Abstract

Terahertz technology has shown broad prospects for measuring corneal water content, which is an important parameter of ocular health. Based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, a new indicator named characteristic ratio (CR) of the sum of low (0.2-0.7 THz) and high (0.7-1.0 THz) frequency spectral intensities, for characterizing corneal hydration is introduced in this work. CR is calculated from the real-time reflection spectra after error elimination of ex vivo human corneal stroma samples which is collected during dehydration under natural conditions (temperature: 22.4 ± 0.3°C; humidity: 20.0 ± 3%). The corresponding relationships between CR and corneal water content are reported. Comparing the linear fitting results with the published similar study, the coefficients of variation of the fitting slope and intercept are 39.4% and 27.6% lower, respectively. This indicates that this approach has the potential to achieve corneal water content in-vivo detection in the future.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

Z. J. Dai, Q. Su, D. Lu, L. Sun, and W. W. Liu, “A combined experimental and theoretical study on the terahertz vibrations of water vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 214, 277–284 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. F. Qi, L. Sun, J. N. Ma, J. L. Yao, L. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. W. Liu, “Ex vivo quantitative analysis of human corneal stroma dehydration by near-infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(10), e201800472 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

N. Bajwa, J. Au, R. Jarrahy, S. Sung, M. C. Fishbein, D. Riopelle, D. B. Ennis, T. Aghaloo, M. A. St John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Non-invasive terahertz imaging of tissue water content for flap viability assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 460–474 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. S. Sun, Y. Z. He, K. Liu, S. T. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and P. M. Emma, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

W. Q. Liu, Y. F. Lu, G. H. Jiao, X. F. Chen J, Y. Li, S. H. Chen, Y. M. Dong, and J. C. Lv, “Terahertz optical properties of the cornea,” Opt. Commun. 359, 344–348 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. P. Kniffin and L. M. Zurk, “Model-Based Material Parameter Estimation for Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(2), 231–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. A. Riazuddin, N. A. Zaghloul, A. Al-Saif, L. Davey, B. H. Diplas, D. N. Meadows, A. O. Eghrari, M. A. Minear, Y. Li, G. K. Klintworth, N. Afshari, S. G. Gregory, J. D. Gottsch, and N. Katsanis, “Missense Mutations in TCF8 Cause Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy and Interact with FCD4 on Chromosome 9p,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86(1), 45–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Brugin, A. Ghirlando, C. Gambato, and E. Midena, “Central corneal thickness: z-ring corneal confocal microscopy versus ultrasound pachymetry,” Cornea 26(3), 303–307 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funovics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with pentacam, orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82(10), 892–899 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. H. Feltham and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. R. U. de Souza, A. P. de Souza, A. P. de Queiroz, P. Figueiredo, R. S. Jesus, and N. kara-José, “Influence of temperature and humidity on laser in situ keratomileusis outcomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(2 Suppl), S202–S204 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measures: a review and meta-analysis approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

N. J. C. Bauer, J. P. Wicksted, F. H. M. Jongsma, W. F. March, F. Hendrikse, and M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive assessment of the hydration gradient across the cornea using confocal raman spectroscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(5), 831–835 (1998).

Y. S. Rabinowitz, “Keratoconus,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 42(4), 297–319 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. J. Freegard, “The physical basis of transparency of the normal cornea,” Eye 11(4), 465–471 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. P. Adamis, V. Filatov, B. J. Tripathi, and R. A. mesh C. Tripathi, “Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy of the cornea,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 149–168 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. Ytteborg and C. H. Dohlman, “Corneal edema and intraocular pressure,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 74(4), 477–484 (1965).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

D. M. Maurice, “The structure and transparency of the cornea,” J. Physiol. 136(2), 263–286 (1957).
[Crossref]

Adamis, A. P.

A. P. Adamis, V. Filatov, B. J. Tripathi, and R. A. mesh C. Tripathi, “Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy of the cornea,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 149–168 (1993).
[Crossref]

Afshari, N.

