Abstract

A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) system and fluorescein staining were employed for investigation of a scopolamine induced dry eye mouse model. Acquired data was used to evaluate common and complementary findings of the two modalities. Central corneal thickness as measured by UHR-OCT increased significantly over the study period of 24 hours, from 89.0 ± 3.57 µm to 92.2 ± 4.07 µm. Both techniques were able to show corneal lesions with a large range of severity. Localized fluorescein staining was detected in 5% and diffuse staining in 45% of cases where no epithelial damage was visible with OCT. However, OCT revealed stromal defects in 6% and endothelial defects in 18% of the cases, which could not be visualized via fluorescein staining. Thus, while fluorescein staining widely detected defects of the corneal surface in a mouse model of dry eye disease, OCT non-invasively revealed additional information about defect depth and involvement of particular layers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

J. A. P. Gomes and R. M. Santo, “The impact of dry eye disease treatment on patient satisfaction and quality of life: A review,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 17(1), 9–19 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomiya, M. Ueta, and S. Kinoshita, “A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1483 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Hirayama, T. Kawakita, and K. Tsubota, “A Ligation of the Lacrimal Excretory Duct in Mouse Induces Lacrimal Gland Inflammation with Proliferative Cells,” Stem Cells Int. 2017, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Pflugfelder and C. S. de Paiva, “The Pathophysiology of Dry Eye Disease: What We Know and Future Directions for Research,” Ophthalmology 124(11), S4–S13 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Mokhtarzadeh, R. Casey, and B. J. Glasgow, “Fluorescein punctate staining traced to superficial corneal epithelial cells by impression cytology and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(5), 2127–2135 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. T. Henriksson, A. M. McDermott, and J. P. Bergmanson, “Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 50(8), 3648–3654 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Morgan and C. Maldonado-Codina, “Corneal staining: do we really understand what we are seeing?” Cont Lens Anterior Eye 32(2), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Schrader, A. K. Mircheff, and G. Geerling, “Animal models of dry eye,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 41, 298–312 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. J. Bron, V. E. Evans, and J. A. Smith, “Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests,” Cornea 22(7), 640–650 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

1995 (1)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” Journal of Refractive Surgery 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[Crossref]

Akpek, E. K.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alagoz, G.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alex, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ang, M.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aranha dos Santos, V.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aschinger, G.

Aschinger, G. C.

Azar, D. T.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baar, C.

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Babashli, T.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baskaran, M.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bata, A. M.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baudouin, C.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, I.

Belmonte, C.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bergmanson, J. P.

J. T. Henriksson, A. M. McDermott, and J. P. Bergmanson, “Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 50(8), 3648–3654 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bonini, S.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bron, A. J.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bron, V. E. Evans, and J. A. Smith, “Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests,” Cornea 22(7), 640–650 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bronhagl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cakir, B.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Casey, R.

M. Mokhtarzadeh, R. Casey, and B. J. Glasgow, “Fluorescein punctate staining traced to superficial corneal epithelial cells by impression cytology and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(5), 2127–2135 (2011).
[Crossref]

Celik, E.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chauhan, S. K.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chua, J.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Clayton, J. A.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corrales, R. M.

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

Craig, J. P.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Paiva, C. S.

S. C. Pflugfelder and C. S. de Paiva, “The Pathophysiology of Dry Eye Disease: What We Know and Future Directions for Research,” Ophthalmology 124(11), S4–S13 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, S. X.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, X.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dogan, E.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dogru, M.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dua, H.

Dua, H. S.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dursun, D.

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Evans, V. E.

A. J. Bron, V. E. Evans, and J. A. Smith, “Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests,” Cornea 22(7), 640–650 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faatz, H.

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Farley, W.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischak, C.

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” Journal of Refractive Surgery 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[Crossref]

Foulks, G. N.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gabison, E. E.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garhofer, G.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geerling, G.

S. Schrader, A. K. Mircheff, and G. Geerling, “Animal models of dry eye,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 41, 298–312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glasgow, B. J.

M. Mokhtarzadeh, R. Casey, and B. J. Glasgow, “Fluorescein punctate staining traced to superficial corneal epithelial cells by impression cytology and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(5), 2127–2135 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gomes, J. A. P.

J. A. P. Gomes and R. M. Santo, “The impact of dry eye disease treatment on patient satisfaction and quality of life: A review,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 17(1), 9–19 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gondo, M.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

Groeschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Groschl, M.

Gschliesser, A.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haines, L.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hammitt, K. M.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, S.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, S.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henriksson, J. T.

J. T. Henriksson, A. M. McDermott, and J. P. Bergmanson, “Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 50(8), 3648–3654 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hermand, J. P.

Hileeto, D.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, M.

