Abstract

Optoelectronic retinal prostheses transduce light into electrical current for neural stimulation. We introduce a novel optoelectronic pixel architecture consisting of a vertically integrated photo junction-field-effect transistor (Photo-JFET) and neural stimulating electrode. Experimental measurements demonstrate that optically addressed Photo-JFET pixels utilize phototransistive gain to produce a broad range of neural stimulation current and can effectively stimulate retinal neurons in vitro. The compact nature of the Photo-JFET pixel can enable high resolution retinal prostheses with the smallest reported optoelectronic pixel size to help restore high visual acuity in patients with degenerative retinal diseases.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Corna, T. Herrmann, and G. Zeck, “Electrode-size dependent thresholds in subretinal neuroprosthetic stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 15(4), 045003 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. L. Pennington and M. M. DeAngelis, “Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD): associations with cardiovascular disease phenotypes and lipid factors,” Eye Vis. 3(1), 34 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. A. Goetz and D. V. Palanker, “Electronic approaches to restoration of sight,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(9), 096701 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Flores, G. Goetz, X. Lei, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays,” J. Neural Eng. 13(3), 036010 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, J. Wang, D. Y. Lee, R. Dalal, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Weiland and M. S. Humayun, “Retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(5), 1412–1424 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, S. Pangratz-Fuehrer, G. Goetz, and D. Palanker, “Selectivity of direct and network-mediated stimulation of the retinal ganglion cells with epi-, sub- and intraretinal electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 11(2), 026008 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa Prevalence and inheritance patterns,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Akinin, A.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arditi, A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aron-Rosa, D.

Baccus, S.

D. Palanker, A. Vankov, P. Huie, and S. Baccus, “Design of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S105–S120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barale, P. O.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bartsch, D. U.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartz-Schmidt, K. U.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauchner, S.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berson, E. L.

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa Prevalence and inheritance patterns,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

Besch, D.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birch, D.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boinagrov, D.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, S. Pangratz-Fuehrer, G. Goetz, and D. Palanker, “Selectivity of direct and network-mediated stimulation of the retinal ganglion cells with epi-, sub- and intraretinal electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 11(2), 026008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bosse, B.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowne, S. J.

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

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H. Lorach, J. Wang, D. Y. Lee, R. Dalal, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 13–21 (2016).
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Damle, S.

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S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Daschner, R.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
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L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Dorn, J. D.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Edwards, T. L.

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
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Eliott, D.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Fawzi, A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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Filley, E.

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Flores, T.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
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T. Flores, G. Goetz, X. Lei, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays,” J. Neural Eng. 13(3), 036010 (2016).
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Freeman, W. R.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Galambos, L.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
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D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
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Ganesan, K.

K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Gekeler, F.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Goetz, G.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
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T. Flores, G. Goetz, X. Lei, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays,” J. Neural Eng. 13(3), 036010 (2016).
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H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
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D. Boinagrov, S. Pangratz-Fuehrer, G. Goetz, and D. Palanker, “Selectivity of direct and network-mediated stimulation of the retinal ganglion cells with epi-, sub- and intraretinal electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 11(2), 026008 (2014).
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Goetz, G. A.

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Greenberg, R. J.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Greferath, U.

K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Greppmaier, U.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groppe, M.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
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C. L. Lee and C. C. Hsieh, “A 0.8-V 4096-pixel CMOS sense-and-stimulus imager for retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2013).

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T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
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H. Lorach, J. Wang, D. Y. Lee, R. Dalal, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 13–21 (2016).
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J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
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S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Kamins, T.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
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H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
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Kamins, T. I.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Klein, R.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Kusnyerik, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Landry, R.

Lee, C. L.

C. L. Lee and C. C. Hsieh, “A 0.8-V 4096-pixel CMOS sense-and-stimulus imager for retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2013).

Lee, D. Y.

Lei, X.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
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T. Flores, G. Goetz, X. Lei, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays,” J. Neural Eng. 13(3), 036010 (2016).
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D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
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H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
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Li, X.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
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K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Lin, L. J.

Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
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Lin, P. K.

