Abstract

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is related to the development of neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroinflammation has been implicated as one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Despite its importance, the impacts and underlying cellular mechanisms of chronic BBB impairment in neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. In this work, we performed a longitudinal intravital brain imaging of mouse model with neuroinflammation induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). For this, we obtained a transgenic LysM-GFP mouse expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) in a subset of leukocytes. By using intravenously injected fluorescence blood tracers, we longitudinally observed in vivo dynamic cellular behaviors and the BBB integrity through a 30-day neuroinflammatory state. Vascular leakages in the cerebral cortex reflecting BBB impairment were observed at two weeks, which persisted to the third week, followed by a severe inflammatory response with massive leukocytes infiltration at day 30. These descriptions can help in the development of novel approaches to treat neurodegenerative conditions.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  40. E. Pietronigro, E. Zenaro, and G. Constantin, “Imaging of Leukocyte Trafficking in Alzheimer's Disease,” Front. Immunol. 7, 33 (2016).
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  41. S. Ono, G. Egawa, and K. Kabashima, “Regulation of blood vascular permeability in the skin,” Inflammation Regener. 37(1), 11 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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2019 (3)

J. Ahn, E. Kong, K. Choe, E. Song, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, I. Park, and P. Kim, “In vivo longitudinal depth-wise visualization of tumorigenesis by needle-shaped side-view confocal endomicroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(6), 2719–2729 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Park, M. Kim, K. Choe, E. Song, H. Seo, Y. Hwang, J. Ahn, S. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Jo, K. Kim, G. Y. Koh, and P. Kim, “Neutrophils disturb pulmonary microcirculation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury,” Eur. Respir. J. 53(3), 1800786 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Chaney, S. R. Williams, and H. Boutin, “In vivo molecular imaging of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” J. Neurochem. 149(4), 438–451 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

J. Lagarde, M. Sarazin, and M. Bottlaender, “In vivo PET imaging of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” J. Neural Transm. 125(5), 847–867 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Park, K. Choe, H. Seo, Y. Hwang, E. Song, J. Ahn, Y. Hwan Jo, and P. Kim, “Intravital imaging of a pulmonary endothelial surface layer in a murine sepsis model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2383–2393 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and J. Yao, “Photoacoustic microscopy: principles and biomedical applications,” Open Biomed. Eng. Lett. 8(2), 203–213 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and Z. Chen, “Multimodal Intravascular Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging,” Open Biomed. Eng. Lett. 8(2), 193–201 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

S. Ahn, K. Choe, S. Lee, K. Kim, E. Song, H. Seo, I. Kim, and P. Kim, “Intravital longitudinal wide-area imaging of dynamic bone marrow engraftment and multilineage differentiation through nuclear-cytoplasmic labeling,” PLoS One 12(11), e0187660 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. The Lancet, “Vascular disease and neurodegeneration: advancing together,” Lancet Neurol. 16(5), 333 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ogura, K. Kurata, Y. Hattori, H. Takase, T. Ishiguro-Oonuma, Y. Hwang, S. Ahn, I. Park, W. Ikeda, S. Kusuhara, Y. Fukushima, H. Nara, H. Sakai, T. Fujiwara, J. Matsushita, M. Ema, M. Hirashima, T. Minami, M. Shibuya, N. Takakura, P. Kim, T. Miyata, Y. Ogura, and A. Uemura, “Sustained inflammation after pericyte depletion induces irreversible blood-retina barrier breakdown,” JCI Insight 2(3), e90905 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ono, G. Egawa, and K. Kabashima, “Regulation of blood vascular permeability in the skin,” Inflammation Regener. 37(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Varatharaj and I. Galea, “The blood-brain barrier in systemic inflammation,” Brain, Behav., Immun. 60, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

