Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently used as a clinical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancers. In order to optimize PDT treatment, vascular disruption early in treatment must be identified and prevented. We present blood flow responses to topical ALA-PDT in a preclinical model and basal cell carcinoma patients assessed by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). Our results show that ALA-PDT induced early blood flow changes and these changes were irradiance dependent. It is clear that there exists considerable variation in the blood flow responses in patients from lesion to lesion. Monitoring blood flow parameter may be useful for assessing ALA-PDT response and planning.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, D. Rohrbach, N. Rigual, E. Tracy, K. Keymel, M. T. Cooper, H. Baumann, and B. H. Henderson, “Monitoring photobleaching and hemodynamic responses to HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer: a case report,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14969–14978 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Ericson, A. M. Wennberg, and O. Larkö, “Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma,” Ther Clin Risk Manag 4(1), 1–9 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Cottrell, A. Oseroff, and T. H. Foster, “Portable instrument that integrates irradiation with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopies during clinical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous disease,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, and C. Abels, “Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid induces distinct microcirculatory effects following systemic or topical application,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 452–458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol. 200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Moore and E. Allan, “Pulsed ultrasound measurements of depth and regression of basal cell carcinomas after photodynamic therapy: relationship to probability of 1-year local control,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(5), 1035–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kalka, H. Merk, and H. Mukhtar, “Photodynamic therapy in dermatology,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42(3), 389–413, quiz 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. van der Veen, K. M. Hebeda, H. S. de Bruijn, and W. M. Star, “Photodynamic effectiveness and vasoconstriction in hairless mouse skin after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and single- or two-fold illumination,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(6), 921–929 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Herman, D. Fromm, and D. Kessel, “Tumor blood-flow changes following protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy in mice and humans,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

I. Georgakoudi and T. H. Foster, “Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(6), 612–625 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. Leveckis, N. J. Brown, and M. W. Reed, “The effect of aminolaevulinic acid-induced, protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic therapy on the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo,” Br. J. Cancer 72(5), 1113–1119 (1995).
[PubMed]

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gisler, H. Rüger, S. U. Egelhaaf, J. Tschumi, P. Schurtenberger, and J. Rička, “Mode-selective dynamic light scattering: theory versus experimental realization,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3546–3553 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

B. W. Henderson and T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55(1), 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6(1-2), 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, and M. I. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with application to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29(12), 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abels, C.

V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, and C. Abels, “Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid induces distinct microcirculatory effects following systemic or topical application,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 452–458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

af Klinteberg, C.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, E.

J. V. Moore and E. Allan, “Pulsed ultrasound measurements of depth and regression of basal cell carcinomas after photodynamic therapy: relationship to probability of 1-year local control,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(5), 1035–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, T.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, H.

Bedwell, J.

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bellnier, D. A.

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendsoe, N.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
[PubMed]

Braathen, L. R.

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

Brown, N. J.

J. Leveckis, N. J. Brown, and M. W. Reed, “The effect of aminolaevulinic acid-induced, protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic therapy on the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo,” Br. J. Cancer 72(5), 1113–1119 (1995).
[PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, C. W.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol. 200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, M. T.

Cottrell, W. J.

W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Cottrell, A. Oseroff, and T. H. Foster, “Portable instrument that integrates irradiation with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopies during clinical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous disease,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruijn, H. S.

N. van der Veen, K. M. Hebeda, H. S. de Bruijn, and W. M. Star, “Photodynamic effectiveness and vasoconstriction in hairless mouse skin after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and single- or two-fold illumination,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(6), 921–929 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T. J.

B. W. Henderson and T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55(1), 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egelhaaf, S. U.

Enejder, A. M. K.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, M. B.

M. B. Ericson, A. M. Wennberg, and O. Larkö, “Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma,” Ther Clin Risk Manag 4(1), 1–9 (2008).
[PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foss, A. J.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol. 200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Cottrell, A. Oseroff, and T. H. Foster, “Portable instrument that integrates irradiation with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopies during clinical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous disease,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi and T. H. Foster, “Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(6), 612–625 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fromm, D.

M. A. Herman, D. Fromm, and D. Kessel, “Tumor blood-flow changes following protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy in mice and humans,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi and T. H. Foster, “Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(6), 612–625 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ghadyani, H.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

Glatstein, E.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, J. D.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gush, R. J.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, and M. I. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with application to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29(12), 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebeda, K. M.

N. van der Veen, K. M. Hebeda, H. S. de Bruijn, and W. M. Star, “Photodynamic effectiveness and vasoconstriction in hairless mouse skin after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and single- or two-fold illumination,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(6), 921–929 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B. H.

Henderson, B. W.

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Henderson and T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55(1), 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, M. A.

M. A. Herman, D. Fromm, and D. Kessel, “Tumor blood-flow changes following protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy in mice and humans,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jayson, M. I.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, and M. I. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with application to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29(12), 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jermyn, M.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
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Johansson, J.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. G.

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalka, K.

K. Kalka, H. Merk, and H. Mukhtar, “Photodynamic therapy in dermatology,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42(3), 389–413, quiz 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, J. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6(1-2), 143–148 (1990).
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Kerley-Hamilton, J. S.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessel, D.

M. A. Herman, D. Fromm, and D. Kessel, “Tumor blood-flow changes following protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy in mice and humans,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keymel, K.

Keymel, K. R.

W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killander, D.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimel, S.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, and M. I. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with application to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29(12), 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larkö, O.

M. B. Ericson, A. M. Wennberg, and O. Larkö, “Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma,” Ther Clin Risk Manag 4(1), 1–9 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lee, W. M. F.

Leveckis, J.

J. Leveckis, N. J. Brown, and M. W. Reed, “The effect of aminolaevulinic acid-induced, protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic therapy on the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo,” Br. J. Cancer 72(5), 1113–1119 (1995).
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Loevner, L.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, J.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol. 200(3), 308–313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKie, R. M.

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

MacRobert, A. J.

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
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Major, A.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Makonnen, S.

Malkowicz, S. B.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maytin, E. V.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
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McColl, J. H.

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mee, S.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, R.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merk, H.

K. Kalka, H. Merk, and H. Mukhtar, “Photodynamic therapy in dermatology,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42(3), 389–413, quiz 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. V.

J. V. Moore and E. Allan, “Pulsed ultrasound measurements of depth and regression of basal cell carcinomas after photodynamic therapy: relationship to probability of 1-year local control,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(5), 1035–1040 (2003).
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C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

Morton, C. A.

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mukhtar, H.

K. Kalka, H. Merk, and H. Mukhtar, “Photodynamic therapy in dermatology,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42(3), 389–413, quiz 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, G. E.

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
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Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. A.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
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Oseroff, A.

W. J. Cottrell, A. Oseroff, and T. H. Foster, “Portable instrument that integrates irradiation with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopies during clinical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous disease,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064302 (2006).
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Oseroff, A. R.

W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paliwal, A.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
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W. J. Cottrell, A. D. Paquette, K. R. Keymel, T. H. Foster, and A. R. Oseroff, “Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(14), 4475–4483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
[PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
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J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6(1-2), 143–148 (1990).
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Pross, D. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6(1-2), 143–148 (1990).
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Putt, M. E.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quon, H.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, M. W.

J. Leveckis, N. J. Brown, and M. W. Reed, “The effect of aminolaevulinic acid-induced, protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic therapy on the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo,” Br. J. Cancer 72(5), 1113–1119 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ricka, J.

Rigual, N.

Rohrbach, D.

Rüger, H.

Saunders, H. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schacht, V.

V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, and C. Abels, “Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid induces distinct microcirculatory effects following systemic or topical application,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 452–458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurtenberger, P.

Sehgal, C. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shworak, N. W.

J. D. Gruber, A. Paliwal, V. Krishnaswamy, H. Ghadyani, M. Jermyn, J. A. O’Hara, S. C. Davis, J. S. Kerley-Hamilton, N. W. Shworak, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “System development for high frequency ultrasound-guided fluorescence quantification of skin layers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidoroff, A.

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

Smithies, D. J.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. M.

A. Major, S. Kimel, S. Mee, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, S. M. Srinivas, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Microvascular photodynamic effects determined in vivo using optical doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

N. van der Veen, K. M. Hebeda, H. S. de Bruijn, and W. M. Star, “Photodynamic effectiveness and vasoconstriction in hairless mouse skin after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and single- or two-fold illumination,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(6), 921–929 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenram, U.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, A.

C. W. Chin, A. J. Foss, A. Stevens, and J. Lowe, “Differences in the vascular patterns of basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas explain their differences in clinical behaviour,” J. Pathol. 200(3), 308–313 (2003).
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Sunar, U.

Svanberg, K.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szeimies, R. M.

V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, and C. Abels, “Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid induces distinct microcirculatory effects following systemic or topical application,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 452–458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, E.

Tromberg, B. J.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschumi, J.

van der Veen, N.

N. van der Veen, K. M. Hebeda, H. S. de Bruijn, and W. M. Star, “Photodynamic effectiveness and vasoconstriction in hairless mouse skin after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and single- or two-fold illumination,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(6), 921–929 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leengoed, H.

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, L.

B. W. Henderson, L. Vaughan, D. A. Bellnier, H. van Leengoed, P. G. Johnson, and A. R. Oseroff, “Photosensitization of murine tumor, vasculature and skin by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62(4), 780–789 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. K.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wårdell, K.

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wennberg, A. M.

M. B. Ericson, A. M. Wennberg, and O. Larkö, “Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma,” Ther Clin Risk Manag 4(1), 1–9 (2008).
[PubMed]

Whitehurst, C.

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wileyto, E. P.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, X.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. F. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15507–15516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

T. M. Busch, X. Xing, G. Yu, A. Yodh, E. P. Wileyto, H. W. Wang, T. Durduran, T. C. Zhu, and K. K. Wang, “Fluence rate-dependent intratumor heterogeneity in physiologic and cytotoxic responses to Photofrin photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8(12), 1683–1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Derm. Venereol.

A. M. K. Enejder, C. af Klinteberg, I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, S. Svanberg, and K. Svanberg, “Blood perfusion studies on basal cell carcinomas in conjunction with photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy employing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(1), 19–23 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Szeimies, C. A. Morton, A. Sidoroff, and L. R. Braathen, “Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 85(6), 483–490 (2005).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Dermatol.

C. A. Morton, C. Whitehurst, J. H. McColl, J. V. Moore, and R. M. MacKie, “Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(3), 319–324 (2001).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

J. Leveckis, N. J. Brown, and M. W. Reed, “The effect of aminolaevulinic acid-induced, protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic therapy on the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo,” Br. J. Cancer 72(5), 1113–1119 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Bedwell, A. J. MacRobert, D. Phillips, and S. G. Bown, “Fluorescence distribution and photodynamic effect of ALA-induced PP IX in the DMH rat colonic tumour model,” Br. J. Cancer 65(6), 818–824 (1992).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol.

I. Wang, S. Andersson-Engels, G. E. Nilsson, K. Wårdell, and K. Svanberg, “Superficial blood flow following photodynamic therapy of malignant non-melanoma skin tumours measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging,” Br. J. Dermatol. 136(2), 184–189 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, and S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical delta-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130(6), 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Moore and E. Allan, “Pulsed ultrasound measurements of depth and regression of basal cell carcinomas after photodynamic therapy: relationship to probability of 1-year local control,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(5), 1035–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic diagram of the instrument and noncontact and contact probes. The DCS setup consists of 785 nm laser, single photon counting detector (SPCD), correlator (Corr), and laptop (PC). Laser light is split in two; one for contact probe, and another for noncontact probe. In the probe tip, the larger red dot at the center represents source fiber, and other three black dots represent detector fibers. The separations between source and detector fibers were 3mm. The open circle is the source position. Lens setup for noncontact probe is also shown with f1 = 60mm, f2 = 40mm. Filter was 785/10 nm band-pass. b) Picture of the noncontact probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Schematic diagram of the noncontact probe in the clinical instrument. Source and detector fibers were collimated with source-detector separations of 2 mm and 3 mm. 700nm long-pass (700LP) filters were installed into detection channels to remove treatment light. b) Particle diffusion coefficient (DB ) of Intralipid obtained with a contact and a collimated probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Relative blood flow changes in mice during ALA-PDT with different irradiances. b) Relative blood flow changes for light-only controls.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative blood flow changes during clinical ALA-PDT of a) sBCC and b) nBCC lesions. Shaded area represents 40mW/cm2, otherwise 150mW/cm2.

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