Abstract

In this paper, we report about simulated distribution of density of absorbed light energy within human skin following light illumination with a combination of three wavelengths (310, 514 and 800 nm) with ratios similar to ultraviolet, visible and infrared fractions of the solar irradiance spectrum. We study heat distribution within the skin treated with a sunscreen containing TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results show that administration of TiO2 particles does not cause heat load on the tissue.

© 2011 OSA

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  2. R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).
  4. A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
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  9. A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
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  18. I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).
  20. A. Yu. Seteikin and I. V. Krasnikov, “An analysis of thermal effects resulting from laser radiation interaction with a multilayered biotissue,” Russ. Phys. J.49(10), 1139–1144 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Yu. Seteikin and I. V. Krasnikov, “An analysis of thermal effects resulting from laser radiation interaction with a multilayered biotissue,” Russ. Phys. J.49(10), 1139–1144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

1999 (1)

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “CONV—convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

1989 (1)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelmes, H.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, D. G.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britt, L. D.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, M. J.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawkins, H.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Dunlop, J.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Edlich, R. F.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

Freyer, J. P.

Haag, S.

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

Horowitz, J. H.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innes, B.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Jacques, S. L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “CONV—convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Krasnikov, I. V.

I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Seteikin and I. V. Krasnikov, “An analysis of thermal effects resulting from laser radiation interaction with a multilayered biotissue,” Russ. Phys. J.49(10), 1139–1144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lademann, J.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. W.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, W. B.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormick, P. G.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Meinke, M.

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Mueller, G.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nearn, M. R.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Nichter, L. S.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, A. P.

I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Priezzhev, A. V.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rickmeyer, C.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, M. S.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, W.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaefer, H.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seteikin, A. Yu.

I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Seteikin and I. V. Krasnikov, “An analysis of thermal effects resulting from laser radiation interaction with a multilayered biotissue,” Russ. Phys. J.49(10), 1139–1144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, Yu. N.

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

Shen, D.

Star, W. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterry, W.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trotter, G.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Tsuzuki, T.

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

Tuchin, V. V.

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “CONV—convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weigmann, H.-J.

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winters, K. L.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakunin, A. N.

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

Zheng, L.-Q.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “CONV—convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A. V.

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, “CONV—convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral. (1)

B. Innes, T. Tsuzuki, H. Dawkins, J. Dunlop, G. Trotter, M. R. Nearn, and P. G. McCormick, “Nanotechnology and the cosmetic chemist,” Cosmetics, Aerosols Toiletries Austral.15, 10–12, 21–24 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biomed Nanotechnol (1)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Zvyagin, J. Lademann, M. S. Roberts, W. Sanchez, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products,” J Biomed Nanotechnol6(5), 432–451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. P. Popov, S. Haag, M. Meinke, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles applied onto glass slide and porcine skin on generation of free radicals under ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 021011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Popov, J. Lademann, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of size of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded into stratum corneum on ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B sun-blocking properties of the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants (1)

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, H. W. Lim, M. J. Cox, D. G. Becker, J. H. Horowitz, L. S. Nichter, L. D. Britt, and W. B. Long, “Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 317–340 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “TiO2 nanoparticles as effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2564–2570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

I. V. Krasnikov, A. Yu. Seteikin, and A. P. Popov, “Measurement of sun and heat protecting properties of human skin through addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Opt. Spectrosc.109(2), 298–303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Shcherbakov, A. N. Yakunin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and V. V. Tuchin, “Modelling of thermal processes by interaction of non-coagulating laser radiation with multilayered biotissue,” Opt. Spectrosc.76(5), 845–850 (1994).

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. P. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, J. Lademann, and R. Myllylä, “Effect of multiple scattering of light by titanium dioxide nanoparticles implanted into a superficial skin layer on radiation transmission in different wavelength ranges,” Quantum Electron.37(1), 17–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russ. Phys. J. (1)

A. Yu. Seteikin and I. V. Krasnikov, “An analysis of thermal effects resulting from laser radiation interaction with a multilayered biotissue,” Russ. Phys. J.49(10), 1139–1144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. (1)

J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller, and W. Sterry, “Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol.12(5), 247–256 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

V. V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE, Bellingham, 2002), pp. 725–824.

S. L. Jacques and L.-H. Wang, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissue”, In Optical thermal response of laser irradiated tissues, Welch A.J., Martin J.C. van Gemert, Eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995) 73–100.

M. W. Ribarsky, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile,”in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), pp. 789–804.

MieTab 7.23 software, http://amiller.nmsu.edu/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of skin used in simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorbed energy density over the skin depth, without particles (a), with 1% nanoparticles (b) and 5% nanoparticles (in 1 μm) + 1% nanoparticles (in 2 μm) (c). Individual components (310 nm – 5%, 514 nm – 50%, 800 nm – 45%) and their sum (denoted as “Sup”). Thickness of superficial layer containing nanoparticles is 3 μm. The arrow indicates the deepest location of particles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dynamics on the skin surface (a) and in depth (b) in absence and presence of TiO2 particles (diameter 100 nm) in stratum corneum. Weighted contribution of the three wavelengths: 310 nm – 5%, 514 nm – 50%, 800 nm – 45%. Cooling takes place due to convection (100 W/m2К) and internal heat drainage (blood perfusion).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical parameters of skin layersa,b; percentage of particles in 3 μm sublayer in stratum corneum means volume fraction

Tables Icon

Table 2 Thermo-physical properties of tissue layersa

Equations (2)

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ρc T t =k 2 T+Q ,
(k T z A(T T ext ))=0,

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