Abstract

The corneo-scleral limbus contains several biological components, which are important constituents for understanding, diagnosing and managing several ocular pathologies, such as glaucoma and corneal abnormalities. An anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) system integrated with optical microangiography (OMAG) is used in this study to non-invasively visualize the three-dimensional microstructural and microvascular properties of the limbal region. Advantages include first the ability to correct optical distortion of microstructural images enabling quantification of relationships in the anterior chamber angle. Second, microvascular images enable the visualization of the microcirculation in the limbal area without the use of exogenous contrast agents. Third, by combining the microstructural and microvascular information, the aqueous outflow pathway can be identified. The proposed AS-OCT can serve as a useful tool for ophthalmological research to determine normal and pathologic changes in the outflow system. As a clinical tool it has the potential to detect early aqueous outflow system abnormalities that lead to the pressure elevation in glaucoma. Recent surgical innovations and their implementations also rely on an assessment of outflow system structure and function, which can be revealed by AS-OCT.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (6)

M. Johnstone, E. Martin, and A. Jamil, “Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Exp. Eye Res.92(5), 318–327 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung and R. N. Weinreb, “Anterior chamber angle imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 261–267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, N. Hutchings, L. Sorbara, A. A. Moayed, and T. Simpson, “In vivo volumetric imaging of the human corneo-scleral limbus with spectral domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1794–1802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (10)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Patel, T. Sherwin, and C. N. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(7), 2823–2827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Kobayashi and K. Sugiyama, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings of palisades of Vogt and its underlying limbal stroma,” Cornea24(4), 435–437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Savini, M. Zanini, and P. Barboni, “Filtering blebs imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.33(5), 483–489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. B. Papas, “The limbal vasculature,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye26(2), 71–76 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. M. Liebmann, “Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment,” J. Glaucoma10(5Suppl 1), S53–S55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. S. Dua and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium,” Surv. Ophthalmol.44(5), 415–425 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. A. McWhae and A. C. Crichton, “The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy following trabeculectomy,” Can. J. Ophthalmol.31(4), 187–191 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. F. Goldberg and A. J. Bron, “Limbal palisades of Vogt,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc.80, 155–171 (1982).
[PubMed]

An, L.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquino, M. C.

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asrani, S.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuara-Blanco, A.

H. S. Dua and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium,” Surv. Ophthalmol.44(5), 415–425 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babcock, G.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barboni, P.

G. Savini, M. Zanini, and P. Barboni, “Filtering blebs imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.33(5), 483–489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T.

M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilonick, R. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Brennen, P. M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, A. J.

M. F. Goldberg and A. J. Bron, “Limbal palisades of Vogt,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc.80, 155–171 (1982).
[PubMed]

Call, M. K.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ce, Z.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, I.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chew, P. T.

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung-chai, C.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crichton, A. C.

J. A. McWhae and A. C. Crichton, “The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy following trabeculectomy,” Can. J. Ophthalmol.31(4), 187–191 (1996).
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M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
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A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
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M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
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H. S. Dua and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium,” Surv. Ophthalmol.44(5), 415–425 (2000).
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A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
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Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
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Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
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L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
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L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
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Friedman, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
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L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
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Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
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Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
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M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
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Gille, H. K.

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
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L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Grieshaber, M. C.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
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Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Hanson, S. R.

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Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
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Hayashi, Y.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
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M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
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S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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Hutchings, N.

Hüttmann, G.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
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S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
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V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express10(9), 397–404 (2002).
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Izatt, J. A.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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Jamil, A.

M. Johnstone, E. Martin, and A. Jamil, “Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Exp. Eye Res.92(5), 318–327 (2011).
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Johnstone, M.

M. Johnstone, E. Martin, and A. Jamil, “Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Exp. Eye Res.92(5), 318–327 (2011).
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Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Kao, W. W.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
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Kawana, K.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
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A. Kobayashi and K. Sugiyama, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings of palisades of Vogt and its underlying limbal stroma,” Cornea24(4), 435–437 (2005).
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C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
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Lam, D. S.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
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Laqua, H.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
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C. K. Leung and R. N. Weinreb, “Anterior chamber angle imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 261–267 (2011).
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C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, D. Y.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F. C.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebmann, J. M.

