Abstract

Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. We present here a Raman spectroscopic tool for detecting microcalcifications in breast tissue based on their chemical composition. We collected ex vivo Raman spectra from 159 tissue sites in fresh stereotactic breast needle biopsies from 33 patients, including 54 normal sites, 75 lesions with microcalcifications and 30 lesions without microcalcifications. Application of our Raman technique resulted in a positive predictive value of 97% for detecting microcalcifications. This study shows that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to detect microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core biopsies and provide real-time feedback to radiologists, thus reducing non-diagnostic and false negative biopsies.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Qi and A. J. Berger, “Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.46(10), 1726–1734 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Fitzmaurice, “Principles and pitfalls of diagnostic test development: implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 119–130 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rim, M. Chellman-Jeffers, and A. Fanning, “Trends in breast cancer screening and diagnosis,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med.75(Suppl 1), S2–S9 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, “Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qi and A. J. Berger, “Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.46(10), 1726–1734 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jackman and J. Rodriguez-Soto, “Breast microcalcifications: retrieval failure at prone stereotactic core and vacuum breast biopsy--frequency, causes, and outcome,” Radiology239(1), 61–70 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

2002 (3)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Fitzmaurice, “Principles and pitfalls of diagnostic test development: implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 119–130 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. J. Radi, “Calcium oxalate crystals in breast biopsies. An overlooked form of microcalcification associated with benign breast disease,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.113(12), 1367–1369 (1989).
[PubMed]

Angheloiu, G. O.

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Awasthi, S.

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, R.

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

Brugnera, A.

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnside, E. S.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centeno, J. A.

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

Chellman-Jeffers, M.

A. Rim, M. Chellman-Jeffers, and A. Fanning, “Trends in breast cancer screening and diagnosis,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med.75(Suppl 1), S2–S9 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, M. S.

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J. P.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlstrom, J. E.

J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, R. R.

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deinum, G.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dingari, N. C.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fanning, A.

A. Rim, M. Chellman-Jeffers, and A. Fanning, “Trends in breast cancer screening and diagnosis,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med.75(Suppl 1), S2–S9 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fine, J. P.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Fitzmaurice, “Principles and pitfalls of diagnostic test development: implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 119–130 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowler, K. J.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, S. J.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimes, M. M.

M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hicks, D.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogge, J. P.

M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Jackman, R. J.

R. J. Jackman and J. Rodriguez-Soto, “Breast microcalcifications: retrieval failure at prone stereotactic core and vacuum breast biopsy--frequency, causes, and outcome,” Radiology239(1), 61–70 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, S.

J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, F. B.

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

Johnson, J. M.

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karageorge, L. S.

M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, C. R.

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, P. J.

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landercasper, J.

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, J.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matousek, P.

P. Matousek and N. Stone, “Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullick, F. G.

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

Myles, J.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ochsner, J. E.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otero, E. U.

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Pacheco, M. T.

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A. W.

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasqualucci, C. A.

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasqualucci, C. A. G.

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Perelman, L.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pestaner, J. P.

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

Pomerantzeff, P. M. A.

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Qi, D.

Radi, M. J.

M. J. Radi, “Calcium oxalate crystals in breast biopsies. An overlooked form of microcalcification associated with benign breast disease,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.113(12), 1367–1369 (1989).
[PubMed]

Rim, A.

A. Rim, M. Chellman-Jeffers, and A. Fanning, “Trends in breast cancer screening and diagnosis,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med.75(Suppl 1), S2–S9 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocha, R.

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Soto, J.

R. J. Jackman and J. Rodriguez-Soto, “Breast microcalcifications: retrieval failure at prone stereotactic core and vacuum breast biopsy--frequency, causes, and outcome,” Radiology239(1), 61–70 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, K.

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, K. D.

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D. L.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salkowski, L. R.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathaiah, S.

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Šcepanovic, O. R.

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, K.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shenk, R.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silviera, L.

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Sisney, G. A.

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, “Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, S.

J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villaverde, A. B.

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wester, S. M.

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1)

J. E. Dahlstrom, S. Sutton, and S. Jain, “Histologic-radiologic correlation of mammographically detected microcalcification in stereotactic core biopsies,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.22(2), 256–259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

N. Stone, R. Baker, K. Rogers, A. W. Parker, and P. Matousek, “Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer,” Analyst (Lond.)132(9), 899–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (2)

M. J. Radi, “Calcium oxalate crystals in breast biopsies. An overlooked form of microcalcification associated with benign breast disease,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.113(12), 1367–1369 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. P. Pestaner, F. G. Mullick, F. B. Johnson, and J. A. Centeno, “Calcium oxalate crystals in human pathology. Molecular analysis with the laser Raman microprobe,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.120(6), 537–540 (1996).
[PubMed]

Arch. Surg. (1)

J. M. Johnson, R. R. Dalton, S. M. Wester, J. Landercasper, and P. J. Lambert, “Histological correlation of microcalcifications in breast biopsy specimens,” Arch. Surg.134(7), 712–716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

