Abstract

An optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high axial resolution corneal imaging is presented. The system uses 375 nm bandwidth (625 to 1000 nm) from a broadband supercontinuum light source. The system was developed in free space to minimize image quality degradation due to dispersion. A custom-designed spectrometer based on a Czerny Turner configuration was implemented to achieve an imaging depth of 1 mm. Experimentally measured axial resolution was 1.1 μm in corneal tissue and had a good agreement with the theoretically calculated resolution from the envelope of the spectral interference fringes. In vivo imaging was carried out and thin corneal layers such as the tear film and the Bowman’s layer were quantified in normal, keratoconus, and contact lens wearing eyes, indicating the system’s suitability for several ophthalmic applications.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (4)

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Broadband astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner spectrometer,” Opt. Express18(22), 23378–23384 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (6)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.154(4), 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Häusler and M. W. Linduer, “Coherence radar and spectral radar-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

1995 (3)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg.11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. A. Little and A. S. Bruce, “Postlens tear film morphology, lens movement and symptoms in hydrogel lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.14(1), 65–69 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci.69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. S. Macsai, G. A. Varley, and J. H. Krachmer, “Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. patient characteristics,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 534–538 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol.28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Coyle, “Keratoconus and eye rubbing,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.97(4), 527–528 (1984).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

L. Wagner, K. Polse, and R. Mandell, “Tear pumping and edema with soft contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(11), 1397–1400 (1980).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

T. Hayashi and I. Fatt, “A lubrication theory model of tear exchange under a soft contact lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.53(3), 101–103 (1976).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

1930 (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, “Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometern,” Z. Phys.61, 792–797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.154(4), 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Begley, C.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Belin, M. W.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol.28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertera, J. H.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci.69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bradley, A.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bruce, A. S.

S. A. Little and A. S. Bruce, “Postlens tear film morphology, lens movement and symptoms in hydrogel lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.14(1), 65–69 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchser, N.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffery, B.

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffery, B. E.

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Cense, B.

Chang, V.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charles, J.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

Christopoulos, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coroneo, M.

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coyle, J. T.

J. T. Coyle, “Keratoconus and eye rubbing,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.97(4), 527–528 (1984).
[PubMed]

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, “Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometern,” Z. Phys.61, 792–797 (1930).
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Davies, P.

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dhaliwal, D. K.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doane, M. G.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci.69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doughty, M.

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Doughty, M. J.

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Droppleman, L.

Dubovy, S. R.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Easty, D. L.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fatt, I.

T. Hayashi and I. Fatt, “A lubrication theory model of tear exchange under a soft contact lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.53(3), 101–103 (1976).
[PubMed]

Feder, R. S.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol.28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.154(4), 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, W.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, B. A.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg.11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonn, D.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(6), 2524–2528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, K.

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, S.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, R. J.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Linduer, “Coherence radar and spectral radar-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi and I. Fatt, “A lubrication theory model of tear exchange under a soft contact lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.53(3), 101–103 (1976).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hill, R. M.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.154(4), 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchings, N.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyun, C.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ide, T.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, H.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

Jalbert, I.

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, L.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(6), 2524–2528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagemann, L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalusny, J. J.

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by spectra optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Appl.32, 581–589 (2002).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, W. J.

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klouda, P. T.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T.

Koelling, K. W.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Krachmer, J. H.

M. S. Macsai, G. A. Varley, and J. H. Krachmer, “Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. patient characteristics,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 534–538 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol.28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Lee, K. S.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linduer, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Linduer, “Coherence radar and spectral radar-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Little, S. A.

S. A. Little and A. S. Bruce, “Postlens tear film morphology, lens movement and symptoms in hydrogel lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.14(1), 65–69 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobascher, D.

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xue, S. Wang, and F. Lu, “Aberration-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer with a wide spectral region,” Appl. Opt.48(1), 11–16 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macsai, M. S.

M. S. Macsai, G. A. Varley, and J. H. Krachmer, “Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. patient characteristics,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 534–538 (1990).
[PubMed]

Mandell, R.

L. Wagner, K. Polse, and R. Mandell, “Tear pumping and edema with soft contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(11), 1397–1400 (1980).
[PubMed]

Manku, M.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg.11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

McGhee, C. N. J.

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megill, L. R.

Meisler, D. M.

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, J.

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moayed, A. A.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Niederer, R. L.

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papas, E.

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Patel, S.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg.11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Perez, V. L.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perumal, D.

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

Polse, K.

L. Wagner, K. Polse, and R. Mandell, “Tear pumping and edema with soft contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(11), 1397–1400 (1980).
[PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabinowitz, Y. S.

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahi, A.

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, D.

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Rolland, J. P.

Ruben, M.

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherzer, E.

Schuman, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, B.

Shen, M.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, T.

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shousha, M. A.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, T.

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

Simpson, T. L.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(6), 2524–2528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorbara, L.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapleton, F.

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, C. M.

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweeney, D. F.

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thibos, L. N.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thompson, K. P.

Tiffany, J. M.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timberlake, G. T.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci.69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. F.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, “Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometern,” Z. Phys.61, 792–797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, R.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Varley, G. A.

