Abstract

The development of a multimodal optical imaging system is presented that integrates endogenous fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with single-wavelength spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and surface profilometry. The system images specimens at visible wavelengths with a spatial resolution of 70 µm, a field of view of 25 cm2 and a depth of field of ∼1.5 cm. The results of phantom experiments are presented demonstrating the system retrieves absorption and reduced scattering coefficient maps using SFDI with <6% reconstruction errors. A phase-shifting profilometry technique is implemented and the resulting 3-D surface used to compute a geometric correction ensuring optical properties reconstruction errors are maintained to <6% in curved media with height variations <20 mm. Combining SFDI-computed optical properties with data from diffuse reflectance spectra is shown to correct fluorescence using a model based on light transport in tissue theory. The system is used to image a human prostate, demonstrating its ability to distinguish prostatic tissue (anterior stroma, hyperplasia, peripheral zone) from extra-prostatic tissue (urethra, ejaculatory ducts, peri-prostatic tissue). These techniques could be integrated in robotic-assisted surgical systems to enhance information provided to surgeons and improve procedural accuracy by minimizing the risk of damage to extra-prostatic tissue during radical prostatectomy procedures and eventually detect residual cancer.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

L. Angulo-rodriguez, Y. Badawy, and F. Leblond, “Development and Validation of Phase-Shifting Profilometry Using a Hyperspectral Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging System Integrated with a Neurosurgical Microscope,” J. Bioeng. Biomed. Sci. 9, 1000257 (2019).

2018 (4)

J. P. Angelo, S.-J. Chen, M. Ochoa, U. Sunar, S. Gioux, X. Intes, S.-J. Chen, M. Ochoa, U. Sunar, and S. Gioux, “Review of structured light in diffuse optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(07), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Aubertin, V. Q. Trinh, M. Jermyn, P. Baksic, A. Grosset, J. Desroches, K. St-arnaud, M. Birlea, M. Vladoiu, and M. Latour, “Mesoscopic characterization of prostate cancer using Raman spectroscopy: potential for diagnostics and therapeutics,” BJU Int. 122(2), 326–336 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. St-Georges-Robillard, M. Masse, M. Cahuzac, M. Strupler, B. Patra, A. M. Orimoto, J. Kendall-Dupont, B. Péant, A. M. Mes-Masson, F. Leblond, and T. Gervais, “Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging for live monitoring of multiple spheroids in microfluidic chips,” Analyst 143(16), 3829–3840 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. K. Hayakawa, K. Karrobi, V. Pera, D. Roblyer, and V. Venugopalan, “Optical sampling depth in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(07), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

J. A. Halpern, J. E. Shoag, A. S. Artis, K. V. Ballman, A. Sedrakyan, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, Y. C. T. Shih, and J. C. Hu, “National trends in prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy volumes following the us preventive services task force guidelines against prostate-specific antigen screening,” JAMA Surg. 152(2), 192–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kress, D. J. Rohrbach, K. A. Carter, D. Luo, C. Poon, S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Shao, S. Lele, J. F. Lovell, and U. Sunar, “A dual-channel endoscope for quantitative imaging, monitoring, and triggering of doxorubicin release from liposomes in living mice,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15578 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. A. Valdés, J. P. Angelo, H. S. Choi, and S. Gioux, “qF-SSOP: real-time optical property corrected fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3597 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

P. A. Valdés, D. W. Roberts, F. Lu, and A. Golby, “Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance,” Neurosurg. Focus 40(3), E8 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Tyson, P. E. Andrews, R. F. Ferrigni, M. R. Humphreys, A. S. Parker, and E. P. Castle, “Radical Prostatectomy Trends in the United States: 1998 to 2011,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 91(1), 10–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Tabassum, Y. Zhao, R. Istfan, J. Wu, D. J. Waxman, and D. Roblyer, “Feasibility of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for optically characterizing a preclinical oncology model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4154–4170 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Hyun and S. Zhang, “Enhanced two-frequency phase-shifting method,” Appl. Opt. 55(16), 4395–4401 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

