Abstract

Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Rapid diagnosis of infections in LMICs presents many challenges, especially in rural areas where access to health care, including diagnostics, is poor. Microscopy is one of the most commonly used platforms to diagnose bacterial infections on clinical samples. Fluorescence microscopy has high sensitivity and specificity but to date is mostly performed within a laboratory setting due to the high-cost, low portability and highly specialist nature of equipment. Point-of-care diagnostics could offer a solution to the challenge of infection diagnosis in LMICs. In this paper we present frugal, easy to manufacture, doped polydimethylsiloxane filtering optical lenses that can be integrated into smartphone microscopes for immediate detection of fluorescently labelled bacteria. This provides a breakthrough technology platform for point-of-care diagnostics.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2019 (3)

P. Gordon, V. Venancio, S. Mertens-Talcott, and G. Coté, “Portable bright-field, fluorescence, and cross-polarized microscope toward point-of-care imaging diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(09), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Dai, Z. Jiao, L. Zheng, H. Bachman, Y. Fu, X. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y. Huang, X. Han, C. Zhao, T. J. Huang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Colour compound lenses for a portable fluorescence microscope,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 75 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kamariza, P. Shieh, C. S. Ealand, J. S. Peters, B. Chu, F. P. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. R. Babu Sait, W. V. Treuren, N. Martinson, R. Kalscheuer, B. D. Kana, and C. R. Bertozzi, “Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(430), eaam6310 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. Sung, F. Campa, and W.-C. Shih, “Open-source do-it-yourself multi-color fluorescence smartphone microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5075–5086 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. S. Kosack, A.-L. Page, and P. R. Klatser, “A guide to aid the selection of diagnostic tests,” Bull. W. H. O. 95(9), 639–645 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. Damodara, D. George, and A. K. Sen, “Single step fabrication and characterization of PDMS micro lens and its use in optocapillary flow manipulation,” Sens. Actuators, B 227, 383–392 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sharkey, D. C. W. Foo, A. Kabla, J. J. Baumberg, and R. W. Bowman, “A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(2), 025104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Roda, E. Michelini, M. Zangheri, M. Di Fusco, D. Calabria, and P. Simoni, “Smartphone-based biosensors: A critical review and perspectives,” TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 79, 317–325 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-C. Liao, J. Peng, M. G. Mauk, S. Awasthi, J. Song, H. Friedman, H. H. Bau, and C. Liu, “Smart Cup: A Minimally-Instrumented, Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Device,” Sens. Actuators, B 229, 232–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. McDowell and M. Pai, “Treatment as diagnosis and diagnosis as treatment: empirical management of presumptive tuberculosis in India,” Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. 20(4), 536–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Caulfield and N. L. Wengenack, “Diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease: From microscopy to molecular techniques,” J. Clin. Tuberc. Other Mycobact. Dis. 4, 33–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

É. M. Ansbro, M. M. Gill, J. Reynolds, K. D. Shelley, S. Strasser, T. Sripipatana, A. Tshaka Ncube, G. Tembo Mumba, F. Terris-Prestholt, R. W. Peeling, and D. Mabey, “Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance,” PLoS One 10(6), e0127728 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, L. Wang, and F. Xu, “Advances in Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 236–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singhal and V. P. Myneedu, “Microscopy as a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis,” Int. J. Mycobact. 4(1), 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jayawardana, S. A. Wijesundera, and M. Yan, “Aggregation-based detection of M. smegmatis using d-arabinose-functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. 51(88), 15964–15966 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. C. Pierce, S. E. Weigum, J. M. Jaslove, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Optical Systems for Point-of-care Diagnostic Instrumentation: Analysis of Imaging Performance and Cost,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42(1), 231–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ryan, H. M. Shapiro, and A. J. Lenaerts, “Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach,” Tuberculosis 94(5), 511–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

X. Mao and T. J. Huang, “Microfluidic diagnostics for the developing world,” Lab Chip 12(8), 1412–1416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Adiguzel and H. Kulah, “CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Sensors 12(8), 10042–10066 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Driks, F. Weinhold, and Q. Cokingtin, “Pneumonia caused by Mycobacterium smegmatis in a patient with a previous gastrectomy,” BMJ Case Rep. 2011(jan27 1), bcr0820103281 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

C. A. Best and T. J. Best, “Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of the hand,” Hand 4(2), 165–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Vykoukal, G. P. Stone, P. R. C. Gascoyne, E. U. Alt, and J. Vykoukal, “Quantitative Detection of Bioassays with a Low-Cost Image-Sensor Array for Integrated Microsystems,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48(41), 7649–7654 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adiguzel, Y.