E. Pietronigro, E. Zenaro, and G. Constantin, “Imaging of Leukocyte Trafficking in Alzheimer's Disease,” Front. Immunol. 7, 33 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. R. Nelson, M. D. Sweeney, A. P. Sagare, and B. V. Zlokovic, “Neurovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration in dementia and Alzheimer's disease,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Mol. Basis Dis. 1862(5), 887–900 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

E. Zenaro, E. Pietronigro, V. Della Bianca, G. Piacentino, L. Marongiu, S. Budui, E. Turano, B. Rossi, S. Angiari, S. Dusi, A. Montresor, T. Carlucci, S. Nani, G. Tosadori, L. Calciano, D. Catalucci, G. Berton, B. Bonetti, and G. Constantin, “Neutrophils promote Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline via LFA-1 integrin,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 880–886 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. T. Heneka, M. J. Carson, J. El Khoury, G. E. Landreth, F. Brosseron, D. L. Feinstein, A. H. Jacobs, T. Wyss-Coray, J. Vitorica, R. M. Ransohoff, K. Herrup, S. A. Frautschy, B. Finsen, G. C. Brown, A. Verkhratsky, K. Yamanaka, J. Koistinaho, E. Latz, A. Halle, G. C. Petzold, T. Town, D. Morgan, M. L. Shinohara, V. H. Perry, C. Holmes, N. G. Bazan, D. J. Brooks, S. Hunot, B. Joseph, N. Deigendesch, O. Garaschuk, E. Boddeke, C. A. Dinarello, J. C. Breitner, G. M. Cole, D. T. Golenbock, and M. P. Kummer, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurol. 14(4), 388–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Sankowski, S. Mader, and S. I. Valdes-Ferrer, “Systemic inflammation and the brain: novel roles of genetic, molecular, and environmental cues as drivers of neurodegeneration,” Front. Cell. Neurosci. 9, 28 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Choe, J. Y. Jang, I. Park, Y. Kim, S. Ahn, D. Y. Park, Y. K. Hong, K. Alitalo, G. Y. Koh, and P. Kim, “Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility,” J. Clin. Invest. 125(11), 4042–4052 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo quantitation of injected circulating tumor cells from great saphenous vein based on video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2158–2167 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Claesson-Welsh, “Vascular permeability–the essentials,” Upsala J. Med. Sci. 120(3), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Russi and M. A. Brown, “The meninges: new therapeutic targets for multiple sclerosis,” Transl. Res. 165(2), 255–269 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. T. Heneka, M. P. Kummer, and E. Latz, “Innate immune activation in neurodegenerative disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(7), 463–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. J. Webster, A. D. Bachstetter, and L. J. Van Eldik, “Comprehensive behavioral characterization of an APP/PS-1 double knock-in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” Alzheimer's Res. Ther. 5(3), 28 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(03), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Laperchia, A. L. Allegra Mascaro, L. Sacconi, A. Andrioli, A. Matte, L. De Franceschi, G. Grassi-Zucconi, M. Bentivoglio, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Two-photon microscopy imaging of thy1GFP-M transgenic mice: a novel animal model to investigate brain dendritic cell subsets in vivo,” PLoS One 8(2), e56144 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. Krstic, A. Madhusudan, J. Doehner, P. Vogel, T. Notter, C. Imhof, A. Manalastas, M. Hilfiker, S. Pfister, C. Schwerdel, C. Riether, U. Meyer, and I. Knuesel, “Systemic immune challenges trigger and drive Alzheimer-like neuropathology in mice,” J. Neuroinflammation 9(1), 699 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Schneider, A. N. Mohebiany, I. Ifergan, D. Beauseigle, P. Duquette, A. Prat, and N. Arbour, “B cell-derived IL-15 enhances CD8 T cell cytotoxicity and is increased in multiple sclerosis patients,” J. Immunol. 187(8), 4119–4128 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. V. Zlokovic, “Neurovascular pathways to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and other disorders,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12(12), 723–738 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. K. Glass, K. Saijo, B. Winner, M. C. Marchetto, and F. H. Gage, “Mechanisms underlying inflammation in neurodegeneration,” Cell 140(6), 918–934 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, F. Pan, C. N. Parkhurst, J. Grutzendler, and W. B. Gan, “Thinned-skull cranial window technique for long-term imaging of the cortex in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 5(2), 201–208 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Holtmaat, T. Bonhoeffer, D. K. Chow, J. Chuckowree, V. De Paola, S. B. Hofer, M. Hubener, T. Keck, G. Knott, W. C. Lee, R. Mostany, T. D. Mrsic-Flogel, E. Nedivi, C. Portera-Cailliau, K. Svoboda, J. T. Trachtenberg, and L. Wilbrecht, “Long-term, high-resolution imaging in the mouse neocortex through a chronic cranial window,” Nat. Protoc. 