S. A. Riazuddin, N. A. Zaghloul, A. Al-Saif, L. Davey, B. H. Diplas, D. N. Meadows, A. O. Eghrari, M. A. Minear, Y. Li, G. K. Klintworth, N. Afshari, S. G. Gregory, J. D. Gottsch, and N. Katsanis, “Missense Mutations in TCF8 Cause Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy and Interact with FCD4 on Chromosome 9p,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86(1), 45–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aghaloo, T.

Al-Saif, A.

S. A. Riazuddin, N. A. Zaghloul, A. Al-Saif, L. Davey, B. H. Diplas, D. N. Meadows, A. O. Eghrari, M. A. Minear, Y. Li, G. K. Klintworth, N. Afshari, S. G. Gregory, J. D. Gottsch, and N. Katsanis, “Missense Mutations in TCF8 Cause Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy and Interact with FCD4 on Chromosome 9p,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86(1), 45–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Angeluts, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Au, J.

Bajwa, N.

S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Bajwa, J. Au, R. Jarrahy, S. Sung, M. C. Fishbein, D. Riopelle, D. B. Ennis, T. Aghaloo, M. A. St John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Non-invasive terahertz imaging of tissue water content for flap viability assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 460–474 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bajwab, N.

S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
[Crossref]

Balakin, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bauer, N. J. C.

N. J. C. Bauer, J. P. Wicksted, F. H. M. Jongsma, W. F. March, F. Hendrikse, and M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive assessment of the hydration gradient across the cornea using confocal raman spectroscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(5), 831–835 (1998).

Belin, M. W.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bennett, D.

D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, E.

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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
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S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
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S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
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S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
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S. A. Riazuddin, N. A. Zaghloul, A. Al-Saif, L. Davey, B. H. Diplas, D. N. Meadows, A. O. Eghrari, M. A. Minear, Y. Li, G. K. Klintworth, N. Afshari, S. G. Gregory, J. D. Gottsch, and N. Katsanis, “Missense Mutations in TCF8 Cause Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy and Interact with FCD4 on Chromosome 9p,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86(1), 45–53 (2010).
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D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
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Grundfest, W. S.

S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
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S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
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D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
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B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
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Q. S. Sun, Y. Z. He, K. Liu, S. T. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and P. M. Emma, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
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S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Jarrahy, R.

Jesus, R. S.

I. R. U. de Souza, A. P. de Souza, A. P. de Queiroz, P. Figueiredo, R. S. Jesus, and N. kara-José, “Influence of temperature and humidity on laser in situ keratomileusis outcomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(2 Suppl), S202–S204 (2001).

Jiao, G. H.

W. Q. Liu, Y. F. Lu, G. H. Jiao, X. F. Chen J, Y. Li, S. H. Chen, Y. M. Dong, and J. C. Lv, “Terahertz optical properties of the cornea,” Opt. Commun. 359, 344–348 (2016).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
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S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
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N. Bajwa, J. Au, R. Jarrahy, S. Sung, M. C. Fishbein, D. Riopelle, D. B. Ennis, T. Aghaloo, M. A. St John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Non-invasive terahertz imaging of tissue water content for flap viability assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 460–474 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

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P. F. Qi, L. Sun, J. N. Ma, J. L. Yao, L. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. W. Liu, “Ex vivo quantitative analysis of human corneal stroma dehydration by near-infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(10), e201800472 (2019).
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P. F. Qi, L. Sun, J. N. Ma, J. L. Yao, L. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. W. Liu, “Ex vivo quantitative analysis of human corneal stroma dehydration by near-infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(10), e201800472 (2019).
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G. P. Kniffin and L. M. Zurk, “Model-Based Material Parameter Estimation for Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(2), 231–241 (2012).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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G. P. Kniffin and L. M. Zurk, “Model-Based Material Parameter Estimation for Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(2), 231–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sung, S. Dabironezare, N. Llombart, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. Li, S. X. Deng, E. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Optical system design for noncontact, normal incidence, THz imaging of in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 1–12 (2018).
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S. Sung, S. Selvin, N. Bajwa, S. Chantra, B. Nowroozi, J. Garritano, J. Goell, A. D. Li, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “THz imaging system for in vivo human cornea,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(1), 27–37 (2018).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

