Abstract

Changes in mucosal microvascular networks, called intraepithelial papillary capillary loops (IPCL), are an important key factor for diagnosing early-stage oral cancer in vivo. Nevertheless, there are a lack of tools to quantify these changes objectively. This is the first study to quantify the IPCL changes in vivo to differentiate benign or malignant oral lesions by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. K14-EGFP-miR-211-GFP transgenic mice were inducted by 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide to produce oral carcinogenesis in different stages, including normal, premalignancy and cancer. The results showed significant differentiation between benign or malignant lesions by OCT quantitative parameters, including epithelial thickness, IPCL density, radius and tortuosity.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. H. Chen, C. H. Wu, Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Yeh, B. H. Lin, K. W. Chang, P. Y. Lai, M. C. Hou, C. L. Lu, and W. C. Kuo, “Combination of structural and vascular optical coherence tomography for differentiating oral lesions of mice in different carcinogenesis stages,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1461–1476 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. J. Choi and R. K. Wang, “In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2620–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

S. C. Sarode and G. S. Sarode, “Better grade of tumor differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in background of oral submucous fibrosis,” Med. Hypotheses 81(4), 540–543 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. C. Kuo, C. M. Lai, Y. S. Huang, C. Y. Chang, and Y. M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Tsai, J. D. Lee, Y. J. Lee, C. K. Lee, H. L. Jin, F. Y. Chang, K. Y. Hu, C. P. Wu, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045602 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

G. Liu, W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7694–7705 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, C. T. Wu, M. T. Tsai, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. F. Lee, W. C. Tsai, and H. H. Weng, “Value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in early mucosal head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 34(11), 1574–1579 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Piazza, D. Cocco, F. Del Bon, S. Mangili, P. Nicolai, and G. Peretti, “Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer,” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital. 31(2), 70–75 (2011).

2010 (1)

W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. M. Mehanna, T. Rattay, J. Smith, and C. C. McConkey, “Treatment and follow-up of oral dysplasia - a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 31(12), 1600–1609 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Holmstrup, P. Vedtofte, J. Reibel, and K. Stoltze, “Oral premalignant lesions: is a biopsy reliable?” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 36(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Cote, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Sys., Man. Cyber. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, J. P.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Eryani, K.

A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amato, M. R.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

Amit, M.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ansari, U. H.

U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
[Crossref]

Applegate, B. E.

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bachar, G.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bemis, D.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref]

Betz, C. S.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bolzoni Villaret, A.

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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
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International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Cote, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
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M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

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International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
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M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

Gil, Z.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref]

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W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Cote, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
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W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Cote, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
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V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

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W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

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V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref]

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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

Kao, M. C.

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kao, S. Y.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref]

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X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref]

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W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, L. P.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

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V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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Kreppel, M.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
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C. Piazza, D. Cocco, F. Del Bon, S. Mangili, P. Nicolai, and G. Peretti, “Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer,” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital. 31(2), 70–75 (2011).

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U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
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S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
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R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
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A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

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Sato, H.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann Gastroenterol 28(1), 41–48 (2015).

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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Serpico, R.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

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International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
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P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
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H. M. Mehanna, T. Rattay, J. Smith, and C. C. McConkey, “Treatment and follow-up of oral dysplasia - a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 31(12), 1600–1609 (2009).
[Crossref]

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U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
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Smith, M. C.

U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
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M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

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V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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P. Holmstrup, P. Vedtofte, J. Reibel, and K. Stoltze, “Oral premalignant lesions: is a biopsy reliable?” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 36(5), 262–266 (2007).
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V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
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M. T. Tsai, J. D. Lee, Y. J. Lee, C. K. Lee, H. L. Jin, F. Y. Chang, K. Y. Hu, C. P. Wu, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045602 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, C. T. Wu, M. T. Tsai, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, W. C.

Y. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. F. Lee, W. C. Tsai, and H. H. Weng, “Value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in early mucosal head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 34(11), 1574–1579 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, Y.

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
[Crossref]

Uno, K.

W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vedtofte, P.

P. Holmstrup, P. Vedtofte, J. Reibel, and K. Stoltze, “Oral premalignant lesions: is a biopsy reliable?” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 36(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vigneswaran, N.

