Abstract

Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GDOCM) demonstrated in vivo corneal imaging with cellular resolution and differentiation in mice over a field of view of 1 mm2. Contact and non-contact imaging was conducted on six healthy and six hyperglycemic C57BL/6J mice. Cellular resolution in the 3D GDOCM images was achieved after motion correction. Corneal nerve fibers were traced and their lengths and branches calculated. Noncontact, label-free imaging of corneal nerves has clinical utility in health and disease, and in transplant evaluation. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo 3D corneal imaging in mice with the capability to resolve nerve fibers using a non-contact imaging modality.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

J. Hafner, M. Zadrazil, A. Grisold, G. Ricken, M. Krenn, D. Kitzmantl, A. Pollreisz, A. Gleiss, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal and corneal neurodegeneration and its association to systemic signs of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 209, 197–205 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

C. Canavesi and J. P. Rolland, “Ten Years of Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Appl. Sci. 9(12), 2565 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, J. Soh, C. Canavesi, M. Lanis, A. Hayes, A. Cogliati, J. P. Rolland, and S. F. Ibrahim, “Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid in Mohs Resection of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 80(6), 1766–1769 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, H. B. Hindman, C. Canavesi, J. Coyoc Escudero, T. Lepine, P. Gain, and J. P. Rolland, “Capabilities of Gabor-domain Optical Coherence Microscopy for the Assessment of Corneal Disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(4), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, J. Coyoc Escudero, C. Canavesi, P. Tankam, H. B. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “Quantitative assessment of human donor corneal endothelium with Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(08), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Canavesi, A. Cogliati, C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, H. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “3D cellular imaging of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 10867, 108670F (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Joseph, A. Guevara-Torres, and J. Schallek, “Imaging single-cell blood flow in the smallest to largest vessels in the living retina,” eLife 8, e45077 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

V. Mazlin, P. Xiao, E. Dalimier, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, J.-A. Sahel, M. Fink, and A. C. Boccara, “In vivo high resolution human corneal imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(2), 557–568 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Tan, Z. Hosseinaee, L. Han, O. Kralj, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “250 kHz, 1.5 um resolution SD-OCT for in-vivo cellular imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6569–6583 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kokot, A. Wylęgała, B. Wowra, Ł Wójcik, D. Dobrowolski, and E. Wylęgała, “Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review,” Acta Ophthalmol. 96(3), 232–242 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Bikbova, T. Oshitari, T. Baba, M. Bikbov, and S. Yamamoto, “Diabetic corneal neuropathy: Clinical perspectives,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 12, 981–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. G. Shin, H. S. Hwang, T. J. Eom, and B. H. Lee, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of human corneal nerves using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(1), 010501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Cruzat, Y. Qazi, and P. Hamrah, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease,” Ocul. Surf. 15(1), 15–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

A. Cogliati, C. Canavesi, A. Hayes, P. Tankam, V.-F. Duma, A. P. Santhanam, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “MEMS-based handheld scanning probe with pre-shaped input signals for distortion-free images in Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13365–13374 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. DeMill, M. Hussain, R. Pop-Busui, and R. M. Shtein, “Ocular surface disease in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(7), 924–928 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ko, D. M. Snodderly, and M. Poletti, “Eye movements between saccades: Measuring ocular drift and tremor,” Vision Res. 122, 93–104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Guevara-Torres, A. Joseph, and J. B. Schallek, “Label free measurement of retinal blood cell flux, velocity, hematocrit and capillary width in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4228–4249 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, C. Poole, C. Dehghani, K. Al Rashah, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Development of a Novel Technique to Measure Corneal Nerve Migration Rate,” Cornea 35(5), 700–705 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Alzubaidi, M. S. Sharif, R. Qahwaji, S. Ipson, and A. Brahma, “In vivo confocal microscopic corneal images in health and disease with an emphasis on extracting features and visual signatures for corneal diseases: A review study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(1), 41–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. J. Vieira-Potter, D. Karamichos, and D. J. Lee, “Ocular Complications of Diabetes and Therapeutic Approaches,” BioMed Res. Int. 2016, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Gain, R. Jullienne, Z. He, M. Aldossary, S. Acquart, F. Cognasse, and G. Thuret, “Global survey of corneal transplantation and eye banking,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(2), 167–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. Santhiago, N. T. Giacomin, D. Smadja, and S. J. Bechara, “Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 713–720 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

