Abstract

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive high-resolution optical imaging technique used in clinical settings as a diagnostic method. However, RCM has limited diagnostic ability by providing non-specific morphological information only based on reflection contrast. Various multimodal imaging techniques have been developed to compensate the limitations of RCM, but multimodal techniques are often slow in imaging speed compared to RCM alone. In this report, we combined RCM with moxifloxacin based two-photon microscopy (TPM) for high-speed multimodal imaging. Moxifloxacin based TPM used clinically compatible moxifloxacin for cell labeling and could do non-invasive cellular imaging at 30 frames/s together with RCM. Performance of the combined microscopy was characterized in the imaging of mouse skin and cornea, in vivo. Detail tissue microstructures including cells, extra-cellular matrix (ECM), and vasculature were visualized. The combined microscopy was applied to human skin cancer specimens, and both cells and ECM in the skin cancer and normal skin regions were visualized at high imaging speeds. The combined microscopy can be useful in the clinical applications of RCM by providing multiple contrasts.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

Z. G. Wu, L. W. Jiang, W. B. Wang, J. H. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. S. Zeng, “Precise in vivo tissue micro-Raman spectroscopy with simultaneous reflectance confocal microscopy monitoring using a single laser,” Opt. Lett. 44(6), 1383–1386 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (2)

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Park, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison of reflectance confocal microscopy and two-photon second harmonic generation microscopy in fungal keratitis rabbit model ex vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(2), 677–687 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. W. Zhi, and R. K. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Levet, D. Ciais, G. Merdzhanova, C. Mallet, T. A. Zimmers, S. Lee, F. P. Navarro, I. Texier, J. Feige, S. Bailly, and D. Vittet, “Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) controls lymphatic vessel maturation and valve formation,” Blood 122(4), 598–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. A. Patil, C. L. Arrasmith, M. A. Mackanos, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A handheld laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging-confocal Raman microspectroscopy system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 488–502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Pan, J. R. Lin, T. T. Cheng, J. Q. Wu, and W. Y. Wu, “In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(12), 1945–1950 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. C. Ledbetter, N. L. Irby, and S. G. Kim, “In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis,” Vet. Ophthalmol. 14(1), 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Ziefle, D. Schule, H. Breuninger, W. Schippert, and M. Moehrle, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy vs 3-Dimensional Histologic Imaging in Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 146(8), 843–847 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

W. L. Chen, Y. Sun, W. Lo, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Combination of multiphoton and reflective confocal imaging of cornea,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(2), 83–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

A. L. Carlson, L. G. Coghlan, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Dual-mode reflectance and fluorescence near-video-rate confocal microscope for architectural, morphological and molecular imaging of tissue,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 11–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Al-Arashi, E. Salomatina, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 696–705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. B. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, “Image denoising by sparse 3-D transform-domain collaborative filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(8), 2080–2095 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Gonzalez and Z. Tannous, “Real-time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47(6), 869–874 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, “In-Vivo Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy of Human Skin - Melanin Provides Strong Contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ahn, G. O.

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Arashi, M. Y.

M. Y. Al-Arashi, E. Salomatina, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 696–705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aranda, I.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. B. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aranda, L.

Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arrasmith, C. L.

Bailly, S.

S. Levet, D. Ciais, G. Merdzhanova, C. Mallet, T. A. Zimmers, S. Lee, F. P. Navarro, I. Texier, J. Feige, S. Bailly, and D. Vittet, “Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) controls lymphatic vessel maturation and valve formation,” Blood 122(4), 598–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balu, M.

G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baudouin, C.

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bok, S.

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Borderie, V.

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bourcier, T.

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brasnu, E.

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Breuninger, H.

S. Ziefle, D. Schule, H. Breuninger, W. Schippert, and M. Moehrle, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy vs 3-Dimensional Histologic Imaging in Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 146(8), 843–847 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carlson, A. L.

A. L. Carlson, L. G. Coghlan, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Dual-mode reflectance and fluorescence near-video-rate confocal microscope for architectural, morphological and molecular imaging of tissue,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 11–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Chang, T. P.

M. Hughes, V. Simaiaki, T. P. Chang, and G. Z. Yang, “Dual mode fibre bundle confocal endomicroscopy: combining reflectance and fluorescence imaging,” Advanced Microscopy Techniques Iii 8797(2013).

Chen, J. X.