S. Grabtchak, L. G. Montgomery, and W. M. Whelan, “Feasibility of interstitial near-infrared radiance spectroscopy platform for ex vivo canine prostate studies: optical properties extraction, hemoglobin and water concentration, and gold nanoparticles detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 057003 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bodenschatz, A. Brandes, A. Liemert, and A. Kienle, “Sources of errors in spatial frequency domain imaging of scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071405 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. Van Der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: Screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent - Update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: Potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Pu, W. Wang, Y. Yang, and R. R. Alfano, “Stokes shift spectroscopic analysis of multifluorophores for human cancer detection in breast and prostate tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017005 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Sunar, D. J. Rohrbach, J. Morgan, N. Zeitouni, and B. W. Henderson, “Quantification of PpIX concentration in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma models using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 531 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, M. Sharma, and J. W. Tunnell, “Attenuation-corrected fluorescence extraction for image-guided surgery in spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 080503 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, T. B. Rice, D. J. Cuccia, R. J. Barth, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “System analysis of spatial frequency domain imaging for quantitative mapping of surgically resected breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036012 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. C. Wilson, K. D. Paulsen, and D. W. Roberts, “A spectrally constrained dual-band normalization technique for protoporphyrin IX quantification in fluorescence-guided surgery,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1817 (2012).
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P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, K. D. Paulsen, and D. W. Roberts, “Quantitative, spectrally-resolved intraoperative fluorescence imaging,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 798 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Z. Li, “Imaging mitochondrial redox potential and its possible link to tumor metastatic potential,” J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44(6), 645–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ebenezar, Y. Pu, W. Wang, Y. Yang, and R. R. Alfano, “Stokes shift spectroscopy pilot study for cancerous and normal prostate tissues,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Orringer, A. Golby, and F. Jolesz, “Neuronavigation in the surgical management of brain tumors: Current and future trends,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(5), 491–500 (2012).
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M. M. Center, A. Jemal, J. Lortet-Tieulent, E. Ward, J. Ferlay, O. Brawley, and F. Bray, “International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates,” Eur. Urol. 61(6), 1079–1092 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (8)

C. G. Roehrborn and L. K. Black, “The economic burden of prostate cancer,” BJU Int. 108, 806–813 (2011).
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D. V. Makarov, J. B. Yu, R. A. Desai, D. F. Penson, and C. P. Gross, “The association between diffusion of the surgical robot and radical prostatectomy rates,” Med. Care 49(4), 333–339 (2011).
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W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, and U. Pichlmeier, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
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P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, and X. Fan, “Quantitative fluorescence in intercranial tumor: implications for ALA-induced PpIX as an intraoperative bioamarer,” J. Neurosurg. 115(1), 11–17 (2011).
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P. A. Valdés, A. Kim, F. Leblond, O. M. Conde, B. T. Harris, K. D. Paulsen, B. C. Wilson, and D. W. Roberts, “Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116007 (2011).
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R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, S. Saggese, K. M. Kelly, and A. J. Durkin, “Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126013 (2011).
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J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophotonics 4, 773–787 (2011).
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J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, W. R. Johnson, G. H. Bearman, A. J. Durkin, M. Hsu, A. Lin, D. K. Binder, D. Wilson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011015 (2011).
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2010 (5)

D. Piao, K. E. Bartels, Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, and G. Slobodov, “Alternative transrectal prostate imaging: A diffuse optical tomography method,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 715–729 (2010).
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Y. Pu, W. Wang, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Changes of collagen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in human cancerous and normal prostate tissues studied using native fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047008 (2010).
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T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036013 (2010).
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W. Lee and B. Khoo, “Forensic light sources for detection of biological evidences in crime scene investigation: a review,” Malaysian J. Forensic Sci. 1, 17–27 (2010).