D. M. Nathan, “Diabetes: Advances in diagnosis and treatment,” JAMA 314(10), 1052–1062 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. L. Misra, J. P. Craig, D. V. Patel, C. N. J. McGhee, M. Pradhan, K. Ellyett, D. Kilfoyle, and G. D. Braatvedt, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal nerves: An ocular biomarker for peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(9), 5060–5065 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Semeraro, A. Cancarini, R. Dell’Omo, S. Rezzola, M. R. Romano, and C. Costagliola, “Diabetic retinopathy: Vascular and inflammatory disease,” J. Diabetes Res. 2015, 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. M. Petroll and D. M. Robertson, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Cornea: New Developments in Image Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Analysis Using the HRT-Rostock Corneal Module,” Ocul. Surf. 13(3), 187–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, Y.-J. Chu, J. Won, C. Canavesi, T. Lepine, H. B. Hindman, D. J. Topham, P. Gain, G. Thuret, and J. P. Rolland, “Assessing microstructures of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy: pathway for corneal physiology and diseases,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1113–1116 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, M. Lanis, C. Canavesi, T. Lepine, H. B. Hindman, D. Topham, G. Thuret, P. Gain, and J. Rolland-Thompson, “Assessing the microstructures of the human cornea using Gabor-Domain optical coherence microscopy with large field of view and high resolution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(7), 3164 (2015).

A. Tsukamoto, K. Serizawa, R. Sato, J. Yamazaki, and T. Inomata, “Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice,” Exp. Anim. 64(1), 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. S. Yorek, A. Obrosov, H. Shevalye, S. Lupachyk, M. M. Harper, R. H. Kardon, and M. A. Yorek, “Effect of glycemic control on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 19(3), 205–217 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Cai, M. Zhu, W. M. Petroll, V. Koppaka, and D. M. Robertson, “The impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus on corneal epithelial nerve morphology and the corneal epithelium,” Am. J. Pathol. 184(10), 2662–2670 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Reichard, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “In vivo visualisation of murine corneal nerve fibre regeneration in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor,” Exp. Eye Res. 120, 20–27 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. S. Shaheen, M. Bakir, and S. Jain, “Corneal nerves in health and disease,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 59(3), 263–285 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. V. Patel and C. N. McGhee, “Quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal microscopy images: A review,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 58(5), 466–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. P. Davidson, L. J. Coppey, A. Holmes, and M. A. Yorek, “Changes in corneal innervation and sensitivity and acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of the posterior ciliary artery in a type 2 diabetic rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 53(3), 1182–1187 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. C. Musch, L. M. Niziol, J. D. Stein, R. M. Kamyar, and A. Sugar, “Prevalence of corneal dystrophies in the United States: Estimates from claims data,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 6959–6963 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple neurite tracer: Open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. P. Rolland, P. Meemon, S. Murali, K. P. Thompson, and K. Lee, “Gabor-based fusion technique for Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3632–3642 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Romero-Jiménez, J. Santodomingo-Rubido, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Keratoconus: A review,” Contact Lens Anterior Eye 33(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. F. Marfurt, J. Cox, S. Deek, and L. Dvorscak, “Anatomy of the human corneal innervation,” Exp. Eye Res. 90(4), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Messmer, C. Schmid-Tannwald, D. Zapp, and A. Kampik, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal small fiber damage in diabetes mellitus,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(9), 1307–1312 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “In vivo confocal microscopy of human corneal nerves in health, in ocular and systemic disease, and following corneal surgery: A review,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(7), 853–860 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gayton, “Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3(1), 405–412 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Murali, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Three-dimensional adaptive microscopy using embedded liquid lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 145–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. P. Rolland, P. Meemon, S. Murali, A. Jain, N. Papp, K. P. Thompson, and K.-S. Lee, “Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7139, 71390F (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. Randleman, M. Woodward, M. J. Lynn, and R. D. Stulting, “Risk Assessment for Ectasia after Corneal Refractive Surgery,” Ophthalmology 115(1), 37–50.e4 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

