Abstract

Epicardial ablation is necessary for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias refractory to endocardial ablation due to arrhythmic substrates involving the epicardium. The human epicardium is composed of adipose tissue and coronary vasculature embedded on the surface and within the myocardium, which can complicate electroanatomical mapping, electrogram interpretation and ablation delivery. We propose using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to decipher adipose tissue from myocardial tissue within human hearts ex vivo. Histological measurement of epicardial adipose thickness direct correlated (R = 0.884) with the adipose contrast index. These results demonstrate the potential of NIRS integrated catheters for mapping the spatial distribution of epicardial substrates and could aid in improving guidance during epicardial ablation interventions.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  3. S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (3)

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Park, R. P. Singh-Moon, E. Y. Wan, and C. P. Hendon, “Towards real-time multispectral endoscopic imaging for cardiac lesion quality assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(6), 2829 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (3)

2011 (2)

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. Desjardins, F. Morady, and F. Bogun, “Effect of epicardial fat on electroanatomical mapping and epicardial catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56(16), 1320–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Toward guidance of epicardial cardiac radiofrequency ablation therapy using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041510 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ayyad, A. E.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bala, R.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartolozzi, C.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Batal, O.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, G.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bogun, F.

B. Desjardins, F. Morady, and F. Bogun, “Effect of epicardial fat on electroanatomical mapping and epicardial catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56(16), 1320–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonadonna, R. C.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borgman, A.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bruno, L.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bump, T. E.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cademartiri, F.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Callans, D. J.

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carruth, R. W.

Chi, M.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chung, M. K.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ciardetti, M.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Claus, P.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Collins, J. S.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coppini, G.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Couper, G.

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Avila, A.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

D’Errico, L.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daoud, E. G.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Castro Miranda, R.

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Coster, T.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Desjardins, B.

B. Desjardins, F. Morady, and F. Bogun, “Effect of epicardial fat on electroanatomical mapping and epicardial catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56(16), 1320–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dionne, S.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S.

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dukkipati, S. R.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eckert, J.

Epstein, L. M.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fard, A. M.

Favilla, R.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, C.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Field, M. E.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fleming, C. P.

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1269 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Toward guidance of epicardial cardiac radiofrequency ablation therapy using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041510 (2010).
[Crossref]

Forte, E.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

Goldoni, M.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, M. D.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez, P.

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haemers, P.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Halliburton, S. S.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Halpern, E. F.

Hamidi, E.

Hendon, C. P.

Houghtaling, C.

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

S. Huang and J. Miller, Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias, 4th ed. (elsevier, 2019).

Husaini, M.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Inada, K.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iyer, V.

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jackman, W. M.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jacoby, M.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jazayeri, M.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Josephson, M. E.

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kazbanov, I. V.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khan, M.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kopelman, H. A.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koplan, B. A.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kovoor, P.

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

La Grutta, L.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Madder, R. D.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maffei, E.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Manning, W. J.

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Marboe, C.

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

Marboe, C. C.

Marchlinski, F. E.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marraccini, P.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mazzarisi, A.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Milanese, G.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Miller, J.

S. Huang and J. Miller, Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias, 4th ed. (elsevier, 2019).

Morady, F.

B. Desjardins, F. Morady, and F. Bogun, “Effect of epicardial fat on electroanatomical mapping and epicardial catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56(16), 1320–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, H.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakamori, S.

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Narula, N.

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

Natale, A.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nezafat, M.

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nezafat, R.

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ngo, L. H.

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Panfilov, A. V.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, S. Y.

Pilleggi, F.

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pouliopoulos, J.

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quan, K. J.

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Toward guidance of epicardial cardiac radiofrequency ablation therapy using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041510 (2010).
[Crossref]

Raymond, J. M.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reddy, V. Y.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rollins, A. M.

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Toward guidance of epicardial cardiac radiofrequency ablation therapy using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041510 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rossi, E.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ruskin, J. N.

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sacher, F.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salituri, F.

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samanta, R.

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sapp, J. L.

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scanavacca, M.

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schoenhagen, P.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schuger, C.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seemann, G.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

Selwyn, A. P.

