Abstract

Two-photon polymerization is an appealing technique for producing microscale devices due to its flexibility in producing structures with a wide range of geometries as well as its compatibility with materials suitable for biomedical applications. The greatest limiting factor in widespread use of two-photon polymerization is the slow fabrication times associated with line-by-line, high-resolution structuring. In this study, a recently developed technology was used to produce microstructures by two-photon polymerization with multiple foci, which significantly reduces the production time. Computer generated hologram pattern technology was used to generate multiple laser beams in controlled positions from a single laser. These multiple beams were then used to simultaneously produce multiple microstructures by two-photon polymerization. Arrays of micro-Venus structures, tissue engineering scaffolds, and microneedle arrays were produced by multifocus two-photon polymerization. To our knowledge, this work is the first demonstration of multifocus two-photon polymerization technology for production of a functional medical device. Multibeam fabrication has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of two-photon polymerization production of microscale devices such as tissue engineering scaffolds and microneedle arrays.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (5)

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (13)

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard and R. J. Narayan, “Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(3), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Obata, J. Koch, U. Hinze, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multi-focus two-photon polymerization technique based on individually controlled phase modulation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17193–17200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Jenness, R. T. Hill, A. Hucknall, A. Chilkoti, and R. L. Clark, “A versatile diffractive maskless lithography for single-shot and serial microfabrication,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11754–11762 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization: an emerging method for rapid prototyping of ceramic-polymer hybrid materials for medical applications,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 88, 20–25 (2009).

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, S. Hasegawa, A. Takita, and Y. Hayasaki, “Sparse-exposure technique in holographic two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16592–16599 (2008).
[PubMed]

N. J. Jenness, K. D. Wulff, M. S. Johannes, M. J. Padgett, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, “Three-dimensional parallel holographic micropatterning using a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15942–15948 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (10)

X. Dong, Z. Zhao, and X. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Frumker and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using a two-dimensional liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1384–1386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kelemen, S. Valkai, and P. Ormos, “Parallel photopolymerisation with complex light patterns generated by diffractive optical elements,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14488–14497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Hemker and W. N. Sharpe., “Microscale characterization of mechanical properties,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 93–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applications in photonics and biomedicine,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6599–6602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Ostendorf and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization: a new approach to micromachining,” Photon. Spectra 40, 72–79 (2006).

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, “Interactive approach to optical tweezers control,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Al-Hiyasat, H. Darmani, and M. M. Milhem, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites and their flowable derivatives,” Clin. Oral Investig. 9(1), 21–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Teixeira, P. F. Nealey, and C. J. Murphy, “Responses of human keratocytes to micro- and nanostructured substrates,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71(3), 369–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Nano-sized hollow bump array generated by single femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 301–303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Moszner and U. Salz, “New developments of polymeric dental composites,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 26(4), 535–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. H. Haas and H. Wolter, “Synthesis, properties and applications of inorganic-organic copolymers (ORMOCER®s),” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(6), 571–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Achilleos, D. S.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adachi, Y.

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adunka, O.

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akar, H.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

Al-Hiyasat, A. S.

A. S. Al-Hiyasat, H. Darmani, and M. M. Milhem, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites and their flowable derivatives,” Clin. Oral Investig. 9(1), 21–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auyeung, R.

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, T.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, I.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehm, R. D.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Obata, J. Koch, U. Hinze, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multi-focus two-photon polymerization technique based on individually controlled phase modulation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17193–17200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applications in photonics and biomedicine,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6599–6602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ostendorf and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization: a new approach to micromachining,” Photon. Spectra 40, 72–79 (2006).

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 301–303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

Chisholm, B.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrisey, D. B.

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Claeyssens, F.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Cooper, J.

Courtial, J.

Crombez, R.

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronauer, C.

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darmani, H.

A. S. Al-Hiyasat, H. Darmani, and M. M. Milhem, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites and their flowable derivatives,” Clin. Oral Investig. 9(1), 21–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dedoussis, V.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deiwick, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Domann, G.

Dong, X.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, Z. Zhao, and X. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doraiswamy, A.

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dräger, G.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

Duan, X.

X. Dong, Z. Zhao, and X. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubruel, P.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, T.

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fadeeva, E.

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farsari, M.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frischauf, I.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröhlich, L.

Frumker, E.

Gaidukeviciute, A.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giakoumaki, A.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

Gill, A. A.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittard, S.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittard, S. D.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard and R. J. Narayan, “Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(3), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gong, Q.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruene, M.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, K. H.

K. H. Haas and H. Wolter, “Synthesis, properties and applications of inorganic-organic copolymers (ORMOCER®s),” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(6), 571–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haferkamp, H.

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, E. A.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, S.

Haverich, A.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayasaki, Y.

H. Takahashi, S. Hasegawa, A. Takita, and Y. Hayasaki, “Sparse-exposure technique in holographic two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16592–16599 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haycock, J. W.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heiser, J.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitz, J.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemker, K. J.

K. J. Hemker and W. N. Sharpe., “Microscale characterization of mechanical properties,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 93–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hering, S.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hidai, H.

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R. T.

Hinterdorfer, P.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinze, U.

Houbertz, R.

Howell, A. R.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hucknall, A.

Hwang, D. J.

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelinek, M.

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jenness, N. J.

Jeon, H.

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, C.

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, C. M.

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, M. S.

Jordan, P.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, D.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karunwi, K.

Kato, N.

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelemen, L.

Kim, R. H.

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Obata, J. Koch, U. Hinze, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multi-focus two-photon polymerization technique based on individually controlled phase modulation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17193–17200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, L.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, H. A.

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koroleva, A.

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laczik, Z. J.

Leach, J.

Lee, K.

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenardi, C.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. J.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

Löbler, M.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lusk, J.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

MacCraith, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, M.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Nano-sized hollow bump array generated by single femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mageswaran, P.

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiorana, F.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinauskas, M.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Melissinaki, V.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, C. R.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mente, P.

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihailescu, I. N.

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milhem, M. M.

A. S. Al-Hiyasat, H. Darmani, and M. M. Milhem, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites and their flowable derivatives,” Clin. Oral Investig. 9(1), 21–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, P.

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. R.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minghetti, P.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Modi, R.

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, L.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

Montalvo, E.

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, D. J.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morel, P.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

Moszner, N.

N. Moszner and U. Salz, “New developments of polymeric dental composites,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 26(4), 535–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

A. I. Teixeira, P. F. Nealey, and C. J. Murphy, “Responses of human keratocytes to micro- and nanostructured substrates,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71(3), 369–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakata, Y.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Nano-sized hollow bump array generated by single femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, R.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization: an emerging method for rapid prototyping of ceramic-polymer hybrid materials for medical applications,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 88, 20–25 (2009).

Narayan, R. J.

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard and R. J. Narayan, “Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(3), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nealey, P. F.

A. I. Teixeira, P. F. Nealey, and C. J. Murphy, “Responses of human keratocytes to micro- and nanostructured substrates,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71(3), 369–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngezahayo, A.

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishida, N.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L. G.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obata, K.

Ohrt, C.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Nano-sized hollow bump array generated by single femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olbrich, M.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormos, P.

Ortega, I.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostendorf, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applications in photonics and biomedicine,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6599–6602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ostendorf and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization: a new approach to micromachining,” Photon. Spectra 40, 72–79 (2006).

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 301–303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oubaha, M.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ovsianikov, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applications in photonics and biomedicine,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6599–6602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Park, S. H.

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peterbauer, T.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflaum, M.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillsbury, H.

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

Preiner, J.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, F.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ranella, A.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebollar, E.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanin, C.

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakellari, I.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salz, U.

N. Moszner and U. Salz, “New developments of polymeric dental composites,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 26(4), 535–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schizas, C.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, S.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, K. P.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, J.

Seet, K. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

Sharpe, W. N.

K. J. Hemker and W. N. Sharpe., “Microscale characterization of mechanical properties,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 93–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, C. M.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

Shin, C. C.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

Shizhou, X.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Sinclair, G.

Stafslien, S.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternberg, K.

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. Y.