A. Kim, Y. Moriyama, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantification of in vivo fluorescence decoupled from the effects of tissue optical properties using fiber-optic spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–12 (2010).
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2009 (4)

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ficarra, G. Novara, W. Artibani, A. Cestari, A. Galfano, M. Graefen, G. Guazzoni, B. Guillonneau, M. Menon, F. Montorsi, V. Patel, J. Rassweiler, and H. Van Poppel, “Retropubic, Laparoscopic, and Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review and Cumulative Analysis of Comparative Studies,” Eur. Urol. 55(5), 1037–1063 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive Surgical Margins in Radical Prostatectomy: Outlining the Problem and Its Long-Term Consequences,” Eur. Urol. 55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. Zaak, R. Sroka, W. Khoder, C. C. Adam, S. Tritschler, A. Karl, O. Reich, R. Knuechel, R. Baumgartner, D. Tilki, G. Popken, A. Hofstetter, and C. G. Stief, “Photodynamic Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid—First Clinical Experiences,” Urology 72(2), 345–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Rais-Bahrami, A. W. Levinson, N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, A. Hristov, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Optical Coherence Tomography of Cavernous Nerves: A Step Toward Real-Time Intraoperative Imaging During Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy,” Urology 72(1), 198–204 (2008).
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M. G. Sanda, R. L. Dunn, J. Michalski, H. M. Sandler, L. Northouse, L. Hembroff, X. Lin, T. K. Greenfield, M. S. Litwin, C. S. Saigal, A. Mahadevan, E. Klein, A. Kibel, L. L. Pisters, D. Kuban, I. Kaplan, D. Wood, J. Ciezki, N. Shah, and J. T. Wei, “Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Outcome among Prostate-Cancer Survivors,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(12), 1250–1261 (2008).
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2007 (1)

T. Svensson and S. Andersson-engels, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. S. Bradley and M. S. Thorniley, “A review of attenuation correction techniques for tissue fluorescence,” J. R. Soc. Interface 3(6), 1–13 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
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C. Urban, P. C. Rey, G. Gatti, A. Luini, F. De Lorenzi, M. Rietjens, J.-Y. Petit, F. Maffini, and N. Kaur, “Comparative Study of Surgical Margins in Oncoplastic Surgery and Quadrantectomy in Breast Cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(7), 539–545 (2005).
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2004 (2)

A. Nakao, S. Takeda, M. Sakai, T. Kaneko, S. Inoue, H. Sugimoto, and N. Kanazumi, “Extended Radical Resection Versus Standard Resection for,” Pancreas 28(3), 289–292 (2004).
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V. Masilamani, K. Al-Zhrani, M. Al-Salhi, A. Al-Diab, and M. Al-Ageily, “Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components,” J. Lumin. 109(3-4), 143–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. M. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
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G. Ayala, J. A. Tuxhorn, T. M. Wheeler, A. Frolov, P. T. Scardino, M. Ohori, M. Wheeler, J. Spitler, and D. R. Rowley, “Reactive Stroma as a Predictor of Biochemical-Free Recurrence in Prostate Cancer,” Clin. Cancer Res. 9(13), 4792–4801 (2003).

2002 (3)

I. D. Nagtegaal, C. A. M. Marijnen, E. K. Kranenbarg, C. J. H. Van De Velde, J. Han, and J. M. Van Krieken, “Circumferential Margin Involvement Is Still an Important Predictor of Local Recurrence in Rectal Carcinoma Not One Millimeter but Two Millimeters Is the Limit,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 26(3), 350–357 (2002).
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S. R. Denmeade, J. T. Isaacs, S. R. Denmeade, J. T. Isaacs, and K. Comprehensive, “A history of prostate cancer treatment,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 2(5), 389–396 (2002).
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K. Vishwanath, B. Pogue, and M. A. Mycek, “Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: Comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(18), 3387–3405 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Holzbeierlein, M. Peterson, and J. A. Smith, “Variability of results of cavernous nerve stimulation during radical prostatectomy,” J. Urol. 165(1), 108–110 (2001).
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2000 (4)