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shao, M.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Silva, M.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh-Moon, R. P.

Sipido, K. R.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Soejima, K.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sosa, E.

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, W. G.

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sverzellati, N.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Talbert, T.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tchou, P. J.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

Tedrow, U. B.

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thiagalingam, A.

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

Toia, P.

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tomassoni, G. F.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

Van Wagoner, D. R.

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vanoosterhout, S.

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Viles-Gonzalez, J. F.

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vragovic, O.

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wan, E. Y.

Wang, H.

Whang, W.

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wilber, D. J.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Willems, R.

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Worley, S. J.

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

R. D. Madder, M. Khan, M. Husaini, M. Chi, S. Dionne, S. Vanoosterhout, A. Borgman, J. S. Collins, and M. Jacoby, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: Can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis?” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(1), e003576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. (4)

J. F. Viles-Gonzalez, R. De Castro Miranda, M. Scanavacca, E. Sosa, and A. D’Avila, “Acute and chronic effects of epicardial radiofrequency applications delivered on epicardial coronary arteries,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(4), 526–531 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Batal, P. Schoenhagen, M. Shao, A. E. Ayyad, D. R. Van Wagoner, S. S. Halliburton, P. J. Tchou, and M. K. Chung, “Left Atrial epicardial adiposity and Atrial fibrillation,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 3(3), 230–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. R. Dukkipati, A. D’Avila, K. Soejima, R. Bala, K. Inada, S. Singh, W. G. Stevenson, F. E. Marchlinski, and V. Y. Reddy, “Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4(2), 185–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Sacher, U. B. Tedrow, M. E. Field, J. M. Raymond, B. A. Koplan, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, “Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years,” Circ.: Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 1(3), 153–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

Circulation (2)

W. G. Stevenson, D. J. Wilber, A. Natale, W. M. Jackman, F. E. Marchlinski, T. Talbert, M. D. Gonzalez, S. J. Worley, E. G. Daoud, C. Hwang, C. Schuger, T. E. Bump, M. Jazayeri, G. F. Tomassoni, H. A. Kopelman, K. Soejima, and H. Nakagawa, “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation 118(25), 2773–2782 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, C. Houghtaling, P. Gutierrez, O. Vragovic, J. N. Ruskin, M. E. Josephson, and V. Y. Reddy, “Catheter ablation of ventricular epicardial tissue: A comparison of standard and cooled-tip radiofrequency energy,” Circulation 109(19), 2363–2369 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. (1)

G. Milanese, M. Silva, L. Bruno, M. Goldoni, G. Benedetti, E. Rossi, C. Ferrari, L. La Grutta, E. Maffei, P. Toia, E. Forte, R. C. Bonadonna, N. Sverzellati, and F. Cademartiri, “Quantification of epicardial fat with cardiac CT angiography and association with cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic patients: From the ALTER-BIO (alternative cardiovascular bio-imaging markers) registry,” Diagnostic Interv. Radiol. 25(1), 35–41 (2019).
[Crossref]

Front. Physiol. (1)

T. De Coster, P. Claus, G. Seemann, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Myocyte remodeling due to fibro-fatty infiltrations influences arrhythmogenicity,” Front. Physiol. 9, 1381 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hear. Rhythm (1)

R. Samanta, J. Pouliopoulos, A. Thiagalingam, and P. Kovoor, “Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm 13(1), 311–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2)

K. Soejima, W. G. Stevenson, J. L. Sapp, A. P. Selwyn, G. Couper, and L. M. Epstein, “Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: The importance of low-voltage scars,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43(10), 1834–1842 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Desjardins, F. Morady, and F. Bogun, “Effect of epicardial fat on electroanatomical mapping and epicardial catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56(16), 1320–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Heart Assoc. (1)

S. Nakamori, M. Nezafat, L. H. Ngo, W. J. Manning, and R. Nezafat, “Left Atrial Epicardial Fat Volume Is Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 3D Dixon Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7(6), e008232 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Toward guidance of epicardial cardiac radiofrequency ablation therapy using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041510 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