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chen, Y. Sun, W. Lo, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Combination of multiphoton and reflective confocal imaging of cornea,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(2), 83–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T. T.

Z. Y. Pan, J. R. Lin, T. T. Cheng, J. Q. Wu, and W. Y. Wu, “In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(12), 1945–1950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

Chou, C. K.

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V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
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R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2009).
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K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, “Image denoising by sparse 3-D transform-domain collaborative filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(8), 2080–2095 (2007).
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K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, “Image denoising by sparse 3-D transform-domain collaborative filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(8), 2080–2095 (2007).
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G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
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T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
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A. L. Carlson, L. G. Coghlan, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Dual-mode reflectance and fluorescence near-video-rate confocal microscope for architectural, morphological and molecular imaging of tissue,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 11–24 (2007).
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Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
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M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, “In-Vivo Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy of Human Skin - Melanin Provides Strong Contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
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Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. B. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
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Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
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G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
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M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
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T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
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M. Hughes, V. Simaiaki, T. P. Chang, and G. Z. Yang, “Dual mode fibre bundle confocal endomicroscopy: combining reflectance and fluorescence imaging,” Advanced Microscopy Techniques Iii 8797(2013).

Hwang, S.

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Irby, N. L.

E. C. Ledbetter, N. L. Irby, and S. G. Kim, “In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis,” Vet. Ophthalmol. 14(1), 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, M. H.

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, W. H.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, W. Kim, S. Kwon, S. Lee, D. Song, J. W. Choi, and K. H. Kim, “Visualization of laser tattoo removal treatment effects in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3735–3748 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Jang, W. S.

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jee, S. H.

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
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Jiang, L. W.

Jiang, X. S.

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jun, Y. W.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2009).
[Crossref]

Katkovnik, V.

K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, “Image denoising by sparse 3-D transform-domain collaborative filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(8), 2080–2095 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. M.

M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Kim, D.

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, W. Kim, S. Kwon, S. Lee, D. Song, J. W. Choi, and K. H. Kim, “Visualization of laser tattoo removal treatment effects in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3735–3748 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Park, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison of reflectance confocal microscopy and two-photon second harmonic generation microscopy in fungal keratitis rabbit model ex vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(2), 677–687 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Kim, M. J.

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Park, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison of reflectance confocal microscopy and two-photon second harmonic generation microscopy in fungal keratitis rabbit model ex vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(2), 677–687 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Kim, S.

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

E. C. Ledbetter, N. L. Irby, and S. G. Kim, “In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis,” Vet. Ophthalmol. 14(1), 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.

Kim, W. O.

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Konig, K.

G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korta, D. Z.

M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krasieva, T. B.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, W. Kim, S. Kwon, S. Lee, D. Song, J. W. Choi, and K. H. Kim, “Visualization of laser tattoo removal treatment effects in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3735–3748 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laroche, L.

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Le, V. H.

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. W. Zhi, and R. K. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
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Wang, T.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
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T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
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Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, “In-Vivo Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy of Human Skin - Melanin Provides Strong Contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
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Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
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Williams, J.

G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
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Wolchok, J.

Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
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Wu, J. Q.

Z. Y. Pan, J. R. Lin, T. T. Cheng, J. Q. Wu, and W. Y. Wu, “In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(12), 1945–1950 (2012).
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Wu, W. Y.

Z. Y. Pan, J. R. Lin, T. T. Cheng, J. Q. Wu, and W. Y. Wu, “In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(12), 1945–1950 (2012).
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Wu, Z. G.

Xie, S. S.

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
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Yang, G. Z.

M. Hughes, V. Simaiaki, T. P. Chang, and G. Z. Yang, “Dual mode fibre bundle confocal endomicroscopy: combining reflectance and fluorescence imaging,” Advanced Microscopy Techniques Iii 8797(2013).

Yang, S.

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
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Yaroslavsky, A. N.

M. Y. Al-Arashi, E. Salomatina, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 696–705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. W.

Yoon, C. J.

J. H. Lee, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Park, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison of reflectance confocal microscopy and two-photon second harmonic generation microscopy in fungal keratitis rabbit model ex vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(2), 677–687 (2016).
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T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
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W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, W. Kim, S. Kwon, S. Lee, D. Song, J. W. Choi, and K. H. Kim, “Visualization of laser tattoo removal treatment effects in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3735–3748 (2017).
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V. H. Le, S. W. Yoo, Y. Yoon, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and E. Chung, “Brain tumor delineation enhanced by moxifloxacin-based two-photon/CARS combined microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2148–2161 (2017).
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T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
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S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. W. Zhi, and R. K. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
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M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
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Zhao, J. H.