E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
[Crossref]

Volgger, V.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vu, A.

A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. K.

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. J. Choi and R. K. Wang, “In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2620–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. H.

Y. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. F. Lee, W. C. Tsai, and H. H. Weng, “Value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in early mucosal head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 34(11), 1574–1579 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. L.

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. M.

Warnakulasuriya, S.

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weng, H. H.

Y. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. F. Lee, W. C. Tsai, and H. H. Weng, “Value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in early mucosal head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 34(11), 1574–1579 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wong, E.

U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, C. P.

M. T. Tsai, J. D. Lee, Y. J. Lee, C. K. Lee, H. L. Jin, F. Y. Chang, K. Y. Hu, C. P. Wu, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. T.

Xu, J. M.

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, D. X.

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yamana, K.

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, Y.

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, M.

A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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M. T. Tsai, J. D. Lee, Y. J. Lee, C. K. Lee, H. L. Jin, F. Y. Chang, K. Y. Hu, C. P. Wu, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045602 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, C. T. Wu, M. T. Tsai, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, E. C.

E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y. C.

Yen, T. C.

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
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W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, R.

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yousefi, S.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. H.

Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhi, Z.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

Acad. Radiol. (1)

R. Murakami, S. Shiraishi, R. Yoshida, J. Sakata, K. Yamana, A. Hirosue, Y. Uchiyama, H. Nakayama, and Y. Yamashita, “Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer,” Acad. Radiol. 26(7), e180–e186 (2019).
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C. Piazza, D. Cocco, F. Del Bon, S. Mangili, P. Nicolai, and G. Peretti, “Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer,” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital. 31(2), 70–75 (2011).

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Cancer Res. (1)

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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Y. Y. Zhao, D. X. Xue, Y. L. Wang, R. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. P. Cai, H. Feng, Y. Cai, and J. M. Xu, “Computer-assisted diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy,” Endoscopy 51(04), 333–341 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gastrointest Endosc. (1)

W. Hatta, K. Uno, T. Koike, S. Yokosawa, K. Iijima, A. Imatani, and T. Shimosegawa, “Optical coherence tomography for the staging of tumor infiltration in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Gastrointest Endosc. 71(6), 899–906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Head Neck (5)

H. M. Mehanna, T. Rattay, J. Smith, and C. C. McConkey, “Treatment and follow-up of oral dysplasia - a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 31(12), 1600–1609 (2009).
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Y. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. F. Lee, W. C. Tsai, and H. H. Weng, “Value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in early mucosal head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 34(11), 1574–1579 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. H. Ansari, E. Wong, M. Smith, N. Singh, C. E. Palme, M. C. Smith, and F. Riffat, “Validity of narrow band imaging in the detection of oral and oropharyngeal malignant lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Head Neck 41(7), 2430–2440 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
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Int. J. Med. Inform. (1)

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J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents (1)

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2 Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y. S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
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S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1)

P. Holmstrup, P. Vedtofte, J. Reibel, and K. Stoltze, “Oral premalignant lesions: is a biopsy reliable?” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 36(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. (1)

International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer, A. Ebrahimi, Z. Gil, M. Amit, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao, P. Chaturvedi, J. P. Agarwal, L. P. Kowalski, M. Kreppel, C. R. Cernea, J. Brandao, G. Bachar, A. Bolzoni Villaret, D. Fliss, E. Fridman, K. T. Robbins, J. P. Shah, S. G. Patel, and J. R. Clark, “Primary tumor staging for oral cancer and a proposed modification incorporating depth of invasion: an international multicenter retrospective study,” JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12), 1138–1148 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. T. Tsai, J. D. Lee, Y. J. Lee, C. K. Lee, H. L. Jin, F. Y. Chang, K. Y. Hu, C. P. Wu, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
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Opt. Express (3)

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A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
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Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. (1)

E. C. Yang, M. T. Tan, R. A. Schwarz, R. R. Richards-Kortum, A. M. Gillenwater, and N. Vigneswaran, “Noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts for the evaluation of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current limitations and future directions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 125(6), 670–681 (2018).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Virchows Arch. (1)