Y. Adiguzel and H. Kulah, “CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Sensors 12(8), 10042–10066 (2012).
[Crossref]

Affolabi, D.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aidara Kane, A.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akay, A.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, L. Wang, and F. Xu, “Advances in Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 236–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akram, A. R.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al-Aghbari, N.

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alapat, D.

A. Powless, L. Feekin, J. Hutcheson, D. Alapat, and T. Muldoon, Low-cost Computing and Network Communication for a Point-of-care Device to Perform a 3-part Leukocyte Differential, SPIE BiOS (SPIE, 2016), Vol. 9715.

Almotawa, A.

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Al-Sonboli, N.

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alt, E. U.

D. M. Vykoukal, G. P. Stone, P. R. C. Gascoyne, E. U. Alt, and J. Vykoukal, “Quantitative Detection of Bioassays with a Low-Cost Image-Sensor Array for Integrated Microsystems,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48(41), 7649–7654 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ansbro, É. M.

É. M. Ansbro, M. M. Gill, J. Reynolds, K. D. Shelley, S. Strasser, T. Sripipatana, A. Tshaka Ncube, G. Tembo Mumba, F. Terris-Prestholt, R. W. Peeling, and D. Mabey, “Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance,” PLoS One 10(6), e0127728 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
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A. Roda, E. Michelini, M. Zangheri, M. Di Fusco, D. Calabria, and P. Simoni, “Smartphone-based biosensors: A critical review and perspectives,” TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 79, 317–325 (2016).
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M. Driks, F. Weinhold, and Q. Cokingtin, “Pneumonia caused by Mycobacterium smegmatis in a patient with a previous gastrectomy,” BMJ Case Rep. 2011(jan27 1), bcr0820103281 (2011).
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L. Wicks, G. Cairns, J. Melnyk, S. Bryce, R. Duncan, and P. Dalgarno, “EnLightenment: High resolution smartphone microscopy as an educational and public engagement platform [version 2; peer review: 2 approved],” Wellcome Open Research 2 (2018).

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M. Kamariza, P. Shieh, C. S. Ealand, J. S. Peters, B. Chu, F. P. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. R. Babu Sait, W. V. Treuren, N. Martinson, R. Kalscheuer, B. D. Kana, and C. R. Bertozzi, “Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(430), eaam6310 (2018).
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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
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J. P. Sharkey, D. C. W. Foo, A. Kabla, J. J. Baumberg, and R. W. Bowman, “A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(2), 025104 (2016).
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P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
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S.-C. Liao, J. Peng, M. G. Mauk, S. Awasthi, J. Song, H. Friedman, H. H. Bau, and C. Liu, “Smart Cup: A Minimally-Instrumented, Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Device,” Sens. Actuators, B 229, 232–238 (2016).
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B. Dai, Z. Jiao, L. Zheng, H. Bachman, Y. Fu, X. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y. Huang, X. Han, C. Zhao, T. J. Huang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Colour compound lenses for a portable fluorescence microscope,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 75 (2019).
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A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
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É. M. Ansbro, M. M. Gill, J. Reynolds, K. D. Shelley, S. Strasser, T. Sripipatana, A. Tshaka Ncube, G. Tembo Mumba, F. Terris-Prestholt, R. W. Peeling, and D. Mabey, “Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance,” PLoS One 10(6), e0127728 (2015).
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Martinson, N.

M. Kamariza, P. Shieh, C. S. Ealand, J. S. Peters, B. Chu, F. P. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. R. Babu Sait, W. V. Treuren, N. Martinson, R. Kalscheuer, B. D. Kana, and C. R. Bertozzi, “Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(430), eaam6310 (2018).
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Martiny, D.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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Mauk, M. G.