M. S. Macsai, G. A. Varley, and J. H. Krachmer, “Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. patient characteristics,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 534–538 (1990).
[PubMed]

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wagner, L.

L. Wagner, K. Polse, and R. Mandell, “Tear pumping and edema with soft contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(11), 1397–1400 (1980).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(6), 2524–2528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Wilson, S. E.

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wojtkowski, M.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by spectra optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Appl.32, 581–589 (2002).

Wollstein, G.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Q.

Yang, C. H.

Yoo, S. H.

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. T. Coyle, “Keratoconus and eye rubbing,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.97(4), 527–528 (1984).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

T. Hayashi and I. Fatt, “A lubrication theory model of tear exchange under a soft contact lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.53(3), 101–103 (1976).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

M. S. Macsai, G. A. Varley, and J. H. Krachmer, “Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. patient characteristics,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 534–538 (1990).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

I. Jalbert, F. Stapleton, E. Papas, D. F. Sweeney, and M. Coroneo, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.87(2), 225–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rahi, P. Davies, M. Ruben, D. Lobascher, and J. Menon, “Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.61(12), 761–764 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Harrison, P. T. Klouda, D. L. Easty, M. Manku, J. Charles, and C. M. Stewart, “Association between keratoconus and atopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.73(10), 816–822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res.29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kim, Y. S. Rabinowitz, D. M. Meisler, and S. E. Wilson, “Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus,” Exp. Eye Res.69(5), 475–481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (7)

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

L. Wagner, K. Polse, and R. Mandell, “Tear pumping and edema with soft contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.19(11), 1397–1400 (1980).
[PubMed]

B. E. Caffery, D. Richter, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, M. Doughty, and K. Gordon, “The prevalence of dry eye in contact lens wearers: part 2 of the Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37, S72 (1996).

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(6), 2524–2528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Niederer, D. Perumal, T. Sherwin, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy reveals reduced innervation and reduction in cell density in all layers of the keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(7), 2964–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Häusler and M. W. Linduer, “Coherence radar and spectral radar-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg.11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

S. A. Little and A. S. Bruce, “Postlens tear film morphology, lens movement and symptoms in hydrogel lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.14(1), 65–69 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

M. A. Shousha, V. L. Perez, J. Wang, T. Ide, S. Jiao, Q. Chen, V. Chang, N. Buchser, S. R. Dubovy, W. Feuer, and S. H. Yoo, “Use of ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography to detect in vivo characteristics of Descemet’s membrane in Fuchs’ dystrophy,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1220–1227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Appl. (1)

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by spectra optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Appl.32, 581–589 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.154(4), 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

M. J. Doughty, D. Fonn, D. Richter, T. Simpson, B. Caffery, and K. Gordon, “A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada,” Optom. Vis. Sci.74(8), 624–631 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci.69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol.28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, “Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometern,” Z. Phys.61, 792–797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Rabbetts, Bennett & Rabbetts’ Clinical Visual Optics (Elsevier 2007).

American National Standards Institute, “American national standard for safe use of lasers,” ANSI Z136.1-2007 (2007).

D. A. Atchison and J. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Elsevier, 2002).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The spectrometer PSF for two wavelengths separated by the required spectral resolution calculated from Eq. (1) for (a) 625 nm (b) 700 nm (c) 800 nm (d) 900 nm (e) 1000 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral resolution predicted by ray tracing compared with the required spectral resolution. The spectral resolution requirement is satisfied by all wavelengths except between 625 nm and 690 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Full schematic of the OCT system. C, Collimator; BF, Bandpass filter; BS, Beamsplitter; VND, Variable neutral density filter; SM, Scanning mirror; OL, Objective lens; S, Sample; M, Reference mirror; FL, Focusing lens; CM1, First concave mirror; G, Linear grating; CM2, Second concave mirror; CL, Cylindrical lens; D, Linescan CCD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The axial PSF of the OCT measured experimentally by a mirror in the sample arm shown in blue, the PSF estimated theoretically from the envelope of spectral interference fringes shown in dashed red. The FWHM of the axial PSF is estimated to be 1.52 μm in air which corresponds to 1.11 μm in corneal tissue. (b) Sensitivity roll off of the system evaluated by measuring the axial PSF at different depths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The images obtained for the photoresists (n = 1.6) of thickness (a) 0.91 μm (b) 1.36 μm (c) 3.37 μm and (d) 4.40 μm and the peaks for photoresist thickness of (e) 0.91 μm (f) 1.36 μm (g) 3.37 μm and (h) 4.40 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT image of the cornea of a normal patient. TL: Tear Layer, EP: Epithelium, BL: Bowman’s Layer, SR: Stroma, DM: Descemet’s Membrane, EN: Endothelium.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OCT images of (a) Normal (same image shown in Fig. 6), (b) moderate keratoconus (c) severe keratoconus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Image of the contact lens wearer's cornea immediately after instilling a tear drop, where the subject was wearing the contact lens for three minutes. (b) Zoom-in view of the PLTF: two interfaces can be clearly visualized. (c) Zoom-in view of the PoLTF: two interfaces are distinguishable.

Equations (1)

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δλ= λ 2 4d ,

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