A. Funayama, S. Maruyama, M. Yamazaki, K. Al-Eryani, S. Shingaki, C. Saito, J. Cheng, and T. Saku, “Intraepithelially entrapped blood vessels in oral carcinoma in-situ,” Virchows Arch. 460(5), 473–480 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental protocol. (A) Experimental schedule, number of mice (N), and histology results. (B) Upper picture: OCT scanning of tip of tongue in vivo (X-Y: 4×4 mm); lower left picture: fluorescence imaging to identify the green area, which indicates a potential tumor (black arrowhead); lower right picture: inking of the potential tumor and histological sectioning on black dotted line. (C) Histology definition: normal (left), premalignant change, including hyperplasia to low-grade dysplasia (middle), and cancerous change, including high-grade dysplasia to SCC (right).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Analysis of OCT image. (A) Flow chart of image processing and quantitative analysis: manual segmentation was performed to select the epithelium layer; then, three quantitative parameters from the structural image and three parameters from the OCTA image (IPCL) were analyzed. (B) Definition of IPCL parameters: vessel area density (ratio): area of vessels (white area) / entire area (window size 30×30 pixels); average vessel radius (number of pixels): distance from vessel margin to central skeleton (orange double arrow) (window size 30×30 pixels); tortuosity: entropy calculated from the skeletonized vessel map (window size 10×10 pixels).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. En-face IPCL images, quantitative maps, and histology results. Control: (A) Few vessels in en-face IPCL image (A: 4×4 mm field of view). (B) Magnified image of the IPCLs (corresponding to the red square in A) showed small and closed loops with regular shapes. (C–E) Quantitative maps of density, radius, and tortuosity show blue backgrounds without red areas. (F) Histology is normal. Premalignant change (three mice): (A) Higher number of vessels than in the control. (B) Magnified image of the IPCLs (corresponding to green square in A) showed elongated and closed loops with regular shapes. (C–E) Quantitative maps showed increasing trends of density, radius, and tortuosity when compared with the control. (F) Histology showed increased thickness of the epithelial layer with basal cell hyperplasia. Cancerous change (three mice): (A) Significant increase in number and size of vessels. The orange double-arrow dotted line shows the measured tumor diameter on the IPCL image. (B) Magnified image of the IPCLs (corresponding to blue square in A) shows large open loops with irregular shapes. (C–E) Quantitative maps show significantly increased density, radius, and tortuosity with prominent red areas, especially in the density and radius maps. (F) Histology of the red area shows dysplastic changes in full thickness of the epithelium lining, which indicates early malignancy. The tumor diameter in the histology image is identical to that in the IPCL image (A). (The top right corners of the images in B show the Inoue classification of the IPCL for diagnosing SCC [1].)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Diagnostic ability of different quantitative parameters. (A) En-face IPCL image: the area circled by the orange line was labeled as cancerous area, and the histology corresponding to the orange dotted line showed SCC (B); The area circled by the white line was labeled as premalignant area, and the histology corresponding to the green dotted line showed hyperplasia (C). (D) Statistical comparison of quantitative parameters in different stages of carcinogenesis (center line of boxplot: median; x of boxplot: mean): sequential increase in IPCL density, radius, and tortuosity and increase in epithelial thickness from normal to premalignant change to cancerous change (p < 0.05) (MP: maximal projection; STD: standard deviation; EP: epithelial layer).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. New method for diagnosing and staging early oral cancer. (A) After OCT scanning, the quantitative parameters can be calculated and presented as en-face quantitative maps. Using the IPCL density, radius and tortuosity maps and the epithelial thickness map, we can intuitively locate the red area indicating potential malignancy. (B) The magnified IPCL image of the red area showed large open loops with irregular shapes, which indicated cancerous change. (C) A cross-sectional tomography image of the red area showed a tumor with destruction of the basement membrane and depth of invasion of approximately 0.25 mm. The diameter of the tumor was estimated at approximately 1.88 mm. (D) Corresponding histology of the red area was SCC with superficial stromal invasion up to approximately 0.20 mm. The diameter of the tumor was approximately 1.70 mm, which was compatible with the result of the OCT image.

Equations (1)

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σ 2 = 1 y j = 1 J z = 1 I | A x , y j , z A x , y j + 1 , z | / y j = 1 J z = 1 I ( | A x , y j , z | 2 + | A x , y j + 1 , z | 2 2 ) .