N. J. C. Bauer, J. P. Wicksted, F. H. M. Jongsma, W. F. March, F. Hendrikse, and M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive assessment of the hydration gradient across the cornea using confocal raman spectroscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(5), 831–835 (1998).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Bennett, Z. Taylor, P. Tewari, S. Sung, A. Maccabi, R. Singh, M. Culjat, W. Grundfest, J. P. Hubschman, and E. Brown, “Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0970081 (2012).
[Crossref]

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P. F. Qi, L. Sun, J. N. Ma, J. L. Yao, L. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. W. Liu, “Ex vivo quantitative analysis of human corneal stroma dehydration by near-infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(10), e201800472 (2019).
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S. Sung, J. Garritano, N. Bajwab, S. Deng, J. P. Hubschman, W. S. Grundfesta, and Z. D. Taylor, “Preliminary results of non-contact THz imaging of cornea,” Proc. SPIE 9362, 93620C (2015).
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M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measures: a review and meta-analysis approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
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A. P. Adamis, V. Filatov, B. J. Tripathi, and R. A. mesh C. Tripathi, “Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy of the cornea,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 149–168 (1993).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of terahertz reflection light path and sample holder.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Reflection spectra of four samples without error elimination treatment. (a) Cornea1. (b) Cornea2. (c) Cornea3. (d) Cornea4.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Processed reflection spectra of four samples. (a) Cornea1. (b) Cornea2. (c) Cornea3. (d) Cornea4.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration diagram of time delay estimation. (a) Sample geometric reflection light path. (b) Time-domain signals measured during dehydration of corneal.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of calculation results between weighing method and time delay estimation. (a) Cornea1. (b) Cornea2. (c) Cornea3. (d) Cornea4.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Elimination results of interferences caused by the signal reflection height variation. (a) Original mirror reflectance spectra. (b) The calculated CR of original spectra and processed spectra.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Elimination results of interferences caused by power change of the femtosecond laser. (a) Original air transmission spectra. (b) The calculated CR of original spectra and processed spectra.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Relationship with linear fitting between CR and corneal water content

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of linear fitting results with published similar studies

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( f )  =  S c o l l a g e n ( f ) S H 2 O ( f ) β ( f ) S a i r ( f )
S ( f )  =  S c o l l a g e n ( f ) S H 2 O ( f ) β ( f ) S v a p o r ( f ) S d r y a i r ( f )
β 0 ( 0.56 THz )  =  i N S i ( 0.56 THz ) N , β 0 ( 0.76 THz )  =  i N S i ( 0.76 THz ) N
β ( f l ) ¯ S i ( 0.56 THz ) β 0 ( 0.56 THz ) , β ( f h ) ¯ S i ( 0.76 THz ) β 0 ( 0.76 THz )
S ( f )  =  { S ( f l ) β ( f l ) ¯ , f [ 0.2 THz , 0.7 THz ) S ( f h ) β ( f h ) ¯ , f [ 0.7 THz , 1.0 THz ]
Δ C T W C  =  1 2 Δ t c cos 45 40 % / % mm mm = Δ h 40 % / % mm mm
C T W C ( % ) = m 0 m d r y m 0 × 100 % Δ C T W C
C T W C ( % ) = m ( t ) m d r y m ( t ) × 100 %
{ S ( f l ) S c o l l a g e n ( f l ) S H 2 O ( f l ) S v a p o r ( f l ) S d r y a i r ( f l ) , f [ 0.2 THz , 0.7 THz ) S ( f h ) S c o l l a g e n ( f h ) S v a p o r ( f h ) S d r y a i r ( f h ) , f [ 0.7 THz , 1.0 THz ]
C R  =  S i ( f l ) S i ( f h ) = S c o l l a g e n ( f l ) S H 2 O ( f l ) S v a p o r ( f l ) S d r y a i r ( f l ) S c o l l a g e n ( f h ) S v a p o r ( f h ) S d r y a i r ( f h )
S v a p o r ( f l ) S d r y a i r ( f l ) S v a p o r ( f h ) S d r y a i r ( f h )  =  k
C R k S c o l l a g e n ( f l ) S H 2 O ( f l ) S c o l l a g e n ( f h )