4(8), 1128–1144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, K. Maslov, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054049 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kumar and A. Kumar, “Effect of lycopene and epigallocatechin-3-gallate against 3-nitropropionic acid induced cognitive dysfunction and glutathione depletion in rat: a novel nitric oxide mechanism,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(10), 2522–2530 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. W. Lee, Y. K. Lee, D. Y. Yuk, D. Y. Choi, S. B. Ban, K. W. Oh, and J. T. Hong, “Neuro-inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide causes cognitive impairment through enhancement of beta-amyloid generation,” J. Neuroinflammation 5(1), 37 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. V. Zlokovic, “The blood-brain barrier in health and chronic neurodegenerative disorders,” Neuron 57(2), 178–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Akashiba, Y. Ikegaya, N. Nishiyama, and N. Matsuki, “Differential involvement of cell cycle reactivation between striatal and cortical neurons in cell death induced by 3-nitropropionic acid,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(10), 6594–6606 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Ramaswamy, J. L. McBride, and J. H. Kordower, “Animal models of Huntington's disease,” ILAR J. 48(4), 356–373 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Oakley, S. L. Cole, S. Logan, E. Maus, P. Shao, J. Craft, A. Guillozet-Bongaarts, M. Ohno, J. Disterhoft, L. Van Eldik, R. Berry, and R. Vassar, “Intraneuronal beta-amyloid aggregates, neurodegeneration, and neuron loss in transgenic mice with five familial Alzheimer's disease mutations: potential factors in amyloid plaque formation,” J. Neurosci. 26(40), 10129–10140 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. M. Fleming, J. Salcedo, P. O. Fernagut, E. Rockenstein, E. Masliah, M. S. Levine, and M. F. Chesselet, “Early and progressive sensorimotor anomalies in mice overexpressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein,” J. Neurosci. 24(42), 9434–9440 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. T. Lee and C. Chang, “Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in assessing 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain lesions: an animal model of Huntington's disease,” Prog. Neurobiol. 72(2), 87–110 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. A. Muller, “Leukocyte-endothelial-cell interactions in leukocyte transmigration and the inflammatory response,” Trends Immunol. 24(6), 326–333 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. O. Fernagut, E. Diguet, N. Stefanova, M. Biran, G. K. Wenning, P. Canioni, B. Bioulac, and F. Tison, “Subacute systemic 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication induces a distinct motor disorder in adult C57Bl/6 mice: behavioural and histopathological characterisation,” Neuroscience 114(4), 1005–1017 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Faust, F. Varas, L. M. Kelly, S. Heck, and T. Graf, “Insertion of enhanced green fluorescent protein into the lysozyme gene creates mice with green fluorescent granulocytes and macrophages,” Blood 96(2), 719–726 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. J. Miller and L. Zaborszky, “3-Nitropropionic acid neurotoxicity: visualization by silver staining and implications for use as an animal model of Huntington's disease,” Exp. Neurol. 146(1), 212–229 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. F. Beal, E. Brouillet, B. G. Jenkins, R. J. Ferrante, N. W. Kowall, J. M. Miller, E. Storey, R. Srivastava, B. R. Rosen, and B. T. Hyman, “Neurochemical and histologic characterization of striatal excitotoxic lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid,” J. Neurosci. 13(10), 4181–4192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, K. Choe, S. Lee, K. Kim, E. Song, H. Seo, I. Kim, and P. Kim, “Intravital longitudinal wide-area imaging of dynamic bone marrow engraftment and multilineage differentiation through nuclear-cytoplasmic labeling,” PLoS One 12(11), e0187660 (2017).
[Crossref]

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E. Zenaro, E. Pietronigro, V. Della Bianca, G. Piacentino, L. Marongiu, S. Budui, E. Turano, B. Rossi, S. Angiari, S. Dusi, A. Montresor, T. Carlucci, S. Nani, G. Tosadori, L. Calciano, D. Catalucci, G. Berton, B. Bonetti, and G. Constantin, “Neutrophils promote Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline via LFA-1 integrin,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 880–886 (2015).