J. C. Erie, J. W. McLaren, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, “The effect of age on the corneal subbasal nerve plexus,” Cornea 24(6), 705–709 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Barber, D. A. Antonetti, T. S. Kern, C. E. N. Reiter, R. S. Soans, J. K. Krady, S. W. Levison, T. W. Gardner, and S. K. Bronson, “The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2210–2218 (2005).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Lee, A. C. Akcay, T. Delemos, E. Clarkson, and J. P. Rolland, “Dispersion control with a Fourier-domain optical delay line in a fiber-optic imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 4009–4022 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “Mapping of the Normal Human Corneal Sub-Basal Nerve Plexus by In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(12), 4485–4488 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. S. Fong, L. P. Aiello, F. L. Ferris, and R. Klein, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 27(10), 2540–2553 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with imageJ,” Biophotonics Int. 11(7), 36–41 (2004).

S. P. Collin and H. B. Collin, “Primary cilia in vertebrate corneal endothelial cells,” Cell Biol. Int. 28(2), 125–130 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. P. Whitcher, M. Srinivasan, and M. P. Upadhyay, “Corneal blindness: A global perspective,” Bull. World Health Organ. 79(3), 214–221 (2001).

L. Oliveira-Soto and N. Efron, “Morphology of corneal nerves using confocal microscopy,” Cornea 20(4), 374–384 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. E. Rosenberg, T. M. T. Tervo, I. J. Immonen, L. J. Muller, C. Gronhagen-Riska, and M. H. Vesaluoma, “Corneal structure and sensitivity in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(10), 2915–2921 (2000).

1998 (1)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A Pyramid Approach to Subpixel Registration Based on Intensity,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, M. D. Davis, and D. L. DeMets, “The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: IV. Diabetic Macular Edema,” Ophthalmology 91(12), 1464–1474 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with imageJ,” Biophotonics Int. 11(7), 36–41 (2004).

Acquart, S.

P. Gain, R. Jullienne, Z. He, M. Aldossary, S. Acquart, F. Cognasse, and G. Thuret, “Global survey of corneal transplantation and eye banking,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(2), 167–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aiello, L. P.

D. S. Fong, L. P. Aiello, F. L. Ferris, and R. Klein, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 27(10), 2540–2553 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akcay, A. C.

Al Rashah, K.

K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, C. Poole, C. Dehghani, K. Al Rashah, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Development of a Novel Technique to Measure Corneal Nerve Migration Rate,” Cornea 35(5), 700–705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aldossary, M.

P. Gain, R. Jullienne, Z. He, M. Aldossary, S. Acquart, F. Cognasse, and G. Thuret, “Global survey of corneal transplantation and eye banking,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(2), 167–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allgeier, S.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alzubaidi, R.

R. Alzubaidi, M. S. Sharif, R. Qahwaji, S. Ipson, and A. Brahma, “In vivo confocal microscopic corneal images in health and disease with an emphasis on extracting features and visual signatures for corneal diseases: A review study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(1), 41–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, D. A.

A. J. Barber, D. A. Antonetti, T. S. Kern, C. E. N. Reiter, R. S. Soans, J. K. Krady, S. W. Levison, T. W. Gardner, and S. K. Bronson, “The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2210–2218 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aranha dos Santos, V.

Armstrong, J. D.

M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple neurite tracer: Open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aschinger, G. C.

Baba, T.

G. Bikbova, T. Oshitari, T. Baba, M. Bikbov, and S. Yamamoto, “Diabetic corneal neuropathy: Clinical perspectives,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 12, 981–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baker, D. A.

M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple neurite tracer: Open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bakir, M.

B. S. Shaheen, M. Bakir, and S. Jain, “Corneal nerves in health and disease,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 59(3), 263–285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barber, A. J.

A. J. Barber, D. A. Antonetti, T. S. Kern, C. E. N. Reiter, R. S. Soans, J. K. Krady, S. W. Levison, T. W. Gardner, and S. K. Bronson, “The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2210–2218 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, I.