Y. Liu, M. Hirayama, T. Kawakita, and K. Tsubota, “A Ligation of the Lacrimal Excretory Duct in Mouse Induces Lacrimal Gland Inflammation with Proliferative Cells,” Stem Cells Int. 2017, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hofer, B.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hohenadl, C.

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holopainen, J.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holzer, S.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jain, S.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jones, L.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Joo, C. K.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawakita, T.

Y. Liu, M. Hirayama, T. Kawakita, and K. Tsubota, “A Ligation of the Lacrimal Excretory Duct in Mouse Induces Lacrimal Gland Inflammation with Proliferative Cells,” Stem Cells Int. 2017, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kaya, S.

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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Kinoshita, S.

K. Shinomiya, M. Ueta, and S. Kinoshita, “A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Klaus, R.

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knop, E.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kucera, M.

Labbe, A.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lammer, J.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R. A.

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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Li, C.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, D. Q.

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Li, X.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Q.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Hirayama, T. Kawakita, and K. Tsubota, “A Ligation of the Lacrimal Excretory Duct in Mouse Induces Lacrimal Gland Inflammation with Proliferative Cells,” Stem Cells Int. 2017, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lokeshwar, B. L.

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

MacLellan, B.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
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Maldonado-Codina, C.

P. B. Morgan and C. Maldonado-Codina, “Corneal staining: do we really understand what we are seeing?” Cont Lens Anterior Eye 32(2), 48–54 (2009).
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Markoulli, M.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
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Marshall, J.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” Journal of Refractive Surgery 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mason, E.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

McDermott, A. M.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
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J. T. Henriksson, A. M. McDermott, and J. P. Bergmanson, “Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 50(8), 3648–3654 (2009).
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Mehta, J. S.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
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Messner, A.

Mircheff, A. K.

S. Schrader, A. K. Mircheff, and G. Geerling, “Animal models of dry eye,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 41, 298–312 (2008).
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Mokhtarzadeh, M.

M. Mokhtarzadeh, R. Casey, and B. J. Glasgow, “Fluorescein punctate staining traced to superficial corneal epithelial cells by impression cytology and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(5), 2127–2135 (2011).
[Crossref]

Monroy, D.

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Morgan, P. B.

P. B. Morgan and C. Maldonado-Codina, “Corneal staining: do we really understand what we are seeing?” Cont Lens Anterior Eye 32(2), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nelson, J. D.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nepp, J.

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nichols, J. J.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nichols, K. K.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Niederkorn, J. Y.

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

Novack, G. D.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Q. Liang, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Pan, C. Baudouin, and A. Labbe, “Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pantalon, A.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

Patel, N.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patel, S.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” Journal of Refractive Surgery 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[Crossref]

Perez, V.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pfister, M.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pflugfelder, S. C.

S. C. Pflugfelder and C. S. de Paiva, “The Pathophysiology of Dry Eye Disease: What We Know and Future Directions for Research,” Ophthalmology 124(11), S4–S13 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Pircher, N.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

Prinz, M.

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Redfern, R. L.

R. L. Redfern, N. Patel, S. Hanlon, W. Farley, M. Gondo, S. C. Pflugfelder, and A. M. McDermott, “Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(2), 1554–1563 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riedl, J.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sangwan, V.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Santo, R. M.

J. A. P. Gomes and R. M. Santo, “The impact of dry eye disease treatment on patient satisfaction and quality of life: A review,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 17(1), 9–19 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sapeta, S.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmetterer, L.

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidinger, G.

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidl, D.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmoll, T.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schrader, S.

S. Schrader, A. K. Mircheff, and G. Geerling, “Animal models of dry eye,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 41, 298–312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schwarzhans, F.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

Seidel, G.

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shinomiya, K.

K. Shinomiya, M. Ueta, and S. Kinoshita, “A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Siemasko, K.

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. A.

A. J. Bron, V. E. Evans, and J. A. Smith, “Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests,” Cornea 22(7), 640–650 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sorbara, L.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stapleton, F.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stegmann, H.

Stern, M. E.

J. Y. Niederkorn, M. E. Stern, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. S. De Paiva, R. M. Corrales, J. Gao, and K. Siemasko, “Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis,” J. Immunol. 176(7), 3950–3957 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Sullivan, D. A.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet's Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, A.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Triggs, G. J.

Tsubota, K.

J. D. Nelson, J. P. Craig, E. K. Akpek, D. T. Azar, C. Belmonte, A. J. Bron, J. A. Clayton, M. Dogru, H. S. Dua, G. N. Foulks, J. A. P. Gomes, K. M. Hammitt, J. Holopainen, L. Jones, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, G. D. Novack, V. Sangwan, F. Stapleton, A. Tomlinson, K. Tsubota, M. D. P. Willcox, J. S. Wolffsohn, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II Introduction,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 269–275 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Hirayama, T. Kawakita, and K. Tsubota, “A Ligation of the Lacrimal Excretory Duct in Mouse Induces Lacrimal Gland Inflammation with Proliferative Cells,” Stem Cells Int. 2017, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ucak, T.

