Abstract

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a reference measure for aortic stiffness, itself an important biomarker of cardiovascular risk. To enable low-cost and easy-to-use PWV measurement devices that can be used in routine clinical practice, we have designed several handheld PWV sensors using miniaturized laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) arrays in a silicon photonics platform. The LDV-based PWV sensor design and the signal processing protocol to obtain pulse transit time (PTT) and carotid-femoral PWV in a feasibility study in humans, are described in this paper. Compared with a commercial reference PWV measurement system, measuring arterial pressure waveforms by applanation tonometry, LDV-based displacement signals resulted in more complex signals. However, we have shown that it is possible to identify reliable fiducial points for PTT calculation using the maximum of the 2nd derivative algorithm in LDV-based signals, comparable to those obtained by the reference technique, applanation tonometry.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  6. J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Loukogeorgakis, R. Dawson, N. Phillips, C. Martyn, and S. Greenwald, “Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method,” Physiol. Meas. 23(3), 581–596 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. E. Hermeling, K. Reesink, R. Reneman, and A. Hoeks, “Confluence of incident and reflected waves interferes with systolic foot detection of the carotid artery distension waveform,” J. Hypertens. 26(12), 2374–2380 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Obeid, H. Khettab, L. Marais, M. Hallab, S. Laurent, and P. Boutouyrie, “Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation,” J. Hypertens. 35(8), 1618–1625 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Butlin and A. Qasem, “Large Artery Stiffness Assessment Using SphygmoCor Technology,” Pulse 4(4), 180–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Casaccia, E. Sirevaag, E. Richter, J. O’Sullivan, L. Scalise, and J. Rohrbaugh, “Features of the non-contact carotid pressure waveform: Cardiac and vascular dynamics during rebreathing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 102501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ring, M. Eriksson, J. Zierath, and K. Caidahl, “Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques,” Hypertens. Res. 37(11), 999–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Li and R. Baets, “Homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer on silicon-on-insulator with integrated 90 degree optical hybrids,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13342–13350 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shahin, H. Barakat, R. Barnes, and I. Chetter, “The Vicorder device compared with SphygmoCor in the assessment of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Hypertens. Res. 36(3), 208–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Monux, and J. Wanguemert-Perez, “High performance 90◦ hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 178 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Vlachopoulos, K. Aznaouridis, and C. Stefanadis, “Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(13), 1318–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

The Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness’ Collaboration, “Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: ‘establishing normal and reference values’,” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2338–2350 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Hermeling, K. Reesink, R. Reneman, and A. Hoeks, “Confluence of incident and reflected waves interferes with systolic foot detection of the carotid artery distension waveform,” J. Hypertens. 26(12), 2374–2380 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. De Melis, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, E. Tomasini, D. Belbeke, R. Baets, L. Van Bortel, and P. Segers, “A noncontact approach for the evaluation of large artery stiffness: a preliminary study,” Am. J. Hypertens. 21(12), 1280–1283 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

S. Loukogeorgakis, R. Dawson, N. Phillips, C. Martyn, and S. Greenwald, “Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method,” Physiol. Meas. 23(3), 581–596 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S283–S294 (2002).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Y. Chiu, P. Arand, S. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aasmul, S.

Allen, M.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arand, P.

Y. Chiu, P. Arand, S. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aznaouridis, K.

C. Vlachopoulos, K. Aznaouridis, and C. Stefanadis, “Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(13), 1318–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Y. Li, J. Zhu, M. Duperron, P. O’Brien, R. Schuler, S. Aasmul, M. De Melis, M. Kersemans, and R. Baets, “Six-beam homodyne laser Doppler vibrometry based on silicon photonics technology,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3638–3645 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and R. Baets, “Homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer on silicon-on-insulator with integrated 90 degree optical hybrids,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13342–13350 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. De Melis, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, E. Tomasini, D. Belbeke, R. Baets, L. Van Bortel, and P. Segers, “A noncontact approach for the evaluation of large artery stiffness: a preliminary study,” Am. J. Hypertens. 21(12), 1280–1283 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barakat, H.

Y. Shahin, H. Barakat, R. Barnes, and I. Chetter, “The Vicorder device compared with SphygmoCor in the assessment of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Hypertens. Res. 36(3), 208–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, R.

