Abstract

Nonlinear microscopy can be used to probe the intrinsic optical properties of biological tissues. Using femtosecond pulses, third-harmonic generation (THG) and four-wave mixing (FWM) signals can be efficiently produced and detected simultaneously. Both signals probe a similar parameter, i.e. the real part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3). However THG and FWM images result from different phase matching conditions and provide complementary information. We analyze this complementarity using calculations, z-scan measurements on water and oils, and THG-FWM imaging of cell divisions in live zebrafish embryos. The two signals exhibit different sensitivity to sample size and clustering in the half-wavelength regime. Far from resonance, THG images reveal spatial variations |Δχ(3)(−3ω;ω,ω,ω)| with remarkable sensitivity while FWM directly reflects the distribution of χ(3)(−2ω1 + ω21, –ω2, ω1). We show that FWM images provide χ(3) maps useful for proper interpretation of cellular THG signals, and that combined imaging carries additional structural information. Finally we present simultaneous imaging of intrinsic THG, FWM, second-harmonic (SHG) and two-photon-excited fluorescence (2PEF) signals in live Caenorhabditis elegans worms illustrating the information provided by multimodal nonlinear imaging of unstained tissue.

© 2011 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108, 827–840 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R59–R81 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Isobe, S. Kataoka, R. Murase, W. Watanabe, T. Higashi, S. Kawakami, S. Matsunaga, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated parametric emission microscopy,” Opt. Express14, 786–793 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D-microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc.191, 266–274 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Débarre and E. Beaurepaire, “Quantitative characterization of biological liquids for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.92, 603–612 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Débarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. -C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos,” Opt. Lett.29, 2881 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).
  16. J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1604–1610 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express, 16(19), 14703–14715 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system.,” Proc. Royal Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge Univ Press, 2006).
  20. G. Clay, A. Millard, C. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. Tsai, J. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 932–950 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Liu, W. Rudolph, and J. L. Thomas, “Characterization and application of femtosecond infrared stimulated parametric emission microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 787–795 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the thord-order nonlinar optical susceptibilities,” Physssss; Rev. B2, 2045–2048 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. S. Pillai, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Müller, “Analysis of the influence of spherical aberration from focusing through a dielectric slab in quantitative nonlinear optical susceptibility measurements using third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express14, 260–269 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1663–1675 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Fuentes and J. Fernández, “Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways,” Dev. Dyn.2392172–2189 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. G. V. Clokey and L. A. Jacobson, “The autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are secondary lysosomes,” Mech. Ageing Dev.35, 79–94 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, W. Rudolph, and J. L. Thomas, “Characterization and application of femtosecond infrared stimulated parametric emission microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 787–795 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Fuentes and J. Fernández, “Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways,” Dev. Dyn.2392172–2189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre and E. Beaurepaire, “Quantitative characterization of biological liquids for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.92, 603–612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108, 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. -C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos,” Opt. Lett.29, 2881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1663–1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D-microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc.191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. V. Clokey and L. A. Jacobson, “The autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are secondary lysosomes,” Mech. Ageing Dev.35, 79–94 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the thord-order nonlinar optical susceptibilities,” Physssss; Rev. B2, 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1959

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system.,” Proc. Royal Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aus-der-Au, J.

Axäng, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express, 16(19), 14703–14715 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre and E. Beaurepaire, “Quantitative characterization of biological liquids for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.92, 603–612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. -C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos,” Opt. Lett.29, 2881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourgine, P.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Brackmann, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Campagnola, P. J.

W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canioni, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108, 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1663–1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-W.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clay, G.

Clokey, G. V.

G. V. Clokey and L. A. Jacobson, “The autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are secondary lysosomes,” Mech. Ageing Dev.35, 79–94 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combettes, L.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, D.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre and E. Beaurepaire, “Quantitative characterization of biological liquids for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.92, 603–612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. -C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos,” Opt. Lett.29, 2881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duloquin, L.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duren, H. M.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enejder, A.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, A.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fachima, R.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farge, E.

Faure, E.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

R. Fuentes and J. Fernández, “Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways,” Dev. Dyn.2392172–2189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, R.

R. Fuentes and J. Fernández, “Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways,” Dev. Dyn.2392172–2189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge Univ Press, 2006).

Hellerer, T.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, T.

Hillertz, P.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.-D.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, K.

Itoh, K.

Jacobson, L. A.

G. V. Clokey and L. A. Jacobson, “The autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are secondary lysosomes,” Mech. Ageing Dev.35, 79–94 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kataoka, S.

Kawakami, S.

Kleinfeld, D.

Le, T. T.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.-M.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luengo-Oroz, M.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, S.

Millard, A.

Millard, A. C.

W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, W.

W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moulia, B.

Müller, M.

Murase, R.

Nikolaenko, A.

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge Univ Press, 2006).

Olivier, N.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express, 16(19), 14703–14715 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pena, A.-M.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peyriéras, N.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, R. S.

Pilon, M.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raz, S.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system.,” Proc. Royal Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Ruvkun, G.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, A.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarger, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savy, T.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

Schanne-Klein, M. -C.

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M. N.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solinas, X.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. -C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos,” Opt. Lett.29, 2881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tal, E.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. L.

Tordjmann, T.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.-J.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, P.

Tsai, T.-H.

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veilleux, I.

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1663–1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the thord-order nonlinar optical susceptibilities,” Physssss; Rev. B2, 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. C.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D-microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc.191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system.,” Proc. Royal Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108, 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green’s function formulation for third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 1663–1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advances in optics and photonics

Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan, and E. O. Potma, “Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures,” Advances in optics and photonics3, 1–52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

D. Débarre and E. Beaurepaire, “Quantitative characterization of biological liquids for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.92, 603–612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Dyn.

R. Fuentes and J. Fernández, “Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways,” Dev. Dyn.2392172–2189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C.-D. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D-microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc.191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108, 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R59–R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol.

D. Oron, D. Yelin, E. Tal, S. Raz, R. Fachima, and Y. Silberberg, “Depth-resolved structural imaging by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147, 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mech. Ageing Dev.

G. V. Clokey and L. A. Jacobson, “The autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are secondary lysosomes,” Mech. Ageing Dev.35, 79–94 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods

W. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Second harmonic imaging of endogenous structural proteins,” Methods29, 97–109 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods3, 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie , “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8, 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, “Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. E66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physssss; Rev. B

C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the thord-order nonlinar optical susceptibilities,” Physssss; Rev. B2, 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, “Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA37, 14658–14663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Royal Soc. A

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system.,” Proc. Royal Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Science

N. Olivier, M. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science339, 967–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge Univ Press, 2006).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (8724 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3106 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics