Abstract

In this study we use our previously introduced scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) / transverse scanning optical coherence tomography (TS-OCT) instrument to investigate long term changes in cone photoreceptors. The instrument is capable to provide 3D information of the human cone photoreceptors with negligible eye motion artifacts due to an implemented 3D motion correction on a cellular level. This allows for an in vivo investigation of exactly the same location on the retina with cellular resolution over several days. Temporal changes in the backscattered intensity are observed and quantified within the junction between inner and outer segments of cone photoreceptors, the cone outer segments, the end tips of cone photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. Furthermore, the length of individual cone outer segments is measured and observed over time. We show, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that bright reflection spots which are located within the outer segment of cone photoreceptors change their position when observed over extended time periods. The average measured bright reflection spot motion speed corresponds well to the expected cone growth speed. We believe that this observation can be associated with the first direct in vivo imaging of the cone renewal process.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  5. M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high-speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 22–24 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1821–1823 (2006).
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  10. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. W. Young, “The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments,” J. Cell Biol. 33(1), 61–72 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  24. D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. W. Young, “The daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of rod and cone outer segment membranes in the chick retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 105–116 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  27. R. W. Young, “Daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of cone outer segment membranes in lizard retina,” J. Ultrastructure Res. 61, 172–185 (1977).
  28. W. T. O’Day and R. W. Young, “Rhythmic daily shedding of outer-segment membranes by visual cells in the goldfish,” J. Cell Biol. 76(3), 593–604 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2003

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

1999

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

R. W. Young, “The daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of rod and cone outer segment membranes in the chick retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 105–116 (1978).
[PubMed]

W. T. O’Day and R. W. Young, “Rhythmic daily shedding of outer-segment membranes by visual cells in the goldfish,” J. Cell Biol. 76(3), 593–604 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977

R. W. Young, “Daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of cone outer segment membranes in lizard retina,” J. Ultrastructure Res. 61, 172–185 (1977).

1969

R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

R. W. Young, “The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments,” J. Cell Biol. 33(1), 61–72 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Anderson, D. H.

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
[PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Baylor, D. A.

J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Besecker, J. R.

Bok, D.

R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Brown, J. M.

Cable, A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chen, Y. L.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derby, J. C.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Erickson, P. A.

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. W.

Fisher, S. K.

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W. H.

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Guérin, C. J.

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Hofer, H.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, J.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kevany, B. M.

B. M. Kevany and K. Palczewski, “Phagocytosis of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors,” Physiology (Bethesda) 25(1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koperda, E.

Kraft, T. W.

J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lewis, G. P.

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

Liang, J. Z.

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Day, W. T.

W. T. O’Day and R. W. Young, “Rhythmic daily shedding of outer-segment membranes by visual cells in the goldfish,” J. Cell Biol. 76(3), 593–604 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

Palczewski, K.

B. M. Kevany and K. Palczewski, “Phagocytosis of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors,” Physiology (Bethesda) 25(1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

Queener, H.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Ruttimann, U. E.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schnapf, J. L.

J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Steinberg, R. H.

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
[PubMed]

Tabor, G. A.

G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thévenaz, P.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torti, C.

Unser, M.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Wang, Q.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, R. W.

R. W. Young, “The daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of rod and cone outer segment membranes in the chick retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 105–116 (1978).
[PubMed]

W. T. O’Day and R. W. Young, “Rhythmic daily shedding of outer-segment membranes by visual cells in the goldfish,” J. Cell Biol. 76(3), 593–604 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young, “Daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of cone outer segment membranes in lizard retina,” J. Ultrastructure Res. 61, 172–185 (1977).

R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young, “The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments,” J. Cell Biol. 33(1), 61–72 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M. T.

Exp. Eye Res.

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Tabor, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Rod and cone disc shedding in light-entrained tree squirrels,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 545–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, and R. H. Steinberg, “Mammalian cones: disc shedding, phagocytosis, and renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 117–133 (1978).
[PubMed]

R. W. Young, “The daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of rod and cone outer segment membranes in the chick retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 105–116 (1978).
[PubMed]

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).
[PubMed]

J. Cell Biol.

W. T. O’Day and R. W. Young, “Rhythmic daily shedding of outer-segment membranes by visual cells in the goldfish,” J. Cell Biol. 76(3), 593–604 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young, “The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments,” J. Cell Biol. 33(1), 61–72 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Ultrastructure Res.

R. W. Young, “Daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of cone outer segment membranes in lizard retina,” J. Ultrastructure Res. 61, 172–185 (1977).

Nature

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, T. W. Kraft, and D. A. Baylor, “Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors,” Nature 325(6103), 439–441 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous SLO/OCT imaging of the human retina with axial eye motion correction,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16922–16932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. H. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vivo investigation of human cone photoreceptors with SLO/OCT in combination with 3D motion correction on a cellular level,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13935–13944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Physiology (Bethesda)

B. M. Kevany and K. Palczewski, “Phagocytosis of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors,” Physiology (Bethesda) 25(1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (7)

» Media 1: AVI (3108 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1028 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2389 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (4683 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (2194 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (644 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (644 KB)     

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First frame of a movie (Media 1) showing intensity fluctuations in depth integrated OCT (left) and SLO (right) images of cone photoreceptors within 7 hours (image extension: ~0.94°x0.7°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Over the entire measurement period (7 hours) averaged depth integrated OCT and SLO images of cone photoreceptors demonstrating the excellent performance of the motion correction algorithm. (Image extension: ~0.94°x0.7°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frame 1 of a movie (Media 2) showing a representative B-scan over the entire measurement period (7 hours). Image extension: ~0.94°x120µm, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frame 1 of a movie (Media 3) showing intensity fluctuations at different retinal layers within the measurement period (7 hours). Top left: IS/OS. Top right: OS. Bottom left: ETPR. Bottom right: RPE. Image extension: ~0.94°x0.7°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Locations of the detected cones (marked with red dots).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A) Relative intensity changes with time of 5 randomly selected cones. B) Change in the measured length of cone outer segments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frame 1 of a movie (Media 4) showing outer segment lengths within the measurement period (7 hours). Image extension: ~0.94°×0.7°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea (color scale is in µm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A) Distribution of cone outer segment lengths for each hour (corresponding to different colors). B) Distribution of standard deviations calculated over the whole measurement period.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A) Distribution of backscattered intensity of individual cones (colors correspond to different measurement times). B) Relative intensity variation (normalized by the average intensity retrieved from each layer) over time of cones for individual retinal layers (black depth integrated intensity, red IS/OS junction, green OS, blue ETPR, yellow RPE).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

First frame of a movie (Media 5) showing intensity fluctuations in depth integrated OCT (left) and SLO (right) images of cone photoreceptors within 96 hours (image extension: ~0.88°x0.75°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Over an extended measurement period (96 hours) averaged depth integrated OCT images of cone photoreceptors (A) and corresponding cone locations (B) (Image extension: ~0.88°x0.75°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Frame 1 of a movie (Media 6) showing a representative B-scan over the entire measurement period (96 hours). Image extension: ~0.88°x120µm, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Frame 4 of a movie (Media 7) showing a representative B-scan over the entire measurement period (96 hours) containing a BRS that appears at 48hours. The BRS is marked with a circle. Image extension: ~0.88°x120µm2, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

A) Distribution of cone outer segment lengths for each day (corresponding to different colors). B) Distribution of standard deviations calculated over the whole measurement period.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Change in depth position (distance IS/OS to BRS) of all BRS that showed motion in at least 3 frames of the 96 hours measurement series of volunteer 1. The different colors correspond to different BRS.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

A) Distribution of backscattered intensity of individual cones (colors correspond to different measurement times). B) Relative intensity variation (normalized by the average intensity retrieved from each layer) over time of cones for individual retinal layers (black depth integrated intensity, red IS/OS junction, green OS, blue ETPR, yellow RPE).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

En-face image of the RPE, averaged over the measurement period of 7 hours (depth integrated 12µm around the peak of the RPE position) OCT images. (Image extension: ~0.94°x0.7°, retinal eccentricity: ~4° nasal from the fovea)

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