Abstract

A portable, depth-sensitive clinical spectroscopy device for noninvasive early diagnosis of oral cancer is described. We carried out a pilot study to evaluate the ability of the device to identify oral neoplasia using a previously developed diagnostic algorithm. A total of 79 oral sites in 33 subjects, including 28 patients with oral lesions and 5 healthy volunteers, were measured and analyzed. Measurements of 54 nonkeratinized oral sites yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. Measurements of 25 keratinized oral sites yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. I. van der Waal, “Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 317–323 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. M. Speight, “Update on oral epithelial dysplasia and progression to cancer,” Head Neck Pathol. 1(1), 61–66 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (9)

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fedele, “Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 1(1), 5 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. van der Waal, “Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 317–323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Huff, P. C. Stark, and L. W. Solomon, “Sensitivity of direct tissue fluorescence visualization in screening for oral premalignant lesions in general practice,” Gen. Dent. 57(1), 34–38 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (9)

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905, quiz 993–994 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Ariyawardana and L. Ekanayake, “Screening for oral cancer/pre-cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists employed in the public sector dental services of Sri Lanka,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 9(4), 615–618 (2008).
[PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. M. Speight, “Update on oral epithelial dysplasia and progression to cancer,” Head Neck Pathol. 1(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applebaum, E.

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

Aravamudhan, K.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Arifler, D.

Ariyawardana, A.

A. Ariyawardana and L. Ekanayake, “Screening for oral cancer/pre-cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists employed in the public sector dental services of Sri Lanka,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 9(4), 615–618 (2008).
[PubMed]

Backman, V.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, R.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, C. S.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[PubMed]

Carpenter, W.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

Cleveland, J. L.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cohen, E. E. W.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daye, D.

de Veld, D. C. G.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhingra, J. K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Drury, T. F.

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

Duin, R. P. W.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekanayake, L.

A. Ariyawardana and L. Ekanayake, “Screening for oral cancer/pre-cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists employed in the public sector dental services of Sri Lanka,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 9(4), 615–618 (2008).
[PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwood, J. M.

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

Epstein, J.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Epstein, J. B.

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905, quiz 993–994 (2008).
[PubMed]

Evans, C. A.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fedele, S.

S. Fedele, “Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 1(1), 5 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Flaitz, C. M.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Frantsve-Hawley, J.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, G.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilhuly, T.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
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A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, H. S.

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

Gossage, K.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, F. J.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Grevers, G.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillone, G.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullane, P.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, C.

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

Heintzelman, D. L.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hislop, T. G.

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

Horowitz, A. M.

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

Huff, K.

K. Huff, P. C. Stark, and L. W. Solomon, “Sensitivity of direct tissue fluorescence visualization in screening for oral premalignant lesions in general practice,” Gen. Dent. 57(1), 34–38 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hujoel, P. P.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hussain, I. A.

Itzkan, I.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Jacob, R.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kalmar, J. R.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, C. W.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrison, T.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, B.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, A. R.

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905, quiz 993–994 (2008).
[PubMed]

Knight, B.

Koch, W. M.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kolli, V. R.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kronenberg, F. R.

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, P. M.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langdon, J. D.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laronde, D. M.

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefebvre, J. L.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leunig, A.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lingen, M. W.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C. E.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, V.

Majumder, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mardirossian, V.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markey, M. K.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mehlmann, M.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, D. M.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L. T.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oettmeier, B. W.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Papadimitrakopoulou, V.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patton, L. L.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905, quiz 993–994 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, D.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Perrault, D. F.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Peters, E. S.

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

Petersen, P. E.

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistey, R.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, C. F.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapidis, A. D.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebeiz, E. E.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Redden Weber, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, B. C.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rethman, M. P.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rick, K.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosin, M. P.

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruhlen, T. N.

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

Savage, H. E.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

Schantz, S. P.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciubba, J. J.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Scully, C.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J. P.

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Skurichina, M.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, L. W.

K. Huff, P. C. Stark, and L. W. Solomon, “Sensitivity of direct tissue fluorescence visualization in screening for oral premalignant lesions in general practice,” Gen. Dent. 57(1), 34–38 (2009).
[PubMed]

Speight, P. M.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Speight, “Update on oral epithelial dysplasia and progression to cancer,” Head Neck Pathol. 1(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, P. C.

K. Huff, P. C. Stark, and L. W. Solomon, “Sensitivity of direct tissue fluorescence visualization in screening for oral premalignant lesions in general practice,” Gen. Dent. 57(1), 34–38 (2009).
[PubMed]

Stepp, H.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomar, S. L.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Waal, I.

I. van der Waal, “Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 317–323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, C. R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, P.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. M.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J. H.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. D.

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yao, T. J.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

Yellowitz, J. A.