R. P. Singh-Moon, X. Yao, V. Iyer, C. Marboe, W. Whang, and C. P. Hendon, “Real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring of nonirrigated lesion progression within atrial and ventricular tissues,” J. Biophotonics 12(4), e201800144 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2)

S. Dixit, N. Narula, D. J. Callans, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Heart: Epicardial Fat Can Mimic Scar,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 14(10), 1128 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, and F. Pilleggi, “A New Technique to Perform Epicardial Mapping in the Electrophysiology Laboratory,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 7(6), 531–536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

L. D’Errico, F. Salituri, M. Ciardetti, R. Favilla, A. Mazzarisi, G. Coppini, C. Bartolozzi, and P. Marraccini, “Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: Effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 326–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. De Coster, P. Claus, I. V. Kazbanov, P. Haemers, R. Willems, K. R. Sipido, and A. V. Panfilov, “Arrhythmogenicity of fibro-fatty infiltrations,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2050 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. Huang and J. Miller, Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias, 4th ed. (elsevier, 2019).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) integrated catheters for mapping. A: optical fibers integrated into the catheter tip allow for tissue illumination and sampling of tissue backscattered light. The source-detector separation (SDS) is a design parameter, which influence the amount of collected light and its sensitivity to absorbing molecules. B: shows NIR reflectance spectra normalized at 960 nm for sites absent of and richly coated with epicardial fat (EF) for a given sample. Also plotted is the absorption spectrum of lipid obtained from literature [22]. Black arrow indicates a local minima centered at 930 nm reflectance corresponding to a strong lipid absorption peak (red arrow).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental workflow for near-infrared spectroscopic epicardial mapping. Donor hearts are ablated, then 3D scanned to obtain a point cloud of the epicardial surface geometry. Optical measurements taken over the surface are tracked using a camera. Using this position information, optical parameters are then co-registered with the 3-D scanned topology to generate NIRS epicardial maps. This workflow was used as a surrogate to a clinical mapping system to localize catheter position with respect to the cardiac surface.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Histological measurement of epicardial fat layer thickness. A: gross pathology cross-section showing epicardial fat (EF) and adjacent myocardium (M) layers. B: shows corresponding trichrome histology and measurement of EF thickness. C: shows a magnification of the box in B showing the appearance of fat in microscopic detail.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Proof-of-concept maps of adipose and lesion deposition contrast derived from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. A: shows a 3D mesh obtained from 3D scanning of the ventricles. B: shows the sampled region of optical measurements tracked by a separate camera. C: shows the spatial distribution of the adipose contrast index (ACI) rendered onto the 3D scanned point cloud topology. D: shows the spatial distribution of the lesion contrast parameter, the lesion optical index (LOI1). E: shows a composite overlay of both adipose and the thresholded lesion contrast maps. A cross-section of the tissue was taken along a region demonstrating a lesion and transition from a thick to thin epicardial fat coating. NIRS maps showed good agreement with gross pathology and histological correlates of treatment and fat thickness.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. High-density mapping of the epicardial surface with 202 measurements. A: shows a 3D mesh obtained from 3D scanning of the ventricles. B: shows the spatial distribution of the adipose contrast index (ACI) rendered onto the 3D scanned point cloud topology. Greater detail in fat distribution could be seen with the increased sampling. C: shows the spatial distribution of the lesion optical index (LOI1). D: shows a composite overlay of both adipose and the thresholded lesion contrast maps.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Relationship between adipose contrast index (ACI) and histologically-measured epicardial fat thickness. Line segments across ACI maps were sampled according to corresponding tissue dissected and preserved regions. Histological evaluation of fat thickness correlated linearly to ACI values (Pearson’s, R=0.884, p<0.0001, n=155, 5 hearts, 31 points per heart) up to 10 mm. Solid red and dash black lines represent the mean and 95% confidence interval, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Donor Medical Historiesa (n=12)

Equations (3)

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A C I = 1 + Λ b Λ e R R e l ( λ ) R R e l ( 910 n m )
= 1 + [ R R e l ] Λ b Λ e R R e l ( 910 n m ) [ λ ] Λ b Λ e
L O I 1 = R R e l ( 960 n m ) R R e l ( 616 n m )

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