S.-C. Liao, J. Peng, M. G. Mauk, S. Awasthi, J. Song, H. Friedman, H. H. Bau, and C. Liu, “Smart Cup: A Minimally-Instrumented, Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Device,” Sens. Actuators, B 229, 232–238 (2016).
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A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
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A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
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A. McDowell and M. Pai, “Treatment as diagnosis and diagnosis as treatment: empirical management of presumptive tuberculosis in India,” Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. 20(4), 536–543 (2016).
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A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
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P. Gordon, V. Venancio, S. Mertens-Talcott, and G. Coté, “Portable bright-field, fluorescence, and cross-polarized microscope toward point-of-care imaging diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(09), 1 (2019).
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A. Roda, E. Michelini, M. Zangheri, M. Di Fusco, D. Calabria, and P. Simoni, “Smartphone-based biosensors: A critical review and perspectives,” TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 79, 317–325 (2016).
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Mills, B.

A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
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A. Powless, L. Feekin, J. Hutcheson, D. Alapat, and T. Muldoon, Low-cost Computing and Network Communication for a Point-of-care Device to Perform a 3-part Leukocyte Differential, SPIE BiOS (SPIE, 2016), Vol. 9715.

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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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A. McDowell and M. Pai, “Treatment as diagnosis and diagnosis as treatment: empirical management of presumptive tuberculosis in India,” Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. 20(4), 536–543 (2016).
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K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
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K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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M. C. Pierce, S. E. Weigum, J. M. Jaslove, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Optical Systems for Point-of-care Diagnostic Instrumentation: Analysis of Imaging Performance and Cost,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42(1), 231–240 (2014).
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X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, L. Wang, and F. Xu, “Advances in Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 236–247 (2015).
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Poljak, M.

D. S. Y. Ong and M. Poljak, “Smartphones as mobile microbiological laboratories,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2019).

Powless, A.

A. Powless, L. Feekin, J. Hutcheson, D. Alapat, and T. Muldoon, Low-cost Computing and Network Communication for a Point-of-care Device to Perform a 3-part Leukocyte Differential, SPIE BiOS (SPIE, 2016), Vol. 9715.

Qi, H.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
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A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
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K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
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Reynolds, J.

É. M. Ansbro, M. M. Gill, J. Reynolds, K. D. Shelley, S. Strasser, T. Sripipatana, A. Tshaka Ncube, G. Tembo Mumba, F. Terris-Prestholt, R. W. Peeling, and D. Mabey, “Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance,” PLoS One 10(6), e0127728 (2015).
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Richards-Kortum, R.

M. C. Pierce, S. E. Weigum, J. M. Jaslove, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Optical Systems for Point-of-care Diagnostic Instrumentation: Analysis of Imaging Performance and Cost,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42(1), 231–240 (2014).
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A. Roda, E. Michelini, M. Zangheri, M. Di Fusco, D. Calabria, and P. Simoni, “Smartphone-based biosensors: A critical review and perspectives,” TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 79, 317–325 (2016).
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Rodriguez, W.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
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Rodriguez-Rivera, F. P.

M. Kamariza, P. Shieh, C. S. Ealand, J. S. Peters, B. Chu, F. P. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. R. Babu Sait, W. V. Treuren, N. Martinson, R. Kalscheuer, B. D. Kana, and C. R. Bertozzi, “Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(430), eaam6310 (2018).
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Ronat, J.-B.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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G. J. Ryan, H. M. Shapiro, and A. J. Lenaerts, “Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach,” Tuberculosis 94(5), 511–518 (2014).
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Scholefield, E.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, E. Scholefield, M. Vendrell, N. McDonald, T. Aslam, T. H. Craven, C. Gray, D. S. Collie, A. J. Fisher, P. A. Corris, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “Enhanced avidity from a multivalent fluorescent antimicrobial peptide enables pathogen detection in a human lung model,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 8422 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
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Schultsz, C.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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Seifu, D.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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Semret, M.

S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
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Shapiro, H. M.

G. J. Ryan, H. M. Shapiro, and A. J. Lenaerts, “Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach,” Tuberculosis 94(5), 511–518 (2014).
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J. P. Sharkey, D. C. W. Foo, A. Kabla, J. J. Baumberg, and R. W. Bowman, “A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(2), 025104 (2016).
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Shelley, K. D.

É. M. Ansbro, M. M. Gill, J. Reynolds, K. D. Shelley, S. Strasser, T. Sripipatana, A. Tshaka Ncube, G. Tembo Mumba, F. Terris-Prestholt, R. W. Peeling, and D. Mabey, “Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance,” PLoS One 10(6), e0127728 (2015).
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Sherchand, J. B.

