Abstract

It has recently been shown that spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) developed in our laboratory can be used to quantify the dry mass growth of single cells with femtogram sensitivity [M. Mir et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 32 (2011)]. Here we show that it is possible to measure the motility of single cells in conjunction with the dry mass measurements. Specifically the effect of poly-L-lysine substrate on the dry mass growth of Drosophila S2 cells is studied. By measuring the mean square displacement of single cells and clusters it is shown that cells that adhere better to the surface are unable to grow. Using such a technique it is possible to measure both growth and morphogenesis, two of the cornerstones of developmental biology.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. Eldar and M. B. Elowitz, “Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits,” Nature467(7312), 167–173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. F. Brown and G. A. Dunn, “Microinterferometry of the movement of dry matter in fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.92(3), 379–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

1957 (1)

1954 (1)

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (2)

R. Barer and K. A. Ross, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Physiol.118(2), 38P–39P (1952).
[PubMed]

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aluru, N. R.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amon, A.

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer, “Refractometry and interferometry of living cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.47(6), 545–556 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer and K. A. Ross, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Physiol.118(2), 38P–39P (1952).
[PubMed]

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, A. F.

A. F. Brown and G. A. Dunn, “Microinterferometry of the movement of dry matter in fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.92(3), 379–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Bryan, A. K.

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callens, N.

Cano, E.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delgado, F. F.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Dubois, F.

Dunn, G. A.

A. F. Brown and G. A. Dunn, “Microinterferometry of the movement of dry matter in fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.92(3), 379–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Eldar, A.

A. Eldar and M. B. Elowitz, “Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits,” Nature467(7312), 167–173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elowitz, M. B.

A. Eldar and M. B. Elowitz, “Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits,” Nature467(7312), 167–173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feingold, M.

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finan, J. D.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishov, I.

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Godin, M.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, D.

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

Goranov, A.

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, A. D.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, W. H.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilak, F.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsia, K. J.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, G.

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

James, N. T.

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

Jin, X.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorgensen, P.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafri, R.

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, N.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirschner, M. W.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, J.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahav, G.

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBleu, V. S.

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L.

Millet, L. J.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mir, M.

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payer, K.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reshes, G.

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Rogers, S. L.

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, K. A.

R. Barer and K. A. Ross, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Physiol.118(2), 38P–39P (1952).
[PubMed]

Schockaert, C.

Shaked, N. T.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simanis, V.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokol, R. J.

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

Son, S.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuurman, N.

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, S.

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzur, A.

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Vale, R. D.

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanounou, S.

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wales, J.

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedemann, U.

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yourassowsky, C.

Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. (1)

R. J. Sokol, J. Wales, G. Hudson, D. Goldstein, and N. T. James, “Cellular dry mass during macrophage development in malignant lymphoma,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.13(6), 379–382 (1991).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

G. Reshes, S. Vanounou, I. Fishov, and M. Feingold, “Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli,” Biophys. J.94(1), 251–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, C. Depeursinge, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

S. L. Rogers, U. Wiedemann, N. Stuurman, and R. D. Vale, “Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells,” J. Cell Biol.162(6), 1079–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

A. F. Brown and G. A. Dunn, “Microinterferometry of the movement of dry matter in fibroblasts,” J. Cell Sci.92(3), 379–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

R. Barer and K. A. Ross, “Refractometry of living cells,” J. Physiol.118(2), 38P–39P (1952).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. Godin, F. F. Delgado, S. Son, W. H. Grover, A. K. Bryan, A. Tzur, P. Jorgensen, K. Payer, A. D. Grossman, M. W. Kirschner, and S. R. Manalis, “Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells,” Nat. Methods7(5), 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (4)

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature169(4296), 366–367 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldar and M. B. Elowitz, “Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits,” Nature467(7312), 167–173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

A. K. Bryan, A. Goranov, A. Amon, and S. R. Manalis, “Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(3), 999–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Park, L. J. Millet, N. Kim, H. Li, X. Jin, G. Popescu, N. R. Aluru, K. J. Hsia, and R. Bashir, “Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(48), 20691–20696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. Tzur, R. Kafri, V. S. LeBleu, G. Lahav, and M. W. Kirschner, “Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells,” Science325(5937), 167–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. K. Purves, Life, the Science of Biology (Sinauer Associates, W.H. Freeman and Co., Sunderland, Mass., 2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Trajectories of attached (red line) and motile (black line) cells. Time-stamped insets show the tracked cell at various time points. It can be seen that the motile cell exhibits a clear directional motion over time whereas the adherent cell is jostling in place. b) The dry mass growth of the two cells shown in a, the attached cell exhibits no growth whereas the motile cell approximately doubles its mass. c) MSD for the two cells shown in b.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Semilogarithmic plot MSD vs. time for all the individual cells tracked. It can be seen that the MSD increases by 3-4 orders of magnitude between the 1st and 4th generations b) Semilogarithmic plot of the maximum MSD vs. the approximated linear growth rate for each cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dry mass vs. time for cell clusters in the 3rd and 4th generations. Each colored time series corresponds to a single cluster, the solid black line is the average exponential fit for each cluster, with the average time constant, τ shown for each fit.

Equations (2)

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ρ(x,y)=λϕ(x,y)/2πγ,
MSD(τ)= [ r(t+τ)r(t) ] 2 t = [ x(t+τ)x(t) ] 2 t + [ y(t+τ)y(t) ] 2 t ,

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