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sugimoto, T.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, R.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Takeyasu, N.

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takita, A.

H. Takahashi, S. Hasegawa, A. Takita, and Y. Hayasaki, “Sparse-exposure technique in holographic two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16592–16599 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tayalia, P.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, A. I.

A. I. Teixeira, P. F. Nealey, and C. J. Murphy, “Responses of human keratocytes to micro- and nanostructured substrates,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71(3), 369–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, L.

Valkai, S.

Vamvakaki, M.

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Vlierberghe, S.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

Viertl, J.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. N.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmi, M.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolter, H.

K. H. Haas and H. Wolter, “Synthesis, properties and applications of inorganic-organic copolymers (ORMOCER®s),” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(6), 571–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulff, K.

Wulff, K. D.

Xia, H.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

X. Dong, Z. Zhao, and X. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Biomater. (2)

A. Ovsianikov, M. Malinauskas, S. Schlie, B. Chichkov, S. Gittard, R. Narayan, M. Löbler, K. Sternberg, K. P. Schmitz, and A. Haverich, “Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications,” Acta Biomater. 7(3), 967–974 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Doraiswamy, C. Jin, R. J. Narayan, P. Mageswaran, P. Mente, R. Modi, R. Auyeung, D. B. Chrisey, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Two photon induced polymerization of organic-inorganic hybrid biomaterials for microstructured medical devices,” Acta Biomater. 2(3), 267–275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (2)

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, H. Akar, B. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, B. Chisholm, C. C. Shin, C. M. Shih, S. J. Lin, Y. Y. Su, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization-micromolding of polyethylene glycol-gentamicin sulfate microneedles,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 12(4), B77–B82 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. J. Narayan, C. M. Jin, A. Doraiswamy, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Jelinek, A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, and D. B. Chrisey, “Laser processing of advanced bioceramics,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(12), 1083–1098 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

R. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization: an emerging method for rapid prototyping of ceramic-polymer hybrid materials for medical applications,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 88, 20–25 (2009).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

K. J. Hemker and W. N. Sharpe., “Microscale characterization of mechanical properties,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 93–126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 044102–044104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, Z. Zhao, and X. Duan, “Micronanofabrication of assembled three-dimensional microstructures by designable multiple beams multiphoton processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 124103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101–031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applications in photonics and biomedicine,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6599–6602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, O. Adunka, H. Pillsbury, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6603–6607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biofabrication (3)

V. Melissinaki, A. A. Gill, I. Ortega, M. Vamvakaki, A. Ranella, J. W. Haycock, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and F. Claeyssens, “Direct laser writing of 3D scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications,” Biofabrication 3(4), 045005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Gittard, R. J. Narayan, C. Jin, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, S. Stafslien, and B. Chisholm, “Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer microneedles,” Biofabrication 1(4), 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, M. Gruene, M. Pflaum, L. Koch, F. Maiorana, M. Wilhelmi, A. Haverich, and B. Chichkov, “Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds,” Biofabrication 2(1), 014104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomacromolecules (1)

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, L. Möller, G. Dräger, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering,” Biomacromolecules 12(4), 851–858 (2011).
[PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

E. Rebollar, I. Frischauf, M. Olbrich, T. Peterbauer, S. Hering, J. Preiner, P. Hinterdorfer, C. Romanin, and J. Heitz, “Proliferation of aligned mammalian cells on laser-nanostructured polystyrene,” Biomaterials 29(12), 1796–1806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

H. Hidai, H. Jeon, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-standing aligned fiber scaffold fabrication by two photon photopolymerization,” Biomed. Microdevices 11(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Oral Investig. (1)

A. S. Al-Hiyasat, H. Darmani, and M. M. Milhem, “Cytotoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites and their flowable derivatives,” Clin. Oral Investig. 9(1), 21–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

K. H. Haas and H. Wolter, “Synthesis, properties and applications of inorganic-organic copolymers (ORMOCER®s),” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(6), 571–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. (1)

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two-photon polymerization of microneedles for transdermal drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 7(4), 513–533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

S. D. Gittard and R. J. Narayan, “Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(3), 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