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuluaga, A.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1)

S. McGee, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, J. Mirkovic, R. Pistey, G. Gallagher, S. Kabani, C. C. Yu, Z. Wang, K. Badizadegan, G. Grillone, and M. S. Feld, “Anatomy-based algorithms for detecting oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 118(11), 817–826 (2009).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2)

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121(11), 1287–1292 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[PubMed]

Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. (1)

A. Ariyawardana and L. Ekanayake, “Screening for oral cancer/pre-cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists employed in the public sector dental services of Sri Lanka,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 9(4), 615–618 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cancer (2)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Biol. Ther. (1)

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Oncol. Rep. (1)

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8(2), 146–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gen. Dent. (1)

K. Huff, P. C. Stark, and L. W. Solomon, “Sensitivity of direct tissue fluorescence visualization in screening for oral premalignant lesions in general practice,” Gen. Dent. 57(1), 34–38 (2009).
[PubMed]

Head Neck Oncol (1)

S. Fedele, “Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 1(1), 5 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Neck Pathol. (1)

P. M. Speight, “Update on oral epithelial dysplasia and progression to cancer,” Head Neck Pathol. 1(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Dent. Assoc. (4)

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905, quiz 993–994 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Applebaum, T. N. Ruhlen, F. R. Kronenberg, C. Hayes, and E. S. Peters, “Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices: a survey of dentists and primary care physicians in Massachusetts,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 140(4), 461–467 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. P. Rethman, W. Carpenter, E. E. W. Cohen, J. Epstein, C. A. Evans, C. M. Flaitz, F. J. Graham, P. P. Hujoel, J. R. Kalmar, W. M. Koch, P. M. Lambert, M. W. Lingen, B. W. Oettmeier, L. L. Patton, D. Perkins, B. C. Reid, J. J. Sciubba, S. L. Tomar, A. D. Wyatt, K. Aravamudhan, J. Frantsve-Hawley, J. L. Cleveland, D. M. Meyer, and American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, “Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 141(5), 509–520 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. A. Yellowitz, A. M. Horowitz, T. F. Drury, and H. S. Goodman, “Survey of U.S. dentists’ knowledge and opinions about oral pharyngeal cancer,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131(5), 653–661 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McGee, J. Mirkovic, V. Mardirossian, A. Elackattu, C. C. Yu, S. Kabani, G. Gallagher, R. Pistey, L. Galindo, K. Badizadegan, Z. Wang, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and G. Grillone, “Model-based spectroscopic analysis of the oral cavity: impact of anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Can. Dent. Assoc. (1)

D. M. Laronde, T. G. Hislop, J. M. Elwood, and M. P. Rosin, “Oral cancer: just the facts,” J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 74(3), 269–272 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 85(2), 109–117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(4), 323–334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Oral Oncol. (6)

I. van der Waal, “Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 317–323 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Rapidis, P. Gullane, J. D. Langdon, J. L. Lefebvre, C. Scully, and J. P. Shah, “Major advances in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 299–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Petersen, “Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(1), 103–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. W. Stewart, and P. Kleihues, eds., World Cancer Report (IARC, 2003), Chap. 5.

S. F. Altekruse, C. L. Kosary, M. Krapcho, N. Neyman, R. Aminou, W. Waldron, J. Ruhl, N. Howlader, Z. Tatalovich, H. Cho, A. Mariotto, M. P. Eisner, D. R. Lewis, K. Cronin, H. S. Chen, E. J. Feuer, D. G. Stinchcomb, and B. K. Edwards, eds., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2007 (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/ , based on November 2009 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph and diagram of the portable depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average spectra of nonkeratinized oral sites. Nm: Normal. MiDy: Mild Dysplasia. MoSvDy: Moderate/Severe Dysplasia. Ca: Cancer. Number in parentheses indicates number of spectra represented in the average. Error bars, shown only for categories with >10 spectra, indicate standard error of the mean.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average spectra of keratinized oral sites. Nm: Normal. MiDy: Mild Dysplasia. MoSvDy: Moderate/Severe Dysplasia. Ca: Cancer. Number in parentheses indicates number of spectra represented in the average. Error bars, shown only for categories with >10 spectra, indicate standard error of the mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Receiver operating characteristic curves for (a) nonkeratinized sites and (b) keratinized sites. Arrow in (a) corresponds to a preestablished threshold; arrow in (b) corresponds to a retrospectively established threshold. Se: sensitivity. Sp: specificity. AUC: Area under curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average fluorescence spectra of normal oral sites, measured using the medium depth channel, in (a) nonkeratinized tissue and (b) keratinized tissue. All Nm: All normal sites. Nm in Pts: Normal sites in patients only. Nm in H Vols: Normal sites in healthy volunteers only. Number in parentheses indicates number of spectra represented in the average.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Number of Subjects, Sites, and Measurements

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Table 2 Clinical Impression vs. Histopathology for Sites in Patients

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Table 3 Diagnostic Performance of the Portable Spectroscopy Device a

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