A. W. Hsing, L. Tsao, and S. S. Devesa, “International comparisons of prostate cancer incidence and mortality,” Int. J. Cancer 85, 60–67 (2000).
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G. D. Grossfeld, J. J. CHang, J. M. Broering, D. P. Miller, J. Yu, S. C. Flanders, J. M. Henning, D. M. Stier, and P. R. Carroll, “Impact of Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Recurrence and the Use of Secondary Cancer Treatment: Data From the Capsure Database,” J. Urol. 163(4), 1171–1177 (2000).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, M. Muller, J. Wu, and M. Feld, “Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1451–1453 (2000).
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N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Tissues,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 89–117 (2000).
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1999 (2)

B. J. Davis, T. M. Pisansky, T. M. Wilson, H. J. Rothenberg, A. Pacelli, D. W. Hillman, D. J. Sargent, and D. G. Bostwick, “The radial distance of extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma,” Cancer 85, 2630–2637 (1999).
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J. Haringsma and G. N. J. Tytgat, “Fluorescence and autofluorescence,” Best Pract. Res., Clin. Gastroenterol. 13(1), 1–10 (1999).
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1998 (2)

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In Vivo Fluorescence Spectroscopy and lmaging for Oncological Applications of Technology,” Photochemistry 68(5), 603–632 (1998).

B. W. Pogue and G. Burke, “Fiber-optic bundle design for quantitative fluorescence measurement from tissue,” Appl. Opt. 37(31), 7429–7436 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Measurement of tissue optical properties by time-resolved detection of laser-induced transient stress,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 402 (1997).
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M. L. Blute, D. G. Bostwick, E. J. Bergstralh, J. M. Slezak, S. K. Martin, C. L. Amling, and H. Zincke, “Anatomic site-specific positive margins in organ-confined prostate cancer and its impact on outcome after radical prostatectomy,” Urology 50(5), 733–739 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative Optical Spectroscopy for Tissue Diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of tissue: recovery of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 35(10), 1780 (1996).
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1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

A. M. Kluftinger, N. L. Davis, N. F. Quenville, S. Lam, J. Hung, and B. Palcic, “Detection of squamous cell cancer and pre-cancerous lesions by imaging of tissue autofluorescence in the hamster cheek pouch model,” Surg. Oncol. 1(2), 183–188 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging,” Biophys. J. 60(6), 1374–1387 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

A’Amar, O. M.

O. M. A’Amar, L. Liou, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, A. De Las Morenas, and I. J. Bigio, “Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: Potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(5), 1323–1329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adam, C. C.

D. Zaak, R. Sroka, W. Khoder, C. C. Adam, S. Tritschler, A. Karl, O. Reich, R. Knuechel, R. Baumgartner, D. Tilki, G. Popken, A. Hofstetter, and C. G. Stief, “Photodynamic Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid—First Clinical Experiences,” Urology 72(2), 345–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Al-Ageily, M.

V. Masilamani, K. Al-Zhrani, M. Al-Salhi, A. Al-Diab, and M. Al-Ageily, “Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components,” J. Lumin. 109(3-4), 143–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Albertsen, P. C.

J. L. Stanford, A. S. Hamilton, F. D. Gilliland, R. A. Stephenson, J. W. Eley, P. C. Albertsen, L. C. Harlan, and A. L. Potosky, “After Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer The Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study,” 1024, (2015).

Al-Diab, A.