Y. Shahin, H. Barakat, R. Barnes, and I. Chetter, “The Vicorder device compared with SphygmoCor in the assessment of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Hypertens. Res. 36(3), 208–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bayerova, K.

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

Belbeke, D.

M. De Melis, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, E. Tomasini, D. Belbeke, R. Baets, L. Van Bortel, and P. Segers, “A noncontact approach for the evaluation of large artery stiffness: a preliminary study,” Am. J. Hypertens. 21(12), 1280–1283 (2008).
[Crossref]

Benjamin, E.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ben-Shlomo, Y.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Blacher, J.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bosch, T.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S283–S294 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boustred, C.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boutouyrie, P.

H. Obeid, H. Khettab, L. Marais, M. Hallab, S. Laurent, and P. Boutouyrie, “Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation,” J. Hypertens. 35(8), 1618–1625 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boutouyrie, Pierre

I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butlin, M.

M. Butlin and A. Qasem, “Large Artery Stiffness Assessment Using SphygmoCor Technology,” Pulse 4(4), 180–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caidahl, K.

M. Ring, M. Eriksson, J. Zierath, and K. Caidahl, “Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques,” Hypertens. Res. 37(11), 999–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calabia, J.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cameron, J.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J.

Y. Chiu, P. Arand, S. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref]

Carroll, L

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

Casacanditella, L.

L. Scalise, G. Cosoli, L. Casacanditella, S. Casaccia, and J. Rohrbaugh, “The measurement of blood pressure without contact: An LDV-based technique,” 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Rochester, MN, 245–250 (2017)

Casaccia, S.

S. Casaccia, E. Sirevaag, E. Richter, J. O’Sullivan, L. Scalise, and J. Rohrbaugh, “Features of the non-contact carotid pressure waveform: Cardiac and vascular dynamics during rebreathing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 102501 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Scalise, G. Cosoli, L. Casacanditella, S. Casaccia, and J. Rohrbaugh, “The measurement of blood pressure without contact: An LDV-based technique,” 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Rochester, MN, 245–250 (2017)

Castellini, P.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chetter, I.

Y. Shahin, H. Barakat, R. Barnes, and I. Chetter, “The Vicorder device compared with SphygmoCor in the assessment of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Hypertens. Res. 36(3), 208–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chi, C.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, P. Arand, S. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chowienczyk, P.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cockcroft, J.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collins, S.

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cosoli, G.

L. Scalise, G. Cosoli, L. Casacanditella, S. Casaccia, and J. Rohrbaugh, “The measurement of blood pressure without contact: An LDV-based technique,” 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Rochester, MN, 245–250 (2017)

Cruickshank, J.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawson, R.

S. Loukogeorgakis, R. Dawson, N. Phillips, C. Martyn, and S. Greenwald, “Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method,” Physiol. Meas. 23(3), 581–596 (2002).
[Crossref]

De Backer, T.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Melis, M.

Y. Li, J. Zhu, M. Duperron, P. O’Brien, R. Schuler, S. Aasmul, M. De Melis, M. Kersemans, and R. Baets, “Six-beam homodyne laser Doppler vibrometry based on silicon photonics technology,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3638–3645 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. De Melis, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, E. Tomasini, D. Belbeke, R. Baets, L. Van Bortel, and P. Segers, “A noncontact approach for the evaluation of large artery stiffness: a preliminary study,” Am. J. Hypertens. 21(12), 1280–1283 (2008).
[Crossref]

Di Maio, D.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dircks, J.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Donald, A.

I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Donati, S.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S283–S294 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Duperron, M.

Y. Li, J. Zhu, M. Duperron, P. O’Brien, R. Schuler, S. Aasmul, M. De Melis, M. Kersemans, and R. Baets, “Six-beam homodyne laser Doppler vibrometry based on silicon photonics technology,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3638–3645 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, M.

M. Ring, M. Eriksson, J. Zierath, and K. Caidahl, “Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques,” Hypertens. Res. 37(11), 999–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ewins, D.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fabian, V.

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faur, D.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feldman, T.

Y. Chiu, P. Arand, S. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref]

Filipovsky, J.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Franco, O.

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia, I.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garcia, M.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S283–S294 (2002).
[Crossref]

Greenwald, S.