Bechara, S. J.

M. R. Santhiago, N. T. Giacomin, D. Smadja, and S. J. Bechara, “Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 713–720 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belin, M. W.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bikbov, M.

G. Bikbova, T. Oshitari, T. Baba, M. Bikbov, and S. Yamamoto, “Diabetic corneal neuropathy: Clinical perspectives,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 12, 981–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bikbova, G.

G. Bikbova, T. Oshitari, T. Baba, M. Bikbov, and S. Yamamoto, “Diabetic corneal neuropathy: Clinical perspectives,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 12, 981–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bizheva, K.

Bo, E.

S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

Bourne, W. M.

J. C. Erie, J. W. McLaren, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, “The effect of age on the corneal subbasal nerve plexus,” Cornea 24(6), 705–709 (2005).
[Crossref]

Braatvedt, G. D.

S. L. Misra, J. P. Craig, D. V. Patel, C. N. J. McGhee, M. Pradhan, K. Ellyett, D. Kilfoyle, and G. D. Braatvedt, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal nerves: An ocular biomarker for peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(9), 5060–5065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brahma, A.

R. Alzubaidi, M. S. Sharif, R. Qahwaji, S. Ipson, and A. Brahma, “In vivo confocal microscopic corneal images in health and disease with an emphasis on extracting features and visual signatures for corneal diseases: A review study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(1), 41–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bretthauer, G.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bronson, S. K.

A. J. Barber, D. A. Antonetti, T. S. Kern, C. E. N. Reiter, R. S. Soans, J. K. Krady, S. W. Levison, T. W. Gardner, and S. K. Bronson, “The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2210–2218 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brosius, F.

F. Brosius, “High-Dose Streptozotocin Induction Protocol (Mouse),” (2015).

Cai, D.

D. Cai, M. Zhu, W. M. Petroll, V. Koppaka, and D. M. Robertson, “The impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus on corneal epithelial nerve morphology and the corneal epithelium,” Am. J. Pathol. 184(10), 2662–2670 (2014).
[Crossref]

Canavesi, C.

C. Canavesi and J. P. Rolland, “Ten Years of Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Appl. Sci. 9(12), 2565 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, J. Soh, C. Canavesi, M. Lanis, A. Hayes, A. Cogliati, J. P. Rolland, and S. F. Ibrahim, “Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid in Mohs Resection of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 80(6), 1766–1769 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, H. B. Hindman, C. Canavesi, J. Coyoc Escudero, T. Lepine, P. Gain, and J. P. Rolland, “Capabilities of Gabor-domain Optical Coherence Microscopy for the Assessment of Corneal Disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(4), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, J. Coyoc Escudero, C. Canavesi, P. Tankam, H. B. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “Quantitative assessment of human donor corneal endothelium with Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(08), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Canavesi, A. Cogliati, C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, H. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “3D cellular imaging of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 10867, 108670F (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Cogliati, C. Canavesi, A. Hayes, P. Tankam, V.-F. Duma, A. P. Santhanam, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “MEMS-based handheld scanning probe with pre-shaped input signals for distortion-free images in Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13365–13374 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, Y.-J. Chu, J. Won, C. Canavesi, T. Lepine, H. B. Hindman, D. J. Topham, P. Gain, G. Thuret, and J. P. Rolland, “Assessing microstructures of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy: pathway for corneal physiology and diseases,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1113–1116 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, Z. He, M. Lanis, C. Canavesi, T. Lepine, H. B. Hindman, D. Topham, G. Thuret, P. Gain, and J. Rolland-Thompson, “Assessing the microstructures of the human cornea using Gabor-Domain optical coherence microscopy with large field of view and high resolution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(7), 3164 (2015).

Cancarini, A.

F. Semeraro, A. Cancarini, R. Dell’Omo, S. Rezzola, M. R. Romano, and C. Costagliola, “Diabetic retinopathy: Vascular and inflammatory disease,” J. Diabetes Res. 2015, 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.-J.

Clarkson, E.

Cogliati, A.