S. D. Gittard, P. R. Miller, R. D. Boehm, A. Ovsianikov, B. N. Chichkov, J. Heiser, J. Gordon, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. J. Narayan, “Multiphoton microscopy of transdermal quantum dot delivery using two photon polymerization-fabricated polymer microneedles,” Faraday Discuss. 149, 171–185, discussion 227–245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. (1)

A. Ovsianikov, B. Chichkov, P. Mente, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. Doraiswamy, and R. J. Narayan, “Two photon polymerization of polymer-ceramic hybrid materials for transdermal drug delivery,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(1), 22–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Fadeeva, S. Schlie, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “selective cell control by surface structuring for orthopedic applications,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24(13), 2257–2270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomater. Appl. (1)

S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Ovsianikov, T. Fabian, H. A. Kolb, H. Haferkamp, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three-dimensional cell growth on structures fabricated from ORMOCER by two-photon polymerization technique,” J. Biomater. Appl. 22(3), 275–287 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (2)

A. I. Teixeira, P. F. Nealey, and C. J. Murphy, “Responses of human keratocytes to micro- and nanostructured substrates,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71(3), 369–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jeon, H. Hidai, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Fabrication of arbitrary polymer patterns for cell study by two-photon polymerization process,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 93(1), 56–66 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. (1)

S. D. Gittard, A. Ovsianikov, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. Lusk, P. Morel, P. Minghetti, C. Lenardi, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of polymer microneedles using a two-photon polymerization and micromolding process,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 3(2), 304–311 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Doraiswamy, A. Ovsianikov, S. D. Gittard, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Crombez, E. Montalvo, W. Shen, B. N. Chichkov, and R. J. Narayan, “Fabrication of microneedles using two photon polymerization for transdermal delivery of nanomaterials,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(10), 6305–6312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Koroleva, S. Schlie, E. Fadeeva, S. D. Gittard, P. Miller, A. Ovsianikov, J. Koch, R. J. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. (1)

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials,” J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 1(6), 443–449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Nano-sized hollow bump array generated by single femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Langmuir 25(5), 3219–3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromol. (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromol. 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. (1)

A. Ovsianikov, A. Deiwick, S. Van Vlierberghe, M. Pflaum, M. Wilhelmi, P. Dubruel, and B. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 3D gelatin scaffolds for the generation of bioartificial tissues,” Mater. 4(1), 288–299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

R. J. Narayan, A. Doraiswamy, D. B. Chrisey, and B. N. Chichkov, “Medical prototyping using two photon polymerization,” Mater. Today 13(12), 42–48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photon. Spectra (1)

A. Ostendorf and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization: a new approach to micromachining,” Photon. Spectra 40, 72–79 (2006).

Prog. Polym. Sci. (2)

K. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Moszner and U. Salz, “New developments of polymeric dental composites,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 26(4), 535–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Ovsianikov, S. Passinger, R. Houbertz, and B. N. Chichkov, “Three dimensional material processing with femtosecond lasers,” in Laser Ablation and its Applications, C. Phipps, ed. (Springer, 2007), pp. 121–157.

A. Koroleva, S. D. Gittard, S. Schlie, and B. N. Chichkov, Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds via two-photon polymerization and microreplication techniques,” presented at the Eccomas – International Conference on Tissue Engineering. Fernandes et al. (Eds.), Lisbon, Portugal, June 2–4 (2011).

H. Wolter, W. Storch, and H. Ott, “New inorganic/organic copolymers (Ormocer®s) for dental applications” in Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 346, 143–149 (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the laser system. The system is composed of a laser source, a polarizer for controlling energy, an SLM system, a camera, a scanner, a focusing lens, and positioning stages.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of 16 micro-Venus structures, which were simultaneously produced by multibeam 2PP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Screenshots of 2PP structuring of cylinders with a single focus (a,c) and four foci (b,d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tissue engineering scaffolds made by 2PP with single focus structuring (a) and four foci structuring (b). Image of bovine endothelial cells growing on a scaffold made by multibeam 2PP (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

36 Ormocer® microneedles produced by fabrication of 4 needles at a time using multifocus 2PP.

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