Zhi, Z. W.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. W. Zhi, and R. K. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuo, S. M.

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ziefle, S.

S. Ziefle, D. Schule, H. Breuninger, W. Schippert, and M. Moehrle, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy vs 3-Dimensional Histologic Imaging in Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 146(8), 843–847 (2010).
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Zimmers, T. A.

S. Levet, D. Ciais, G. Merdzhanova, C. Mallet, T. A. Zimmers, S. Lee, F. P. Navarro, I. Texier, J. Feige, S. Bailly, and D. Vittet, “Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) controls lymphatic vessel maturation and valve formation,” Blood 122(4), 598–607 (2013).
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Arch. Dermatol. (1)

S. Ziefle, D. Schule, H. Breuninger, W. Schippert, and M. Moehrle, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy vs 3-Dimensional Histologic Imaging in Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Arch. Dermatol. 146(8), 843–847 (2010).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Blood (1)

S. Levet, D. Ciais, G. Merdzhanova, C. Mallet, T. A. Zimmers, S. Lee, F. P. Navarro, I. Texier, J. Feige, S. Bailly, and D. Vittet, “Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) controls lymphatic vessel maturation and valve formation,” Blood 122(4), 598–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Brasnu, T. Bourcier, B. Dupas, S. Degorge, T. Rodallec, L. Laroche, V. Borderie, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo confocal microscopy in fungal keratitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(5), 588–591 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

Z. Y. Pan, J. R. Lin, T. T. Cheng, J. Q. Wu, and W. Y. Wu, “In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(12), 1945–1950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. H. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Lee, J. H. Park, J. A. Lee, H. Tchah, S. Kim, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent,” Exp. Eye Res. 174, 51–58 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Image Process. (1)

K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, “Image denoising by sparse 3-D transform-domain collaborative filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(8), 2080–2095 (2007).
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J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

S. Gonzalez and Z. Tannous, “Real-time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47(6), 869–874 (2002).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. B. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. W. Zhi, and R. K. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chen, C. K. Chou, M. G. Lin, Y. F. Chen, S. H. Jee, H. Y. Tan, T. H. Tsai, K. H. Kim, D. Kim, P. T. So, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Single-wavelength reflected confocal and multiphoton microscopy for tissue imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054026 (2009).
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J. Biophoton. (1)

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3(1-2), 34–43 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

W. H. Jang, S. Kwon, S. Shim, W. S. Jang, J. K. Myung, S. Yang, S. Park, and K. H. Kim, “Comparison between reflectance confocal microscopy and 2-photon microscopy in early detection of cutaneous radiation injury in a mouse model in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 11(10), e201700337 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, “In-Vivo Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy of Human Skin - Melanin Provides Strong Contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Li, S. Gonzalez, T. H. Terwey, J. Wolchok, Y. B. Li, L. Aranda, R. Toledo-Crow, and A. C. Halpern, “Dual mode reflectance and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging melanoma progression in murine skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 125(4), 798–804 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. L. Carlson, L. G. Coghlan, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Dual-mode reflectance and fluorescence near-video-rate confocal microscope for architectural, morphological and molecular imaging of tissue,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 11–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

JAMA Dermatol (1)

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. Konig, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, X. S. Jiang, K. C. Lu, and S. S. Xie, “Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(8), 614–618 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

M. Balu, G. Lentsch, D. Z. Korta, K. Konig, K. M. Kelly, B. J. Tromberg, and C. B. Zachary, “In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(6), 555–562 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Al-Arashi, E. Salomatina, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 696–705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

W. L. Chen, Y. Sun, W. Lo, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Combination of multiphoton and reflective confocal imaging of cornea,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(2), 83–85 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. (1)

G. Lentsch, M. Balu, J. Williams, S. Lee, R. M. Harris, K. Konig, A. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, N. Nair, U. Santhanam, and M. Misra, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of melasma,” Pigm. Cell Melanoma Res. 32(3), 403–411 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

T. Wang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, C. J. Yoon, J. H. Lee, B. Kim, S. Hwang, C. P. Hong, Y. Yoon, G. Lee, V. H. Le, S. Bok, G. O. Ahn, J. Lee, Y. S. Gho, E. Chung, S. Kim, M. H. Jang, S. J. Myung, M. J. Kim, P. T. So, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27142 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, T. Wang, W. H. Jang, Y. Yoon, B. Kim, Y. W. Jun, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Three-photon tissue imaging using moxifloxacin,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vet. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. C. Ledbetter, N. L. Irby, and S. G. Kim, “In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis,” Vet. Ophthalmol. 14(1), 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Hughes, V. Simaiaki, T. P. Chang, and G. Z. Yang, “Dual mode fibre bundle confocal endomicroscopy: combining reflectance and fluorescence imaging,” Advanced Microscopy Techniques Iii 8797(2013).