C. Canavesi, A. Cogliati, C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, H. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “3D cellular imaging of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 10867, 108670F (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Tankam, J. Soh, C. Canavesi, M. Lanis, A. Hayes, A. Cogliati, J. P. Rolland, and S. F. Ibrahim, “Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid in Mohs Resection of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 80(6), 1766–1769 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Cogliati, C. Canavesi, A. Hayes, P. Tankam, V.-F. Duma, A. P. Santhanam, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “MEMS-based handheld scanning probe with pre-shaped input signals for distortion-free images in Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13365–13374 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cognasse, F.

P. Gain, R. Jullienne, Z. He, M. Aldossary, S. Acquart, F. Cognasse, and G. Thuret, “Global survey of corneal transplantation and eye banking,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(2), 167–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Collin, H. B.

S. P. Collin and H. B. Collin, “Primary cilia in vertebrate corneal endothelial cells,” Cell Biol. Int. 28(2), 125–130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Collin, S. P.

S. P. Collin and H. B. Collin, “Primary cilia in vertebrate corneal endothelial cells,” Cell Biol. Int. 28(2), 125–130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coppey, L. J.

E. P. Davidson, L. J. Coppey, A. Holmes, and M. A. Yorek, “Changes in corneal innervation and sensitivity and acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of the posterior ciliary artery in a type 2 diabetic rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 53(3), 1182–1187 (2012).
[Crossref]

Costagliola, C.

F. Semeraro, A. Cancarini, R. Dell’Omo, S. Rezzola, M. R. Romano, and C. Costagliola, “Diabetic retinopathy: Vascular and inflammatory disease,” J. Diabetes Res. 2015, 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cox, J.

C. F. Marfurt, J. Cox, S. Deek, and L. Dvorscak, “Anatomy of the human corneal innervation,” Exp. Eye Res. 90(4), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coyoc Escudero, J.

P. Tankam, Z. He, H. B. Hindman, C. Canavesi, J. Coyoc Escudero, T. Lepine, P. Gain, and J. P. Rolland, “Capabilities of Gabor-domain Optical Coherence Microscopy for the Assessment of Corneal Disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(4), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Yoon, A. Mietus, Y. Qi, J. J. Stone, J. Coyoc Escudero, C. Canavesi, P. Tankam, H. B. Hindman, and J. P. Rolland, “Quantitative assessment of human donor corneal endothelium with Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(08), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Craig, J. P.

S. L. Misra, J. P. Craig, D. V. Patel, C. N. J. McGhee, M. Pradhan, K. Ellyett, D. Kilfoyle, and G. D. Braatvedt, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal nerves: An ocular biomarker for peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(9), 5060–5065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cruzat, A.

A. Cruzat, Y. Qazi, and P. Hamrah, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease,” Ocul. Surf. 15(1), 15–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dalimier, E.

Dana, R.

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davidson, E. P.

E. P. Davidson, L. J. Coppey, A. Holmes, and M. A. Yorek, “Changes in corneal innervation and sensitivity and acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of the posterior ciliary artery in a type 2 diabetic rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 53(3), 1182–1187 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davis, M. D.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, M. D. Davis, and D. L. DeMets, “The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: IV. Diabetic Macular Edema,” Ophthalmology 91(12), 1464–1474 (1984).
[Crossref]

Deek, S.

C. F. Marfurt, J. Cox, S. Deek, and L. Dvorscak, “Anatomy of the human corneal innervation,” Exp. Eye Res. 90(4), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dehghani, C.

K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, C. Poole, C. Dehghani, K. Al Rashah, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Development of a Novel Technique to Measure Corneal Nerve Migration Rate,” Cornea 35(5), 700–705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Delemos, T.

Dell’Omo, R.

F. Semeraro, A. Cancarini, R. Dell’Omo, S. Rezzola, M. R. Romano, and C. Costagliola, “Diabetic retinopathy: Vascular and inflammatory disease,” J. Diabetes Res. 2015, 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

DeMets, D. L.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, M. D. Davis, and D. L. DeMets, “The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: IV. Diabetic Macular Edema,” Ophthalmology 91(12), 1464–1474 (1984).
[Crossref]

DeMill, D. L.