J. M. Liebmann, “Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment,” J. Glaucoma10(5Suppl 1), S53–S55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

Liu, C. Y.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Martin, E.

M. Johnstone, E. Martin, and A. Jamil, “Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Exp. Eye Res.92(5), 318–327 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-de-la-Casa, J. M.

Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGhee, C. N.

D. V. Patel, T. Sherwin, and C. N. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(7), 2823–2827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWhae, J. A.

J. A. McWhae and A. C. Crichton, “The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy following trabeculectomy,” Can. J. Ophthalmol.31(4), 187–191 (1996).
[PubMed]

Miura, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moayed, A. A.

Mohamed, S.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolan, W. P.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuijts, R. M.

M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, Y.

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, J.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, S.

Oshika, T.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pablo, L. E.

Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papas, E. B.

E. B. Papas, “The limbal vasculature,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye26(2), 71–76 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pape, S.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascual, D.

Patel, D. V.

D. V. Patel, T. Sherwin, and C. N. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(7), 2823–2827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pienaar, A.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plesea, L.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express10(9), 397–404 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Remon, L.

Ren, J.

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

Rollins, A. M.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rosen, R.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Sakai, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santiago, C.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savini, G.

G. Savini, M. Zanini, and P. Barboni, “Filtering blebs imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.33(5), 483–489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

See, J.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, T.

D. V. Patel, T. Sherwin, and C. N. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(7), 2823–2827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraga, F.

K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shousha, M. A.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedlecki, D.

Sigal, I. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Simpson, T.

Singh, M.

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. D.

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorbara, L.

Stegmann, R.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, K.

A. Kobayashi and K. Sugiyama, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings of palisades of Vogt and its underlying limbal stroma,” Cornea24(4), 435–437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

Takagishi, M.

K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tham, C. C.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Webers, C. A.

M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

C. K. Leung and R. N. Weinreb, “Anterior chamber angle imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 261–267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express10(9), 397–404 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Winter, C.

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Yick, D. W.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanini, M.

G. Savini, M. Zanini, and P. Barboni, “Filtering blebs imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.33(5), 483–489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

K. Hirooka, M. Takagishi, T. Baba, and F. Shiraga, “Correlation between optical coherence tomography scan and histological specimen of a filtering bleb,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(2), e50–e51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 340–344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. A. McWhae and A. C. Crichton, “The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy following trabeculectomy,” Can. J. Ophthalmol.31(4), 187–191 (1996).
[PubMed]

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Savini, M. Zanini, and P. Barboni, “Filtering blebs imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.33(5), 483–489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cont. Lens Anterior Eye (1)

E. B. Papas, “The limbal vasculature,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye26(2), 71–76 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (1)

A. Kobayashi and K. Sugiyama, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings of palisades of Vogt and its underlying limbal stroma,” Cornea24(4), 435–437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

M. Müller, H. Hoerauf, G. Geerling, S. Pape, C. Winter, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Filtering bleb evaluation with slit-lamp-adapted 1310-nm optical coherence tomography,” Curr. Eye Res.31(11), 909–915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

M. Johnstone, E. Martin, and A. Jamil, “Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Exp. Eye Res.92(5), 318–327 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, J. Xu, H. Gong, and J. S. Schuman, “3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans,” Exp. Eye Res.in press.
[PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

C. K. Leung and R. N. Weinreb, “Anterior chamber angle imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 261–267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (8)