H. Chang, W. H. Jang, S. Lee, B. Kim, M. J. Kim, W. O. Kim, Y. W. Ryoo, B. H. Oh, and K. H. Kim, “Moxifloxacin Labeling-Based Multiphoton Microscopy of Skin Cancers in Asians,” Lasers Surg Med (2019).

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       In vivo 3D moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the mouse ear pinna skin
» Visualization 2       In vivo 3D moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the mouse cornea.
» Visualization 3       Moxifloxacin TP and RC images of human BCC, which is abundant in cancer cells.
» Visualization 4       Moxifloxacin TP and RC images of human BCC, which is abundant in ECM
» Visualization 5       Moxifloxacin TP and RC images of human BCC, which is on the boundary of the cell and ECM rich regions.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of RC and TP combined microscopy
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. In vivo 3D moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the mouse ear pinna skin (Visualization 1). En-face moxifloxacin TP (A1 - F1) and RC (A2 – F2) images at 6 different depths of 4µm, 16µm, 24µm, 41µm, 64µm, 105µm from the skin surface are shown. (A1, 2): the stratum corneum, (B1, 2): the basal layer, (C1, 2 – F1, 2): the dermis at 3 different depths. TP images are color-coded in green and blue scales for moxifloxacin fluorescence and SHG, respectively. RC images are color-coded in gray scale. Blood and lymphatic vessels in the dermis are marked with red and yellow arrowheads, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. In vivo 3D moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the mouse cornea (Visualization 2). En-face moxifloxacin TP (A1 - E1) and RC (A2 – E2) images at 5 different depths of 3µm, 15µm, 20µm, 33µm, 65µm from the surface are shown. (A1 and 2): the superficial epithelium, (B1 and 2): the basal epithelium, (C1 and 2): the sub-basal nerve plexus (yellow arrow), (D1 and 2): the stroma showing nerves (red arrow), (E1 and E2): the endothelium. TP images are color-coded in green and blue scales for moxifloxacin fluorescence and SHG, respectively. RC images are color-coded in gray scale.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Combined en-face images of the mouse corneal stroma and skin dermis, in vivo. (A-C): individual images of the corneal stroma in the moxifloxacin TPF/SHG (A) and RC (B) channels and a combined image (C). In the combined image, the RC channel image was color-coded in red for the enhanced contrast with the TPF/SHG channel image which was color-coded in green and blue. (D-F): individual images of the skin dermis in the moxifloxacin TPF/SHG (D) and RC (E) channels and a combined TPF/SHG and blood flow image (F).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. A bright-field image, histological images, and moxifloxacin TP and RC images (5 mm x 3 mm in size) of a human BCC specimen, ex vivo. (A): a bright-field image of the BCC specimen. (B, C) hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological images in two different scales. A cell-rich region in (B) was marked with a black dash lined square and a zoomed image is shown in (C). (D, E) Large-sectional mosaic moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the human BCC just below the surface. The moxifloxacin TP image was color-coded in green and blue scales for moxifloxacin fluorescence and SHG, respectively. The RC image was color-coded in gray scale. 3 region-of-interests (ROIs) are marked with yellow dash lined squares and zoomed moxifloxacin TP and RC images of the 3 ROIs are shown in (F1, 2 – H1, 2). (F1, 2): moxifloxacin TP and RC images of ROI-1 which is abundant in cancer cells (Visualization 3). (G1-2): moxifloxacin TP and RC images of ROI-2, which is abundant in ECM (Visualization 4). (H1-2): moxifloxacin TP and RC images of ROI-3, which is on the boundary of the cell and ECM rich regions (Visualization 5). Marked with red dash lined squares are zoomed moxifloxacin TP and RC images (I1, 2). (I1, 2): moxifloxacin TP and RC images of sebaceous gland.

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