D. L. DeMill, M. Hussain, R. Pop-Busui, and R. M. Shtein, “Ocular surface disease in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(7), 924–928 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dobrowolski, D.

J. Kokot, A. Wylęgała, B. Wowra, Ł Wójcik, D. Dobrowolski, and E. Wylęgała, “Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review,” Acta Ophthalmol. 96(3), 232–242 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dua, H.

Duma, V.-F.

Dvorscak, L.

C. F. Marfurt, J. Cox, S. Deek, and L. Dvorscak, “Anatomy of the human corneal innervation,” Exp. Eye Res. 90(4), 478–492 (2010).
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J. G. Shin, H. S. Hwang, T. J. Eom, and B. H. Lee, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of human corneal nerves using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(1), 010501 (2017).
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Stachs, O.

M. Reichard, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “In vivo visualisation of murine corneal nerve fibre regeneration in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor,” Exp. Eye Res. 120, 20–27 (2014).
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O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
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M. E. Rosenberg, T. M. T. Tervo, I. J. Immonen, L. J. Muller, C. Gronhagen-Riska, and M. H. Vesaluoma, “Corneal structure and sensitivity in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(10), 2915–2921 (2000).

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J. P. Whitcher, M. Srinivasan, and M. P. Upadhyay, “Corneal blindness: A global perspective,” Bull. World Health Organ. 79(3), 214–221 (2001).

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R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
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S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
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R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
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S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
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O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
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Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Kokot, A. Wylęgała, B. Wowra, Ł Wójcik, D. Dobrowolski, and E. Wylęgała, “Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review,” Acta Ophthalmol. 96(3), 232–242 (2018).
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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Hafner, M. Zadrazil, A. Grisold, G. Ricken, M. Krenn, D. Kitzmantl, A. Pollreisz, A. Gleiss, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal and corneal neurodegeneration and its association to systemic signs of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 209, 197–205 (2020).
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B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415.e2 (2007).
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D. Cai, M. Zhu, W. M. Petroll, V. Koppaka, and D. M. Robertson, “The impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus on corneal epithelial nerve morphology and the corneal epithelium,” Am. J. Pathol. 184(10), 2662–2670 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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V. J. Vieira-Potter, D. Karamichos, and D. J. Lee, “Ocular Complications of Diabetes and Therapeutic Approaches,” BioMed Res. Int. 2016, 1–14 (2016).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

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M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with imageJ,” Biophotonics Int. 11(7), 36–41 (2004).

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D. L. DeMill, M. Hussain, R. Pop-Busui, and R. M. Shtein, “Ocular surface disease in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 100(7), 924–928 (2016).
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D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “In vivo confocal microscopy of human corneal nerves in health, in ocular and systemic disease, and following corneal surgery: A review,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(7), 853–860 (2009).
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J. P. Whitcher, M. Srinivasan, and M. P. Upadhyay, “Corneal blindness: A global perspective,” Bull. World Health Organ. 79(3), 214–221 (2001).

Cell Biol. Int. (1)

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J. L. Gayton, “Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3(1), 405–412 (2009).
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M. R. Santhiago, N. T. Giacomin, D. Smadja, and S. J. Bechara, “Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 713–720 (2016).
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G. Bikbova, T. Oshitari, T. Baba, M. Bikbov, and S. Yamamoto, “Diabetic corneal neuropathy: Clinical perspectives,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 12, 981–987 (2018).
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Contact Lens Anterior Eye (1)

M. Romero-Jiménez, J. Santodomingo-Rubido, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Keratoconus: A review,” Contact Lens Anterior Eye 33(4), 157–166 (2010).
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Cornea (3)

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Exp. Anim. (1)

A. Tsukamoto, K. Serizawa, R. Sato, J. Yamazaki, and T. Inomata, “Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice,” Exp. Anim. 64(1), 57–64 (2015).
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Exp. Eye Res. (2)

M. Reichard, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “In vivo visualisation of murine corneal nerve fibre regeneration in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor,” Exp. Eye Res. 120, 20–27 (2014).
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C. F. Marfurt, J. Cox, S. Deek, and L. Dvorscak, “Anatomy of the human corneal innervation,” Exp. Eye Res. 90(4), 478–492 (2010).
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Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. M. Messmer, C. Schmid-Tannwald, D. Zapp, and A. Kampik, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal small fiber damage in diabetes mellitus,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(9), 1307–1312 (2010).
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IEEE Trans. on Image Process. (1)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A Pyramid Approach to Subpixel Registration Based on Intensity,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

M. E. Rosenberg, T. M. T. Tervo, I. J. Immonen, L. J. Muller, C. Gronhagen-Riska, and M. H. Vesaluoma, “Corneal structure and sensitivity in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(10), 2915–2921 (2000).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (7)

S. L. Misra, J. P. Craig, D. V. Patel, C. N. J. McGhee, M. Pradhan, K. Ellyett, D. Kilfoyle, and G. D. Braatvedt, “In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal nerves: An ocular biomarker for peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(9), 5060–5065 (2015).
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D. C. Musch, L. M. Niziol, J. D. Stein, R. M. Kamyar, and A. Sugar, “Prevalence of corneal dystrophies in the United States: Estimates from claims data,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 6959–6963 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. P. Davidson, L. J. Coppey, A. Holmes, and M. A. Yorek, “Changes in corneal innervation and sensitivity and acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of the posterior ciliary artery in a type 2 diabetic rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 53(3), 1182–1187 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
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D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “Mapping of the Normal Human Corneal Sub-Basal Nerve Plexus by In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46(12), 4485–4488 (2005).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GDOCM) microscope. CMOS: Complementary metal oxide semiconductor; MEMS: Microelectromechanical systems.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Contact and (b) non-contact imaging setup for GDOCM in vivo corneal imaging.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Effects of motion during contact (a) and non-contact (c) imaging of mice cornea in vivo, and recovery of cellular resolution after motion correction (contact (b) and non-contact (d)). The field of view is 1 × 1 mm2. Top figures = C-scans; bottom figures = en face views taken at the endothelium, the single layer of cells lining the posterior surface of the cornea; insets = magnified view showing amplitude of motion artifacts. Arrows in the insets on the en face views indicate endothelial cells. Images are brightest at the center due to the natural curvature of the cornea, which produces a stronger reflection at the center than at the periphery. The dark features in the non-contact images (c-d) are caused by mouse whiskers obscuring the view.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Detail of the en face view of basal epithelial cells (a) and endothelial cells (b) imaged in vivo with GDOCM in a diabetic mouse in non-contact. The bar is 100 µm. Basal epithelial cells appear as a mosaic of dark cell bodies with light borders. Endothelial cells appear as a regular mosaic of hyper-reflective hexagonal cells surrounded by hypo-reflective borders. Sub-cellular imaging capability is demonstrated by the dark spots visible in some endothelial cells in (b), which are thought to be primary cilia [42,63].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. 3D view of a cornea imaged in vivo with GDOCM in a diabetic mouse in non-contact over a 1 mm2 field of view.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Representative 1 mm × 1 mm en face views from different mice averaged over a depth of 6-13 µm, with corneal sub-basal nerves (arrows) visible after motion correction, using non-contact (a) and contact (b-d) imaging. The bar is 100 µm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. GDOCM en face views showing details of single sub-basal nerve branching patterns for non-contact (a) and contact imaging (b, c). The nerves were highlighted in yellow on the right-hand side of each set of image pairs. The bar is 50 µm.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Corneal sub-basal and stromal nerves (yellow) traced in the 3D GDOCM images overlaid with a representative en face view. The field of view is 1 mm × 1 mm.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Total nerve fiber length (in µm) in diabetic mice compared to normal in both contact and non-contact in vivo GDOCM imaging modalities.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Number of branching points in diabetic mice compared to normal in both contact and non-contact in vivo GDOCM imaging modalities.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Total nerve length (in µm) measured from GDOCM in vivo mice corneal imaging for a total of n = 12 corneas.

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Table 2. Number of branching points measured from GDOCM in vivo mice corneal imaging for a total of n = 12 corneas.