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
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Shieh, P.

M. Kamariza, P. Shieh, C. S. Ealand, J. S. Peters, B. Chu, F. P. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. R. Babu Sait, W. V. Treuren, N. Martinson, R. Kalscheuer, B. D. Kana, and C. R. Bertozzi, “Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(430), eaam6310 (2018).
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Y. Sung, F. Campa, and W.-C. Shih, “Open-source do-it-yourself multi-color fluorescence smartphone microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5075–5086 (2017).
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Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
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Simoni, P.

A. Roda, E. Michelini, M. Zangheri, M. Di Fusco, D. Calabria, and P. Simoni, “Smartphone-based biosensors: A critical review and perspectives,” TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 79, 317–325 (2016).
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Singhal, R.

R. Singhal and V. P. Myneedu, “Microscopy as a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis,” Int. J. Mycobact. 4(1), 1–6 (2015).
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A. R. Akram, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, T. Aslam, N. McDonald, A. Megia-Fernandez, A. Marshall, B. Mills, N. Avlonitis, T. H. Craven, A. M. Smyth, D. S. Collie, C. Gray, N. Hirani, A. T. Hill, J. R. Govan, T. Walsh, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, “In situ identification of Gram-negative bacteria in human lungs using a topical fluorescent peptide targeting lipid A,” Sci. Transl. Med. 10(464), eaal0033 (2018).
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K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
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X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, L. Wang, and F. Xu, “Advances in Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 236–247 (2015).
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B. Dai, Z. Jiao, L. Zheng, H. Bachman, Y. Fu, X. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y. Huang, X. Han, C. Zhao, T. J. Huang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Colour compound lenses for a portable fluorescence microscope,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 75 (2019).
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ACS Nano (1)

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
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Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

D. M. Vykoukal, G. P. Stone, P. R. C. Gascoyne, E. U. Alt, and J. Vykoukal, “Quantitative Detection of Bioassays with a Low-Cost Image-Sensor Array for Integrated Microsystems,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48(41), 7649–7654 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. C. Pierce, S. E. Weigum, J. M. Jaslove, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Optical Systems for Point-of-care Diagnostic Instrumentation: Analysis of Imaging Performance and Cost,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42(1), 231–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BMJ Case Rep. (1)

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Chem. Commun. (1)

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R. Singhal and V. P. Myneedu, “Microscopy as a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis,” Int. J. Mycobact. 4(1), 1–6 (2015).
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Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. (1)

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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Gordon, V. Venancio, S. Mertens-Talcott, and G. Coté, “Portable bright-field, fluorescence, and cross-polarized microscope toward point-of-care imaging diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(09), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Tuberc. Other Mycobact. Dis. (1)

A. J. Caulfield and N. L. Wengenack, “Diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease: From microscopy to molecular techniques,” J. Clin. Tuberc. Other Mycobact. Dis. 4, 33–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1)

A. Ramsay, M. A. Yassin, A. Cambanis, S. Hirao, A. Almotawa, M. Gammo, L. Lawson, I. Arbide, N. Al-Aghbari, N. Al-Sonboli, J. B. Sherchand, P. Gauchan, and L. E. Cuevas, “Front-loading sputum microscopy services: an opportunity to optimise smear-based case detection of tuberculosis in high prevalence countries,” J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009, 1–6 (2009).
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Lab Chip (1)

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Lancet Infect. Dis. (3)