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M. T. Heneka, M. J. Carson, J. El Khoury, G. E. Landreth, F. Brosseron, D. L. Feinstein, A. H. Jacobs, T. Wyss-Coray, J. Vitorica, R. M. Ransohoff, K. Herrup, S. A. Frautschy, B. Finsen, G. C. Brown, A. Verkhratsky, K. Yamanaka, J. Koistinaho, E. Latz, A. Halle, G. C. Petzold, T. Town, D. Morgan, M. L. Shinohara, V. H. Perry, C. Holmes, N. G. Bazan, D. J. Brooks, S. Hunot, B. Joseph, N. Deigendesch, O. Garaschuk, E. Boddeke, C. A. Dinarello, J. C. Breitner, G. M. Cole, D. T. Golenbock, and M. P. Kummer, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurol. 14(4), 388–405 (2015).
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M. T. Heneka, M. J. Carson, J. El Khoury, G. E. Landreth, F. Brosseron, D. L. Feinstein, A. H. Jacobs, T. Wyss-Coray, J. Vitorica, R. M. Ransohoff, K. Herrup, S. A. Frautschy, B. Finsen, G. C. Brown, A. Verkhratsky, K. Yamanaka, J. Koistinaho, E. Latz, A. Halle, G. C. Petzold, T. Town, D. Morgan, M. L. Shinohara, V. H. Perry, C. Holmes, N. G. Bazan, D. J. Brooks, S. Hunot, B. Joseph, N. Deigendesch, O. Garaschuk, E. Boddeke, C. A. Dinarello, J. C. Breitner, G. M. Cole, D. T. Golenbock, and M. P. Kummer, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurol. 14(4), 388–405 (2015).
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M. T. Heneka, M. J. Carson, J. El Khoury, G. E. Landreth, F. Brosseron, D. L. Feinstein, A. H. Jacobs, T. Wyss-Coray, J. Vitorica, R. M. Ransohoff, K. Herrup, S. A. Frautschy, B. Finsen, G. C. Brown, A. Verkhratsky, K. Yamanaka, J. Koistinaho, E. Latz, A. Halle, G. C. Petzold, T. Town, D. Morgan, M. L. Shinohara, V. H. Perry, C. Holmes, N. G. Bazan, D. J. Brooks, S. Hunot, B. Joseph, N. Deigendesch, O. Garaschuk, E. Boddeke, C. A. Dinarello, J. C. Breitner, G. M. Cole, D. T. Golenbock, and M. P. Kummer, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurol. 14(4), 388–405 (2015).
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M. T. Heneka, M. J. Carson, J. El Khoury, G. E. Landreth, F. Brosseron, D. L. Feinstein, A. H. Jacobs, T. Wyss-Coray, J. Vitorica, R. M. Ransohoff, K. Herrup, S. A. Frautschy, B. Finsen, G. C. Brown, A. Verkhratsky, K. Yamanaka, J. Koistinaho, E. Latz, A. Halle, G. C. Petzold, T. Town, D. Morgan, M. L. Shinohara, V. H. Perry, C. Holmes, N. G. Bazan, D. J. Brooks, S. Hunot, B. Joseph, N. Deigendesch, O. Garaschuk, E. Boddeke, C. A. Dinarello, J. C. Breitner, G. M. Cole, D. T. Golenbock, and M. P. Kummer, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurol. 14(4), 388–405 (2015).
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H. Oakley, S. L. Cole, S. Logan, E. Maus, P. Shao, J. Craft, A. Guillozet-Bongaarts, M. Ohno, J. Disterhoft, L. Van Eldik, R. Berry, and R. Vassar, “Intraneuronal beta-amyloid aggregates, neurodegeneration, and neuron loss in transgenic mice with five familial Alzheimer's disease mutations: potential factors in amyloid plaque formation,” J. Neurosci. 26(40), 10129–10140 (2006).
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C. Laperchia, A. L. Allegra Mascaro, L. Sacconi, A. Andrioli, A. Matte, L. De Franceschi, G. Grassi-Zucconi, M. Bentivoglio, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Two-photon microscopy imaging of thy1GFP-M transgenic mice: a novel animal model to investigate brain dendritic cell subsets in vivo,” PLoS One 8(2), e56144 (2013).
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A. Holtmaat, T. Bonhoeffer, D. K. Chow, J. Chuckowree, V. De Paola, S. B. Hofer, M. Hubener, T. Keck, G. Knott, W. C. Lee, R. Mostany, T. D. Mrsic-Flogel, E. Nedivi, C. Portera-Cailliau, K. Svoboda, J. T. Trachtenberg, and L. Wilbrecht, “Long-term, high-resolution imaging in the mouse neocortex through a chronic cranial window,” Nat. Protoc. 4(8), 1128–1144 (2009).