V. Masilamani, K. Al-Zhrani, M. Al-Salhi, A. Al-Diab, and M. Al-Ageily, “Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components,” J. Lumin. 109(3-4), 143–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, Y. Yang, and R. R. Alfano, “Stokes shift spectroscopic analysis of multifluorophores for human cancer detection in breast and prostate tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017005 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ebenezar, Y. Pu, W. Wang, Y. Yang, and R. R. Alfano, “Stokes shift spectroscopy pilot study for cancerous and normal prostate tissues,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Pu, W. Wang, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Changes of collagen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in human cancerous and normal prostate tissues studied using native fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047008 (2010).
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R. R. Alfano, S. J. Wahl, A. Pradhan, and G. C. Tang, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(5), 1015 (1989).
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Al-Salhi, M.

V. Masilamani, K. Al-Zhrani, M. Al-Salhi, A. Al-Diab, and M. Al-Ageily, “Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components,” J. Lumin. 109(3-4), 143–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Al-Zhrani, K.

V. Masilamani, K. Al-Zhrani, M. Al-Salhi, A. Al-Diab, and M. Al-Ageily, “Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components,” J. Lumin. 109(3-4), 143–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Amling, C. L.

M. L. Blute, D. G. Bostwick, E. J. Bergstralh, J. M. Slezak, S. K. Martin, C. L. Amling, and H. Zincke, “Anatomic site-specific positive margins in organ-confined prostate cancer and its impact on outcome after radical prostatectomy,” Urology 50(5), 733–739 (1997).
[Crossref]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Andrews, P. E.

M. D. Tyson, P. E. Andrews, R. F. Ferrigni, M. R. Humphreys, A. S. Parker, and E. P. Castle, “Radical Prostatectomy Trends in the United States: 1998 to 2011,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 91(1), 10–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Angelo, J. P.

J. P. Angelo, S.-J. Chen, M. Ochoa, U. Sunar, S. Gioux, X. Intes, S.-J. Chen, M. Ochoa, U. Sunar, and S. Gioux, “Review of structured light in diffuse optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(07), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. A. Valdés, J. P. Angelo, H. S. Choi, and S. Gioux, “qF-SSOP: real-time optical property corrected fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3597 (2017).
[Crossref]

Angulo-rodriguez, L.

L. Angulo-rodriguez, Y. Badawy, and F. Leblond, “Development and Validation of Phase-Shifting Profilometry Using a Hyperspectral Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging System Integrated with a Neurosurgical Microscope,” J. Bioeng. Biomed. Sci. 9, 1000257 (2019).

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging,” Biophys. J. 60(6), 1374–1387 (1991).
[Crossref]

Artibani, W.

V. Ficarra, G. Novara, W. Artibani, A. Cestari, A. Galfano, M. Graefen, G. Guazzoni, B. Guillonneau, M. Menon, F. Montorsi, V. Patel, J. Rassweiler, and H. Van Poppel, “Retropubic, Laparoscopic, and Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review and Cumulative Analysis of Comparative Studies,” Eur. Urol. 55(5), 1037–1063 (2009).
[Crossref]

Artis, A. S.

J. A. Halpern, J. E. Shoag, A. S. Artis, K. V. Ballman, A. Sedrakyan, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, Y. C. T. Shih, and J. C. Hu, “National trends in prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy volumes following the us preventive services task force guidelines against prostate-specific antigen screening,” JAMA Surg. 152(2), 192–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aubertin, K.

K. Aubertin, V. Q. Trinh, M. Jermyn, P. Baksic, A. Grosset, J. Desroches, K. St-arnaud, M. Birlea, M. Vladoiu, and M. Latour, “Mesoscopic characterization of prostate cancer using Raman spectroscopy: potential for diagnostics and therapeutics,” BJU Int. 122(2), 326–336 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ayala, G.

G. Ayala, J. A. Tuxhorn, T. M. Wheeler, A. Frolov, P. T. Scardino, M. Ohori, M. Wheeler, J. Spitler, and D. R. Rowley, “Reactive Stroma as a Predictor of Biochemical-Free Recurrence in Prostate Cancer,” Clin. Cancer Res. 9(13), 4792–4801 (2003).

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aygun-Sunar, S.