R. Baker, K. D. Rogers, N. Shepherd, and N. Stone, “New relationships between breast microcalcifications and cancer,” Br. J. Cancer103(7), 1034–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Identifying microcalcifications in benign and malignant breast lesions by probing differences in their chemical composition using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.62(18), 5375–5380 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res.66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleve. Clin. J. Med. (1)

A. Rim, M. Chellman-Jeffers, and A. Fanning, “Trends in breast cancer screening and diagnosis,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med.75(Suppl 1), S2–S9 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Šćepanović, M. Fitzmaurice, J. A. Gardecki, G. O. Angheloiu, S. Awasthi, J. T. Motz, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, “Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Dingari, I. Barman, J. W. Kang, C. R. Kong, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fitzmaurice, “Principles and pitfalls of diagnostic test development: implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 119–130 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. (1)

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Model-based biological Raman spectral imaging,” J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl.87(S39), 125–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc.33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Pathol. (1)

M. M. Grimes, L. S. Karageorge, and J. P. Hogge, “Does exhaustive search for microcalcifications improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic core needle breast biopsies?” Mod. Pathol.14(4), 350–353 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. Manoharan, K. Shafer, L. Perelman, J. Wu, K. Chen, G. Deinum, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Myles, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence photon migration for breast cancer diagnosis and imaging,” Photochem. Photobiol.67(1), 15–22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photomed. Laser Surg. (2)

R. Rocha, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, L. Silveira, A. Brugnera, M. S. Costa, and M. T. Pacheco, “Identification of calcifications in cardiac valves by near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(4), 287–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rocha, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, C. A. Pasqualucci, M. S. Costa, A. Brugnera, and M. T. Pacheco, “Use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for identification of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery,” Photomed. Laser Surg.25(6), 482–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (2)

E. S. Burnside, J. E. Ochsner, K. J. Fowler, J. P. Fine, L. R. Salkowski, D. L. Rubin, and G. A. Sisney, “Use of microcalcification descriptors in BI-RADS 4th edition to stratify risk of malignancy,” Radiology242(2), 388–395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jackman and J. Rodriguez-Soto, “Breast microcalcifications: retrieval failure at prone stereotactic core and vacuum breast biopsy--frequency, causes, and outcome,” Radiology239(1), 61–70 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectroscopy (1)

E. U. Otero, S. Sathaiah, L. Silviera, P. M. A. Pomerantzeff, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of calcification in human heart valves,” Spectroscopy18(1), 75–84 (2004).

Other (1)

Breast Cancer Statistics, http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics.jsp \

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Radiography and (b) histopathology of breast biopsy tissue site with type II microcalcifications. The microcalcifications are seen as small white densities (white arrow) in the specimen radiography in (a), and as blue concretions (red arrows) in the photomicrograph in (b) (H&E; 4X), which shows black ink (black arrows) marking the site interrogated spectroscopically.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical Raman spectra of (a) normal breast tissue and (b) breast lesion (fibrocystic change) with type II microcalcifications, with model fits and residuals. A prominent band at 960 cm-1 due to hydroxyapatite (arrow) is present in the Raman spectrum of the lesion with microcalcifications.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Box plots of the distribution of FC for total calcium for breast tissue sites classified by (a) radiographic appearance alone and (b) radiography plus histopathology (MC, microcalcifications).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Empirical Raman algorithm using decision threshold of FC total calcium = 11 for detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications, classified by (a) radiographic appearance alone and (b) radiography plus histopathology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logistic regression Raman algorithm distinguishing lesions with microcalcifications (red squares) from normals + lesions without microcalcifications (blue circles), classified by radiography plus histopathology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical Raman spectra and histopathology of breast lesions (fibrocystic change) with type I and II microcalcifications. The Raman spectrum of the breast lesion with type I microcalcifications in (a) shows prominent bands at 912 cm-1 and 1477 cm-1 (arrows) characteristic of calcium oxalate; the calcium oxalate crystals comprising the type I microcalcifications (b) do not bind H&E (left panel) and appear as colorless crystals (arrows) that are birefringent when viewed under polarized light (right panel). In contrast, the Raman spectrum of the breast lesion with type II microcalcifications in (c) shows a prominent band at 960 cm_1 (arrow) characteristic of calcium hydroxyapatite; the calcium hydroxyapatite rich type II microcalcifications appear as basophilic concretions on the H&E stain (d) and are non-birefringent.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Histopathology Diagnoses of Breast Tissue Sites classified by Radiography plus Histopathology

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Performance of Raman Algorithms for Detecting Breast Lesions with Microcalcifications, with Tissue Sites Classified using Radiography plus Histopathology

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S(w)= C i . P i (w)
0.2371+0.4755(F C CAO +F C CAH )0.0507F C Fat 0.0787F C Collagen =0

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