S. Radhakrishnan, J. See, S. D. Smith, W. P. Nolan, Z. Ce, D. S. Friedman, D. Huang, Y. Li, T. Aung, and P. T. Chew, “Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(8), 3683–3688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hayashi, M. K. Call, C. Y. Liu, M. Hayashi, G. Babcock, Y. Ohashi, and W. W. Kao, “Monoallelic expression of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation of limbal stem cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4562–4568 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Clinical evaluation of the aqueous outflow system in primary open-angle glaucoma for canaloplasty,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1498–1504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ren, H. K. Gille, J. Wu, and C. Yang, “Ex vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of collector channels with a scanning endoscopic probe,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 3921–3925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fernández-Barrientos, J. García-Feijoó, J. M. Martínez-de-la-Casa, L. E. Pablo, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. García Sánchez, “Fluorophotometric study of the effect of the glaukos trabecular microbypass stent on aqueous humor dynamics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(7), 3327–3332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Patel, T. Sherwin, and C. N. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(7), 2823–2827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tao, J. Wang, Q. Chen, M. Shen, F. Lu, S. R. Dubovy, and M. A. Shousha, “Topographic thickness of Bowman’s layer determined by ultra-high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3901–3907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and assessment of Schlemm’s canal by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

M. Doors, T. T. Berendschot, J. de Brabander, C. A. Webers, and R. M. Nuijts, “Value of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(7), 1213–1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (2)

M. Singh, T. Aung, M. C. Aquino, and P. T. Chew, “Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy,” J. Glaucoma18(6), 492–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Liebmann, “Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment,” J. Glaucoma10(5Suppl 1), S53–S55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. S. Dua and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium,” Surv. Ophthalmol.44(5), 415–425 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

M. F. Goldberg and A. J. Bron, “Limbal palisades of Vogt,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc.80, 155–171 (1982).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye; an Atlas and Textbook (Saunders, 1971), pp. xiii

D. J. J. Park and J. W. Karesh, Topographic Anatomy of the Eye: an Overview, Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology on CD-ROM (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006).

A. N. S. Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers: ANSI Z136.1–2000 (Laser Institute of America, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the AS-OCT system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo microstructure imaging of the human corneo-scleral limbus from a temporal location. (A) Schematic diagram of the microstructure in the limbal area (modified from [36]); (B) A representative OCT structural cross-section consisting of 360 A scans covering ~5.5mm; (C) The same cross-section after the correction of the optical distortions. AOD and TISA measurements are included. CnE: corneal epithelium; CnS: corneal stroma; CjE: conjunctival epithelium; CjS: conjunctival stroma; ES: episclera; S: sclera; SS: scleral spur; CB: ciliary body; I: iris; TM: trabecular meshwork, SC: Schlemm’s canal. The scale bar represents 600μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo microvasculature imaging of the human corneo-scleral limbus from a temporal location. (A) Schematic diagram of the blood supply in the limbal area. The enlarged part illustrates the aqueous vein (modified from [36]); (B) OMAG vascular cross-section corresponding to Fig. 2(B); (C) OMAG vascular cross-section superimposed with structural cross-section (Fig. 2 (B)). ACA: anterior ciliary artery; CP: conjunctival plexus; EP: episcleral plexus; IP: intrascleral plexus; AV: aqueous vein.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo 3D blood flow imaging of the human corneo-scleral limbus from a temporal location. (A) 3D rendering of the flow images; (B) projection view (x-y) from the 3D blood flow image; (C) oblique slice of (A) within the conjunctival layer; (D) oblique slice of (A) in the scleral area. Bold white arrow indicates the episcleral vein; TV: terminal vessel; RV: recurrent vessel. The physical image size was 5.5 × 4.0 × 3.0 (x-y-z) mm3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A-E and G) Selected structural cross-section showing the traces of aqueous outflow pathway from aqueous vein (A-D) to episcleral vein (E, G); (F) OMAG blood flow cross-section corresponding to (E); (H) projection view of blood flow image and the lateral dash line corresponds to the position of (E) and (F). (F) and (H) indicate that the destination of the flow is the episcleral vein. Bold white arrow indicates the episcleral vein.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Volumetric rendering of the merged 3D micro-structure and aqueous outflow pathway (aqueous vein and episcleral vein). EV: episcleral vein; AV: aqueous vein.

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