S. Loukogeorgakis, R. Dawson, N. Phillips, C. Martyn, and S. Greenwald, “Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method,” Physiol. Meas. 23(3), 581–596 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guasch, B.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

Halkon, B.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hallab, M.

H. Obeid, H. Khettab, L. Marais, M. Hallab, S. Laurent, and P. Boutouyrie, “Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation,” J. Hypertens. 35(8), 1618–1625 (2017).
[Crossref]

Havlik, J.

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hermeling, E.

E. Hermeling, K. Reesink, R. Reneman, and A. Hoeks, “Confluence of incident and reflected waves interferes with systolic foot detection of the carotid artery distension waveform,” J. Hypertens. 26(12), 2374–2380 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoeks, A.

E. Hermeling, K. Reesink, R. Reneman, and A. Hoeks, “Confluence of incident and reflected waves interferes with systolic foot detection of the carotid artery distension waveform,” J. Hypertens. 26(12), 2374–2380 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huybrechts, S.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikram, M.

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, H.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kavousi, M.

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kersemans, M.

Khettab, H.

H. Obeid, H. Khettab, L. Marais, M. Hallab, S. Laurent, and P. Boutouyrie, “Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation,” J. Hypertens. 35(8), 1618–1625 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kowarsch, R.

C. Rembe and R. Kowarsch, “High-Resolution Laser-Vibrometer Microscopy,” AMA Conferences 2017, Nuremberg Germany, B5.3, (2017)

Kremen, V.

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lakatta, E.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laurent, S.

H. Obeid, H. Khettab, L. Marais, M. Hallab, S. Laurent, and P. Boutouyrie, “Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation,” J. Hypertens. 35(8), 1618–1625 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

London, G.

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loukogeorgakis, S.

S. Loukogeorgakis, R. Dawson, N. Phillips, C. Martyn, and S. Greenwald, “Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method,” Physiol. Meas. 23(3), 581–596 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luyssaert, B.

Maldonado, J.

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L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
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T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
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Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
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Torguet, P.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vallés, M.

J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Bortel, L.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Melis, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, E. Tomasini, D. Belbeke, R. Baets, L. Van Bortel, and P. Segers, “A noncontact approach for the evaluation of large artery stiffness: a preliminary study,” Am. J. Hypertens. 21(12), 1280–1283 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

van Sloten, T.

T. van Sloten, S. Sedaghat, S. Laurent, G. London, B. Pannier, M. Ikram, M. Kavousi, F. Mattace-Raso, O. Franco, P. Boutouyrie, and C. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness is associated with incident stroke: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66(19), 2116–2125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vanlanduit, S.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vasan, R.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verbeke, F.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vermeersch, S.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vignola, J.

S. Rothberg, M. Allen, P. Castellini, D. Di Maio, J. Dircks, D. Ewins, B. Halkon, P. Muyshondt, N. Paone, T. Ryan, H. Steger, E. Tomasini, S. Vanlanduit, and J. Vignola, “An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 99, 11–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vlachopoulos, C.

C. Vlachopoulos, K. Aznaouridis, and C. Stefanadis, “Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(13), 1318–1327 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wanguemert-Perez, J.

Webb, D.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weber, T.

L. Van Bortel, S. Laurent, P. Boutouyrie, P. Chowienczyk, J. Cruickshank, T. De Backer, J. Filipovsky, S. Huybrechts, F. Mattace-Raso, A. Protogerou, G. Schillaci, P. Segers, S. Vermeersch, T. Weber, and A. Society, “European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function, and European Network for Noninvasive Investigation of Large Arteries: Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity,” J. Hypertens. 30(3), 445–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiaux, V.

Wilkinson, I.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
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Willum Hansen, T.

Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zemanek, D.

V. Fabian, L. Matera, K. Bayerova, J. Havlik, V. Kremen, J. Pudil, P. Sajgalik, and D. Zemanek, “Noninvasive Assessment of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity by the Brachial Occlusion-Cuff Technique: Comparative Study,” Sensors 19(16), 3467 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

M. Duperron, L Carroll, M. Rensing, S. Collins, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, R. Baets, and P. O’Brien, “Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device,” Proc. SPIE 10109, 1010915 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, M.

Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. Ring, M. Eriksson, J. Zierath, and K. Caidahl, “Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques,” Hypertens. Res. 37(11), 999–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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I. Wilkinson, C. McEniery, G. Schillaci, Pierre Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. Chowienczyk, “Artery society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res. 4(2), 34–40 (2010).
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J. Calabia, P. Torguet, M. Garcia, I. Garcia, N. Martin, B. Guasch, D. Faur, and M. Vallés, “Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method,” Cardiovasc Ultrasound 9(1), 13 (2011).
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Y. Ben-Shlomo, M. Spears, C. Boustred, M. May, S. Anderson, E. Benjamin, P. Boutouyrie, J. Cameron, C. Chen, J. Cruickshank, S. Hwang, E. Lakatta, S. Laurent, J. Maldonado, G. Mitchell, S. Najjar, A. Newman, M. Ohishi, B. Pannier, T. Pereira, R. Vasan, T. Shokawa, K. Sutton-Tyrell, F. Verbeke, K. Wang, D. Webb, T. Willum Hansen, S. Zoungas, C. McEniery, J. Cockcroft, and I. Wilkinson, “Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction: an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63(7), 636–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Vlachopoulos, K. Aznaouridis, and C. Stefanadis, “Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(13), 1318–1327 (2010).
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Y. Lu, M. Zhu, B. Bai, C. Chi, S. Yu, J. Teliewubai, H. Xu, K. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Zhou, H. Ji, X. Fan, X. Yu, J. Li, J. Blacher, Y. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Comparison of Carotid-Femoral and Brachial-Ankle Pulse-Wave Velocity in Association With Target Organ Damage in the Community-Dwelling Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 6(2), e004168 (2017).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The configuration of the six-beam sensor head. (b) The three major parts of the PWV measurement system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Different ways of using the two sensor heads. a. Detached. b. Attached without spacer. c.Attached with a spacer (13 mm). Note the sensor heads in the figures are non-functional 1:1 models with different colors from the working devices.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The inside of the photonic head. PIC stands for photonic integrated circuit, MOB stands for micro-optical bench and BL stands for ball lens. (b) the use of the sensing spacers.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic showing the PIC design with six LDVs.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the MOB design and a side-view microscope image of the MOB. (b) The mounting of the PIC with PCB.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic show of the optical system. The sizes of the lenses and PIC are exaggerated in the figure to clearly show the configuration of the lens system.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) The target used to test the positions of the output beams. (b) the measured time delay vs set time delay for the time delay measurement (note the 5 ms sample is omitted from the plot to allow the fit of the shorter delay times to be more clearly seen).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) A picture of the measurement setting for carotid-femoral PWV. The two sensor heads of the LDV device are detached and positioned simultaneously on the carotid site (LDV1) and on the femoral site (LDV2). An ECG signal is simultaneously recorded. (b) Schematic representation of the 16 beam combinations for PTT calculation, arising by analysis of the 6 sensing beams from LDV1 sensor head, on the carotid site (beams 1.1 to 1.6) and the 6 sensing beams from LDV2 sensor head, on the femoral site (beams 2.1 to 2.6).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Example of the displacement LDV signals (left) and tonometric arterial pressure waveforms (right) obtained from carotid and femoral measurements by LDV (one beam shown per location) in a young (a), a middle aged (b) individual. The corresponding acceleration signals exhibit peaks in systole, after the ECG R-peak, which allows identification of the wave-foot in both LDV and tonometric signals. A time delay between the acceleration peaks of the carotid (blue) and femoral (red) is clearly visible.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Example of the displacement LDV signals (left) and tonometric arterial pressure waveforms (right) obtained from carotid and femoral measurements by LDV (one beam shown per location) in an old individual. A time delay between the acceleration peaks of the carotid (blue) and femoral (red) is clearly visible.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Agreement between PTT calculated by means of ECG-dependent and ECG-independent algorithms. a) linear regression, equation PTT (ECG-independent algorithm) = 3.95 ± 0.96 × PTT (ECG-dependent algorithm). b) Bland Altman Plot. The red line represents the mean difference between PTT calculated by the ECG-independent and the ECG-dependent algorithm, whereas the blue lines represent its 95% confidence limits.