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Lo, Y. H.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
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Lo, Y.-H.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lorach, H.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, J. Wang, D. Y. Lee, R. Dalal, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loudin, J. D.

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
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MacLaren, R. E.

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
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Mainster, M.

Mandel, Y.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
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Marshall, J.

Mathieson, K.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

McLean, G. Y.

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meffin, H.

K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Naeem, M. A. N.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Neffendorf, J.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Nemeth, J.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Oesch, N.

B. Bosse, S. Damle, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, D. U. Bartsch, L. Cheng, N. Oesch, Y. H. Lo, G. Cauwenberghs, and W. R. Freeman, “In vivo photovoltaic performance of a silicon nanowire photodiode–based retinal prosthesis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(15), 5885–5892 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olmos de Koo, L. C.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Palanker, D.

T. Flores, X. Lei, T. Huang, H. Lorach, R. Dalal, L. Galambos, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of pillar electrodes in subretinal prosthesis for enhanced proximity to target neurons,” J. Neural Eng. 15(3), 036011 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Flores, G. Goetz, X. Lei, and D. Palanker, “Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays,” J. Neural Eng. 13(3), 036010 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, J. Wang, D. Y. Lee, R. Dalal, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, S. Pangratz-Fuehrer, G. Goetz, and D. Palanker, “Selectivity of direct and network-mediated stimulation of the retinal ganglion cells with epi-, sub- and intraretinal electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 11(2), 026008 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Palanker, A. Vankov, P. Huie, and S. Baccus, “Design of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S105–S120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Palanker, D. V.

G. A. Goetz and D. V. Palanker, “Electronic approaches to restoration of sight,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(9), 096701 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pangratz-Fuehrer, S.

D. Boinagrov, S. Pangratz-Fuehrer, G. Goetz, and D. Palanker, “Selectivity of direct and network-mediated stimulation of the retinal ganglion cells with epi-, sub- and intraretinal electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 11(2), 026008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pennington, K. L.

K. L. Pennington and M. M. DeAngelis, “Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD): associations with cardiovascular disease phenotypes and lipid factors,” Eye Vis. 3(1), 34 (2016).
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Peters, T.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prawer, S.

K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Ramsden, J. D.

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rassow, B.

Regillo, C.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rudorf, R.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
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Rudorf, S.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
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Sachs, H.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Safran, A. B.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Sahel, J. A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Salzmann, J.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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Santos, A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schleehauf, S.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sher, A.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silva, G. A.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
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Simanovskii, D. M.

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
[Crossref]

Simpson, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Simunovic, M. P.

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
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Singh, M. S.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Sliney, D.

Smith, R.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spencer, R.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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Sramek, C. K.

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
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Stacey, A.

K. Ganesan, A. Stacey, H. Meffin, S. Lichter, U. Greferath, E. L. Fletcher, and S. Prawer, “Diamond penetrating electrode array for Epi-Retinal prosthesis,” 2010 Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBC’10 (March), 6757–6760 (2010).

Stanga, P. E.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, and R. J. Greenberg, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. Da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, A. V. Cideciyan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, E. Filley, A. C. Ho, A. Santos, A. B. Safran, A. Arditi, L. V. Del Priore, and R. J. Greenberg, “Interim results from the international trial of second sight’s visual prosthesis,” Ophthalmology ( 119(4), 779–788 (2012).
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Stingl, K.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Stingl, K. T.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Stuck, B.

Su, X.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
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S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
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Vankov, A.

D. Palanker, A. Vankov, P. Huie, and S. Baccus, “Design of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S105–S120 (2005).
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Vijayraghavan, K.

J. D. Loudin, D. M. Simanovskii, K. Vijayraghavan, C. K. Sramek, A. F. Butterwick, P. Huie, G. Y. McLean, and D. V. Palanker, “Optoelectronic retinal prosthesis: system design and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S72–S84 (2007).
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Wan, C.

Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
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Weiland, J. D.

J. D. Weiland and M. S. Humayun, “Retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(5), 1412–1424 (2014).
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Wilhelm, B.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hortdorfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
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Wong, D.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS - Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
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Wong, T. Y.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
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W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Heal. 2(2), 106–116 (2014).
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R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7–8 (2017).
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Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
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Xue, K.

