “Nitric oxide accelerates the recovery from burn wounds,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 624–631 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1)

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

F. Hinder, J. Meyer, M. Booke, J. S. Ehardt, J. R. Salsbury, L. D. Traber, and D. L. Traber, “Endogenous nitric oxide and the pulmonary microvasculature in healthy sheep and during systemic inflammation,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5 Pt 1), 1542–1549 (1998).
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H. Ogura, D. Saitoh, A. A. Johnson, A. D. J. Mason, B. A. J. Pruitt, and W. G. J. Cioffi, ““The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching following smoke inhalation injury,” J. Trauma-Injury Infect,” Crit. Care 37, 893–898 (1994).

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Hum. Pathol. (1)

D. R. Thorning, M. L. Howard, L. D. Hudson, and R. L. Schumacher, “Pulmonary responses to smoke inhalation: morphologic changes in rabbits exposed to pine wood smoke,” Hum. Pathol. 13(4), 355–364 (1982).
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Intensive Care Med. (1)

H. M. Loick, L. D. Traber, J. C. Stothert, D. N. Herndon, and D. L. Traber, “Smoke inhalation causes a delayed increase in airway blood flow to primarily uninjured lung areas,” Intensive Care Med. 21(4), 326–333 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. G. Guo, J. P. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

F. J. Baud, P. Barriot, V. Toffis, B. Riou, E. Vicaut, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Bourdon, A. Astier, and C. Bismuth, “Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 325(25), 1761–1766 (1991).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. Lee, J. Armstrong, K. Kreuter, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, “Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of cyanide poisoning in a rabbit model,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), 1057–1066 (2007).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Surg. (1)

H. Zhu, B. Ka, and F. Murad, “Nitric oxide accelerates the recovery from burn wounds,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 624–631 (2007).
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Other (1)

D. J. O'Brien, J. Augustine, and D. W. Walsh, “Cyanide exposure, smoke inhalation, and pre-hospital treatment: Recognizing the signs and symptoms and available treatment options,” (Cyanide Poisoning Treatment Coalition, 2009). http://www.firesmoke.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=166&Itemid=142 .

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3186 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3871 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 In-vivo unwrapped OCT image of the airway in a rabbit. Distance between the upper image and lower image is longitudinally 10 intervals (200 μm). (a) images demonstrate the shift of scanning start points between two images and (b) images show correction of image movement. Scale bar is physically 500 μm (axial) and 10 deg (lateral); e- epithelium, m- mucosa, sm- submucosa, c- cartilage, tm- muscularis, sh- sheath (tube), and w- motor wire.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 In-vivo longitudinal OCT image of the airway in a rabbit. This longitudinal images were reconstructed with 400 B-scan slices corresponding to the physical length of 8.0 mm. (a) without motion artifacts correction, (b) surface detection (blue) and result (red) after a fourth-order polynomial fit, (c) with motion artifacts correction, and (c) with flattening of the surface to measure the thickness of mucosa in normal direction from the surface; e- epithelium, m- mucosa, c- cartilage, sm- submucosa, and tm- muscularis are clearly seen. Scale bar is physically 250 μm (axial) and 500 μm (lateral).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) In-vivo OCT image of a normal airway in a rabbit, (b) and (c) histology, and (d) a photo of the airway taken by a bronchoscope; e- epithelium, m- mucosa, c- cartilage, BV- blood vessel, PBT- peribronchial tissue, and tm- muscularis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In-vivo OCT images of normal airway in a rabbit. (a) 3-D reconstructed image based on 400 B-scan slices. (b) a circumferential 2-D image (Media 1) at one position corresponding with green lines in Fig. 4(c), and 4(d). (c) and (d) are longitudinal images, which are arbitrarily cut at 68.5° (red) and 109.6° (blue) to the vertical direction with counterclockwise (CCW) as shown in Fig. 4(b), respectively (Media 2). Media 1 is made with moved slices from inner area to outer area. Media 2 is also a movie constructed with cut longitudinal images from 0° to 180° with respect to the vertical axis with CCW rotation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Ratio of thickness change in the airway from baseline following smoke exposure or controls over time. Statistically significant from baseline were seen in Group 1 and Group 2 at all-time points (p < 0.01) except for 5 min post-exposure in Group 2 (p = 0.078). There are no significant changes from baseline in Group 3. Significant increases of the thickness change in the airway among three groups were seen at 30-min to 360-min post-exposure (F > 4.0, p < 0.05).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of rabbits and measurement time table for cyanide poisoning and smoke inhalation study

Tables Icon

Table 2 p-values of two-sample t-test among three groups at 30-min to 360-min post-exposure. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant

Metrics