K. R. Steingart, M. Henry, V. Ng, P. C. Hopewell, A. Ramsay, J. Cunningham, R. Urbanczik, M. Perkins, M. A. Aziz, and M. Pai, “Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 6(9), 570–581 (2006).
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S. Ombelet, J.-B. Ronat, T. Walsh, C. P. Yansouni, J. Cox, E. Vlieghe, D. Martiny, M. Semret, O. Vandenberg, J. Jacobs, O. Lunguya, M.-F. Phoba, P. Lompo, T. Phe, S. Kariuki, P. N. Newton, D. A. B. Dance, C. Muvunyi, S. El Safi, B. Barbe, D. Falay, D. Affolabi, M. Page, C. Langendorf, Y. Gille, T. Leenstra, J. Stelling, T. Naas, T. Kesteman, D. Seifu, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Schultsz, H. Schutt-Gerowitt, J. Letchford, H. Wertheim, G. Kahlmeter, and A. Aidara Kane, “Clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings: today's solutions,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 18(8), e248–e258 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The doping in the PDMS lenses does not affect the ability for the lens to focus light. (A) Hand syringed filtering 25 µL PDMS lenses doped with green silicone pig dye at 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% by weight as shown in each row. The lenses were fabricated at increasing temperatures as shown in each column with 150 °C on the left, increasing to 225 °C on the right. (B) The usable diameter/clear aperture of the 10 µL and 25 µL lenses is 1.03 mm and 1.85 mm, respectively, as measured using Image J. (C) Focal length schematic showing LED light source attached to optical fibre with a collimating lens (L1), iris and PDMS lens (LPDMS). The camera is mounted onto a z-stage and attached to the computer. (D) With increasing temperature the focal length of the lenses reduced. The doping has no effect on the behavior of the lens with the 0%, 3% and 10% behaving with a similar pattern. Data shown for 25 µL lenses, with each lens shown by a single point. (E) The lower volume lenses (10 µL) have a smaller focal length than the larger 25 µL lenses, with the doping having little effect on the behavior of the lens. Each point represents a single filtering lens manufactured at 225 °C.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Adding a doping dye to the PDMS lenses does not alter geometry of the lens. The contact angles relative curvature were measured using the Image J plug-ins. (A) With increasing temperature the contact angle increased for the 25 µL lenses. The doping has no effect on the contact angle on the lens with the lenses within each temperature grouping having similar contact angle. Each point represents the average contact angle of three separate lenses, manufactured at a given temperature and doping, with error bars showing the s.e.m. (B) The contact angle correlates with the focal length, with greater variation at lower focal lengths. Doping the lens does not affect this trend. Each point represents a single lens with n = 3 IFLs measured for each temperature. (C) The relative curvature (R) of the lenses (proportional to the focal length) is dependent on temperature. The 10 µL lenses have a lower R. The doping has no effect on R. Each point is represented by the average of three lenses with error bars denoting the s.e.m of the group.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The IFLs have the ability to filter light in the visible spectrum. Transmission schematic (A) for setup with fibre coupled white light source into a collimating lens (L1), iris and PDMS filtering lens (LPDMS). There is an additional lens to focus the light into a second optical fibre (L2) feeding to the fibre coupled spectrometer. (B) % transmission spectra measured by the spectrometer for the green IFLs (labelled G) and red 1% IFLs (labelled R) over the visible spectrum. (C) Transmission spectra for green IFLs 1% to 10%. The green IFLs show a concentration dependent response with 10% lens blocking more light than the 1% IFLs across the spectrum. Transmission peak at 545 nm displaying the IFLs ability to transmit green light. (D) Optical density plot for the filtering lens showing that the higher doped IFLs had a greater optical density than the lower doped IFLs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The filtering PDMS IFLs are able to image fluorescent targets with a resolution of 3 µm, including labelled M. smegmatis on a OnePlus 5 T smartphone. (A) Schematic of the smartphone microscope setup with IFL attached directly to the camera lens, with a glass slide bearing fluorescently labelled sample illuminated by a white LED light source. (B) Smartphone with PDMS IFL on the front camera imaging USAF targets. Top, left-right: positive USAF 1951 target Group 6 imaged with 25 µL IFLs at 0%, 1% and 3%. Resolution achieved is 4.4 µm. Bottom, left-right: positive USAF 1951 target Group 6 imaged with 10 µL IFLs at 0%, 1% and 3% IFL. Resolution achieved is 3.1 µm, scale bar shows 5 µm. (C) Representative imaging of fluorescently labelled M. smegmatis captured with the smartphone with either 0% or 3% doped IFL (digital zoom 1.8x or 8x) or wide-field fluorescent microscope (20x objective). All images shown to scale with full FOV captured. Scale bar shows 250 µm. (D) Fluorescent images shown in (C) scaled to show the same size FOV for comparison of image quality taken from the same location at 1.8 x zoom (left) and 8x zoom (right). Scale bar shows 100 µm.

Equations (2)

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1 f n 2 n 1 n 1 ( 1 R 1 1 R 2 ) ,
R 2 0.4 f ,