T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
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Yang, W. C.

Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
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Y. T. Yang, P. K. Lin, C. Wan, W. C. Yang, L. J. Lin, C. Y. Wu, and C. C. Chiao, “Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
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A. Corna, T. Herrmann, and G. Zeck, “Electrode-size dependent thresholds in subretinal neuroprosthetic stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 15(4), 045003 (2018).
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T. L. Edwards, C. L. Cottriall, K. Xue, M. P. Simunovic, J. D. Ramsden, E. Zrenner, and R. E. MacLaren, “Assessment of the Electronic Retinal Implant Alpha AMS in Restoring Vision to Blind Patients with End-Stage Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 125(3), 432–443 (2018).
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Ophthalmology (3)

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[Crossref]

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ANSI, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (2014), ANSI Z136.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (A) Design of a Photo-JFET pixel from a vertical etched mesa. A dielectric passivation layer deposited on the sidewall of the silicon mesa induces a channel along the vertical wall of the middle layer of the mesa. The sidewall view illustrates the pair of back-to-back p/n diodes and the junction-field-effect transistor (JFET) realized as an NPN or PNP stack. (B) Scanning electron microscope micrograph (SEM) of a 13 µm Photo-JFET single pixel test structure. The mesa sidewall and outer rim are coated in SiO2 layer while electrical contact is made through a center opening in the passivation. (C) SEM micrograph of prototype array with 40 µm pixels paired with 10 µm electrodes (light gray) spaced at 45 µm pitch, a theoretical prosthetic acuity of 20/188 (D) SEM micrograph of prototype array with 13 µm pixels paired with 10 µm electrodes (light gray) spaced at 15 µm pitch
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Theoretical performance characteristics of a vertical silicon Photo-JFET using typical device parameters for a range of retinal irradiance. (a) Calculated gate to source voltage (VGS) for a range of irradiance conditions following Eq. (1). Marked on the graph are the possible values of the threshold voltage to turn on the JFET channel for ideal case of minimum threshold, bright indoor retinal irradiance, and 200µW/mm2 supplemented NIR. (b) Calculated total current (ITot) using the identified threshold voltages in (a). (c) Calculated gain achieved over the irradiance range. For simplicity, we have ignored the subthreshold current in (b) and (c), thus underestimating the total current and gain in subthreshold regime.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. I-V Characteristics of Photo-JFET pixels for 13 µm diameter pixels under illumination with visible (518 nm) and NIR (850 nm) light.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (A) Voltage dependence of responsivity for NIR illumination (850 nm) of a 13 µm Photo-JFET pixel and (B) Responsivity of a 13 µm diameter pixel vs. NIR irradiance (850 nm) at 2 V bias.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Overview of the in vitro experiment to demonstrate retinal stimulation with Photo-JFET pixels. (A) diagram of the circuit to connect Photo-JFET pixels on chip to neural stimulation electrodes and the instrumentation used to record stimulated action potentials from retinal neurons (B) 10x microscope image of Rd10 retina atop of PEDOT/IrOx electrode on transparent substrate with a glass micropipette electrode used to loose patch RGC to record action potentials (E) Spiking behavior recorded from RGC in response to electrical stimulation driven by Photo-JFET pixels (D) Comparison of spikes elicited by Photo-JFET stimulation under dark and NIR illumination
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of measured current produced by 13 µm Photo-JFET pixels versus theoretical current of passive photodiode pixels at 13 µm and 40 µm diameter under the same illumination conditions with NIR light (850 nm). A responsivity of 0.4 A/W is assumed for passive photodiodes based on reported values [21].

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V G S = η V T ln ( 1 + I o 1 + I p h I o 2 )
V T H min > η V T ln ( 1 + I o 1 I o 2 )
I D = W μ ε s 2 L a ( V G S V T H ) 2
I D = W μ ε s 2 L a [ η V T ln ( 1 + I p h I o 2 ) V T H ] 2
I T o t a l = I D + I p h + I o 1
I T o t a l D a r k = I o 1
G J F E T = I T o t a l I p h + I o 1

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