J. Kress, D. J. Rohrbach, K. A. Carter, D. Luo, C. Poon, S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Shao, S. Lele, J. F. Lovell, and U. Sunar, “A dual-channel endoscope for quantitative imaging, monitoring, and triggering of doxorubicin release from liposomes in living mice,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15578 (2017).
[Crossref]

Badawy, Y.

L. Angulo-rodriguez, Y. Badawy, and F. Leblond, “Development and Validation of Phase-Shifting Profilometry Using a Hyperspectral Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging System Integrated with a Neurosurgical Microscope,” J. Bioeng. Biomed. Sci. 9, 1000257 (2019).

Baksic, P.

K. Aubertin, V. Q. Trinh, M. Jermyn, P. Baksic, A. Grosset, J. Desroches, K. St-arnaud, M. Birlea, M. Vladoiu, and M. Latour, “Mesoscopic characterization of prostate cancer using Raman spectroscopy: potential for diagnostics and therapeutics,” BJU Int. 122(2), 326–336 (2018).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of the multimodal imaging system. (b) System schematics highlighting coupling optics and the two imaging branches allowing diffuse reflectance & fluorescence spectroscopy, single-wavelength SFDI and profilometry. (c) Flowchart representing the data acquisition and processing workflow.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Data processing flowchart for reflectance & fluorescence spectroscopy imaging. Also shown are representative images of a shading correction applied to a layer of fluorescent beads (excitation wavelength: 405 nm, emission wavelength: 505 nm, bead diameters: 255-500 µm, Cospheric, USA) as well as a representative relative intensity spectral correction associated with the instrument response.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured vs. theoretical optical properties: (a) absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients in the low absorption regime, (c) absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients in the high absorption regime. Each point in (a) and (c) is associated with a different scattering value whereas each point in (c) and (d) is associated to a different absorption value.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients averages on staircase steps with and without the geometric correction. (c) Absorption and (d) reduced scattering coefficients averages computed on sections (Δθ = 5°) of the quarter-sphere centered at an azimuthal angle θ with and without the geometric correction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured PpIX emission peak intensity as a function of the real PpIX concentration in liquid optical phantoms: (a) raw fluorescence and (b) attenuation-corrected fluorescence. Each phantom is represented by a point with a different color, each corresponding to a different value of absorption and reduced scattering coefficient.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Photograph (top right) and optical images of a prostate specimen slice in terms of the absorption coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient and the integral under the curve of reflectance, raw fluorescence, and attenuation-corrected fluorescence (CF) spectra.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Photograph of the prostate specimen with biologically-distinct regions identified by a pathologist: 1) anterior stroma, 2) urethra, 3) hyperplasia, 4) ejaculatory ducts, 5) peri-prostatic, 6) peripheral zone. Average spectra computed for each region of interest. (b) Attenuation-corrected fluorescence (CF), (c) reflectance and (d) raw fluorescence. The colors of the contour delineations in (a) match the colors of their associated spectra in (b), (c) and (d).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Boxplots comparing (a) the SNR per spectral band, (b) the attenuation-corrected fluorescence (CF), (c) the absorption coefficient and (d) the reduced scattering coefficient of all prostate regions: 1) anterior stroma, 2) urethra, 3) hyperplasia, 4) ejaculatory ducts, 5) peri-prostatic, 6) peripheral zone. Outliers are represented by red crosses.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Boxplots comparing (a) the SNR per spectral band, (b) the attenuation-corrected fluorescence (CF), (c) the absorption coefficient and (d) the reduced scattering coefficient between prostatic and extra-prostatic regions of the specimen. Outliers are represented as by red crosses.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Average and standard deviation of the optical biomarkers for each region of the prostate specimen interrogated with the imaging system, including the number of image pixels over which they were computed and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per spectral band.

Equations (1)

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CF ( λ ) = ( μ a , x 1 R t , x ) ( F r a w ( λ ) R ( λ ) ) ,