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I. Park, K. Choe, H. Seo, Y. Hwang, E. Song, J. Ahn, Y. Hwan Jo, and P. Kim, “Intravital imaging of a pulmonary endothelial surface layer in a murine sepsis model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2383–2393 (2018).
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K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(03), 1 (2013).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Visualization 1       Time-lapse imaging of the brain of 3-NP injected LysM-GFP mice

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of custom-built video-rate laser-scanning confocal microscopy system (ND, neutral density filter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; BPF, band pass filter; M, mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; OBJ, objective lens). (b-c) Photo and schematic of (b) thinned skull window and (c) chronic cranial window for intravital imaging of the brain. (d) Representative mosaic images obtained through the thinned skull of the Tie2-GFP mice in vivo; saline-injected control group and 3-NP injected group (green, Tie2-GFP expressed in vascular endothelial cells; red, leukocytes labelled by anti-CD45 antibody conjugated with Alexa 647). (e) Ratio of CD45+ cell occupied area over total imaged area in the control group (n = 4 field of views from 4 mice) and 3-NP group (n = 4 field of views from 4 mice). Scale bars = 500 μm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Representative longitudinal mosaic images obtained through the chronic cranial window implanted in the LysM-GFP mice in vivo for 10 days; saline-injected control group (n=3) and 3-NP injected group (n=3) (green, LysM+ cell; red, blood vessel labelled by TRITC-dextran). (b) Magnified longitudinal images of the control group marked by a solid-line square in (a). (c-d) Magnified longitudinal images of the 3-NP group showing a dynamic redistribution of LysM+ cells; (c) sustained accumulation marked by a solid square in (a), (d) disappearance marked by a dotted square in (a). (e-f) Increased area of LysM+ cells in the brain of the control group and 3-NP injected group quantified from the longitudinal mosaic images (n = 3 field of views from 3 mice). (f-g) Comparison of LysM+ cells in non-CNS tissues, ear skin and liver, in the control group and 3-NP injected group; (f) area of LysM+ cells, (g) mosaic images. Scale bars = (a, g) 500 μm, (b-d) 100 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Time-lapse images obtained from the brain of the LysM-GFP mouse in vivo at 10 days after the 3-NP injection (green, LysM-GFP+ ; red, blood vessel labelled by TRITC-dextran). LysM+ cells showed an intravascular crawling behavior (arrowhead) and a meandering behavior (arrow) in the parenchyma. (b) Serial images showing the crawling behavior of the LysM+ cells along the blood vessel walls. (c) Serial images showing the meandering behavior of the LysM+ cells infiltrated into the parenchyma. (d) Average velocity of the crawling LysM+ cells in the blood vessels (n = 4 field of views from 2 mice). (e) Average velocity of the meandering LysM+ cells in the parenchyma (n = 4 field of views from 2 mice). Scale bars = (a) 250 μm, (b, c) 100 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a-b) Representative longitudinal z-stack images obtained at the same sites of the brain through a chronic cranial window implanted in LysM-GFP mice in vivo for 30 days (green, LysM+ cell; red, blood vessel and vascular leakage labelled by Evans Blue); (a) saline-injected control group (n=2), (b) 3-NP injected group (n=2). (c) 3D rendered image and XY/XZ view image of vascular leakage in the cerebral cortex (arrowhead) reconstructed with the z-stack imaging data obtained at day 21. (d) Repeated observations of the same site in the cerebral cortex with vascular leakage at day 14 and day 21. Small round shaped fluorescent objects (arrowhead) were observed at day 21. Scale bars = (a, b, d) 100 μm, (c) 50 μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Z-stack images of the brain obtained at 30 days after saline (control) or 3-NP injection (cyan, lectin conjugated with DyLight 649 labeling blood vessel; Magenta, Annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 555 labeling apoptotic body). (b) Number of Annexin V+ apoptotic bodies observed in the control group and 3-NP injected group. (c) Ratio of Annexin V+ apoptotic bodies observed in the superficial area (surface–15 μm) and cerebral cortex (under 15 μm) of the control group and 3-NP injected group. Scale bars = 100 μm