B. Cakir, E. Dogan, E. Celik, T. Babashli, T. Ucak, and G. Alagoz, “Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 41(5), 407–411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Uchino, Y.

A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ueta, M.

K. Shinomiya, M. Ueta, and S. Kinoshita, “A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Unterhuber, A.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vietauer, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

D. Dursun, M. Wang, D. Monroy, D. Q. Li, B. L. Lokeshwar, M. E. Stern, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 632–638 (2002).

Werkmeister, R. M.

A. Pantalon, M. Pfister, V. Aranha dos Santos, S. Sapeta, A. Unterhuber, N. Pircher, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography for analysis of corneal microarchitecture during wound healing,” Acta Ophthalmol. 97(5), e761–e771 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, S. Holzer, J. Lammer, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Seidel, G. Garhofer, A. Gschliesser, L. Schmetterer, and G. Schmidinger, “Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 189, 47–54 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhofer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Fischak, R. Klaus, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Hohenadl, M. Prinz, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Topically Administered Chitosan-N-acetylcysteine on Corneal Wound Healing in a Rabbit Model,” Acta Ophthalmol. 2017, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Aranha dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Groschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhofer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
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H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q. C.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ye, L. H.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

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A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
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H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
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H. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Xie, S. Liu, X. Deng, S. He, G. Chen, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Li, and Z. Li, “The measurement of corneal thickness from center to limbus in vivo in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using two-photon imaging,” Exp. Eye Res. 115, 255–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Cui, J. Hong, F. Wang, S. X. Deng, Y. Yang, X. Zhu, D. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(12), 1446–1454 (2014).
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A. J. Bron, C. S. de Paiva, S. K. Chauhan, S. Bonini, E. E. Gabison, S. Jain, E. Knop, M. Markoulli, Y. Ogawa, V. Perez, Y. Uchino, N. Yokoi, D. Zoukhri, and D. A. Sullivan, “TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report,” Immunol. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 438–510 (2017).
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Q. C. Yang, J. Bao, C. Li, G. Tan, A. H. Wu, L. Ye, L. H. Ye, Q. Zhou, and Y. Shao, “A murine model of dry eye induced by topical administration of erlotinib eye drops,” Int. J. Mol. Med. 41, 1427–1436 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cross-sectional imaging in the anterior eye segment of a C57BL/6 mouse with normal findings. (a) Ultrahigh-resolution OCT and (b) histology with H&E staining reveal all morphological features. In the enlarged central cross-section of the cornea, the boundaries of the corneal layers as used for quantitative evaluation are depicted: epithelium: green to yellow, stroma: blue to yellow. Scale bars correspond to 200 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fluorescein staining in a dry eye mouse model. (a), (c): native photographs. (b),(d): green channel images. Findings of fluorescein photographies ranged from (a,b) no mark ups to (c,d) diffuse fluorescein mark up. Scale bars correspond to 235 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Exemplary corneal findings in a dry eye mouse model. a: Increase in epithelial thickness with increased reflectivity, distortion and vanishing of the distinctive epithelial-stromal border. b: Foreign body breaching the epithelium. c: Endothelial finding (arrow) and epithelial thickness defect (arrowheads). d: Epithelial infiltrates corresponding to highly reflective spots in en face projections (Fig. 6). Scale bars correspond to 100 µm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Visualization of epithelial lesions in OCT images and corresponding fluorescein images in three different mice (a, b, c). The location of the tomogram in the en face image is indicated by the red line. a) Defect visible in OCT scan as tissue loss on D1 but not on D0, distinct fluorescein marking. b) Defect visible in OCT image on D0 but not on D1; less pronounced fluorescein marking. c) Small epithelial defect in OCT images of both days and fluorescein marking. All scale bars correspond to 100 µm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Mean thickness changes of the epithelium (left) and stroma (right) after no intervention (orange; n = 7) or after instillation of one drop of PBS immediately after baseline measurement (blue; n = 8). Especially in the stroma, PBS leads first to a decrease and then to a distinct increase in thickness. Error bars represent the standard deviation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. En face projections of OCT data revealing different levels of epithelial damage ranging from (a) no defects to (e) corneal erosion and a high number of highly reflective spots. Scale bar corresponds to 200 µm vertically and 130 µm horizontally.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Changes in thickness of the CCT and the corneal layers between day 0 (D0) and day 1 (D1).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Defects in layers found on D0 and D1.