Abstract

The primary role of a red blood cell (RBC) is delivering oxygen throughout our body. Abnormalities of this basic function lead to anemia and are caused by numerous diseases such as malaria and sickle cell anemia. As prompt and inexpensive tests for blood screening are in demand, we have developed a faster and reliable way to measure morphological parameters associated with the structure of red blood cells and the size distribution of the cells in a whole blood smear. Modeling the RBC shape under Born approximation, we are able to determine parameters of clinical relevance, such as the diameter, thickness and dimple size. From a measured quantitative phase image of a blood smear, we can determine the average and standard deviation of the red blood cell volume simultaneously, i.e., without analyzing each cell individually. This approach may open the door for a new generation of label-free, high-throughput blood testing.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
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  7. M. Mir, Z. Wang, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction Phase Cytometry: blood on a CD-ROM,” Opt. Express17(4), 2579–2585 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. F. Ding and G. Popescu, “Instantaneous spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Express18(2), 1569–1575 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding and G. Popescu, “Instantaneous spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Express18(2), 1569–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Actin-driven cell dynamics probed by Fourier transform light scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 260–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Ding, H. F.

H. F. Ding and G. Popescu, “Instantaneous spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Express18(2), 1569–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Goda, K.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J. P.

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henle, M. L.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriabova, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laposata, M.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, A. J.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction Phase Cytometry: blood on a CD-ROM,” Opt. Express17(4), 2579–2585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Actin-driven cell dynamics probed by Fourier transform light scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 260–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding and G. Popescu, “Instantaneous spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Express18(2), 1569–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction Phase Cytometry: blood on a CD-ROM,” Opt. Express17(4), 2579–2585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reedy, J.

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tangella, K.

Wang, Z.

Yamauchi, T.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis.41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. Karlsson, J. P. He, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Numerical simulations of light scattering by red blood cells,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.52(1), 13–18 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Mir, H. Ding, Z. Wang, J. Reedy, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood screening using diffraction phase cytometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 027016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

B. J. Bain, A Beginner's Guide to Blood Cells (Blackwell Pub. Malden, Mass. 2004).

A. Wax and V. Backman, eds., Biomedical Applications of Light Scattering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010).

V. V. Tuchin and Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE/International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, 2007).

G. Popescu, ed., Nanobiophotonics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010).

K. Kaushansky and W. J. Williams, Williams Hematology (McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, 2011).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Plane wave illumination of a blood smear; ki and ks are the incident and scattered wave vectors. (b) The discocyte modeled by subtracting two Gaussian surfaces from the top and bottom of a cylinder. c) A flat top Gaussian describes deflated cells as described in Section. 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated quantitative phase image of an RBC model with the background added numerically. (b) Phase image obtained from the measurement. (c) Comparison between the angular scattering from the simulated phase image (a) and from the measured phase image (b). (d) Simulated phase image of an RBC model without introducing noise. (e) Quantitative phase image from the measurement, with the noise thresholded out. (f) Comparison between the angular scattering from (d) and (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) As the diameter increases, the peaks are compressing toward lower angle. The tips of some peaks were marked for visual aid. (b) As σ changes, the width and shape of the peak lobes change. As σ increases, the local minima tends to increase, and the width of the peak lobe either increases or decreases depending on the position.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Least square error plot (log scale). The lowest point indicates the best fit. The color bar indicates the relative error value (a. u.).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Quantitative phase image of an RBC smear. (b) Comparison of the angular scattering from the simulation with that of the measurement.

Equations (10)

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2 U( r,ω )+ n 2 ( r ) k 0 2 U( r,ω )=0,
2 U( r,ω )+ k 0 2 U( r,ω )= k 0 2 χ( r )U( r,ω ),
2 U( r,ω )+ k 0 2 U( r,ω )= k 0 2 A(ω)χ( r ) e i k 0 z ,
2 (ik)(ik)= k 2 , χ( r ) e i k 0 z χ ˜ ( k k i ).
U ˜ ( k,ω )= k 0 2 A(ω) k 2 k 0 2 χ ˜ ( k k i ).
χ( x,y,z ) dz= χ ˜ ( k x , k y ,0).
U ˜ ( k,ω )= k 0 2 A(ω) k 2 k 0 2 χ ˜ ( k x , k y , k 0 ).
U ˜ ( k x , k y ,z,ω )= e i k 0 z k 0 2 A(ω) e iq( k x , k y )z 2q( k x , k y ) χ ˜ ( k x , k y ),
χ ˜ ( k x , k y ,0)=( n 2 1 ) S ˜ ( k x , k y ,0),
S(x,y,z)={ 1,inside 0,outside .

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