Abstract

An optical approach to determine the hydration level in human skin is presented. The approach is based on temporal tracking of back-reflected secondary speckle patterns generated while illuminating the tested area with a laser and applying periodic vibrations to the surface via a controlled vibration source (CVS). This approach has already been tested successfully for other biomedical parameters such as sensing vital signs, hematology and hemodynamic processes in the body. In this paper we examine and adjust this optical technique with the aim of measuring human skin moisture. We compare the suitability and accuracy of our optical method to the commercially available device for skin moisture measurements, the Corneometer CM 825 (by Courage + Khazaka, Cologne, Germany). Preliminary experiments showing the method's suitability for hydration measurements are presented, may lead to more accurate results that may upgrade the control of the cosmetic industry as well as identifying symptoms of moisture-related skin diseases.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  4. S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Bishitz, N. Ozana, A. Schwarz, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 1003–1014 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Verdier-Sévrain and F. Bonté, “Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 6(2), 75–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, D. D. Duncan, M. Kulesz-Martin, and K. Lee, “Imaging the mechanical stiffness of skin lesions by in vivo acousto-optical elastography,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9770–9779 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Arimoto and M. Egawa, “Non-Contact Skin Moisture Measurement Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(12), 1439–1446 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. H. Silver, L. M. Siperko, and G. P. Seehra, “Mechanobiology of force transduction in dermal tissue,” Skin Res. Technol. 9(1), 3–23 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Girard, A. Beraud, and A. Sirvent, “Study of three complementary techniques for measuring cutaneous hydration in vivo in human subjects: NMR spectroscopy, transient thermal transfer and corneometry - application to xerotic skin and cosmetics,” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 205–213 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. O. Barel and P. Clarys, “In vitro calibration of the capacitance method (Corneometer CM 825) and conductance method (Skicon-200) for the evaluation of the hydration state of the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 3(2), 107–113 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Nakajima and H. Narasaka, “Evaluation of skin surface associated with morphology and coefficient of friction,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 15(4), 135–151 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. O. Potts, E. M. Buras, and D. A. Chrisman, “Changes with age in the moisture content of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 82(1), 97–100 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

P. M. Elias, “Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 80(6), 044s–049s (1983).
[Crossref]

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras, “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

M. M. Rieger and D. E. Deem, “Skin moisturizers. The effects of cosmetic Ingredients on human stratum corneum,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 25, 253–262 (1974).

1970 (1)

T. Moore, “A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Man Mach. Syst. 11(1), 79–84 (1970).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

I. H. Blank, “Factors Which Influence the Water Content of the Stratum Corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abebe Campino, G.

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alanen, E.

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, J. M.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arimoto, H.

Baby, A. R.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barel, A. O.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Barel and P. Clarys, “In vitro calibration of the capacitance method (Corneometer CM 825) and conductance method (Skicon-200) for the evaluation of the hydration state of the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 3(2), 107–113 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechara, F. G.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beiderman, Y.

Y. Bishitz, N. Ozana, A. Schwarz, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 1003–1014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beraud, A.

P. Girard, A. Beraud, and A. Sirvent, “Study of three complementary techniques for measuring cutaneous hydration in vivo in human subjects: NMR spectroscopy, transient thermal transfer and corneometry - application to xerotic skin and cosmetics,” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 205–213 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishitz, Y.

Björklund, S.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blank, I. H.

I. H. Blank, “Factors Which Influence the Water Content of the Stratum Corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blenkiron, P.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bonté, F.

S. Verdier-Sévrain and F. Bonté, “Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 6(2), 75–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodie, Z.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buras, E. M.

R. O. Potts, E. M. Buras, and D. A. Chrisman, “Changes with age in the moisture content of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 82(1), 97–100 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras, “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrisman, D. A.

R. O. Potts, E. M. Buras, and D. A. Chrisman, “Changes with age in the moisture content of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 82(1), 97–100 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras, “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarys, P.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Barel and P. Clarys, “In vitro calibration of the capacitance method (Corneometer CM 825) and conductance method (Skicon-200) for the evaluation of the hydration state of the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 3(2), 107–113 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clijsen, R.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Close, J.-A.

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

Crowther, J. M.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Deem, D. E.

M. M. Rieger and D. E. Deem, “Skin moisturizers. The effects of cosmetic Ingredients on human stratum corneum,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 25, 253–262 (1974).

Derler, S.

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duncan, D. D.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, D. D. Duncan, M. Kulesz-Martin, and K. Lee, “Imaging the mechanical stiffness of skin lesions by in vivo acousto-optical elastography,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9770–9779 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Arimoto and M. Egawa, “Non-Contact Skin Moisture Measurement Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(12), 1439–1446 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, P. M.

P. M. Elias, “Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 80(6), 044s–049s (1983).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferelli, C.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gans, E. H.

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

Garcia, J.

Y. Bishitz, N. Ozana, A. Schwarz, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 1003–1014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerasi, R.

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gerhardt, L.-C.

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimenis, J. M.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girard, P.

P. Girard, A. Beraud, and A. Sirvent, “Study of three complementary techniques for measuring cutaneous hydration in vivo in human subjects: NMR spectroscopy, transient thermal transfer and corneometry - application to xerotic skin and cosmetics,” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 205–213 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

Hancewicz, T. M.

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jo, S. J.

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaczvinsky, J. R.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kaneko, T. M.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, D. D. Duncan, M. Kulesz-Martin, and K. Lee, “Imaging the mechanical stiffness of skin lesions by in vivo acousto-optical elastography,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9770–9779 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulesz-Martin, M.

Kunin, M.

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lahtinen, T.

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Leite e Silva, V. R.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenz, A.

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcott, C.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Margalith, I.

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matts, P. J.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Meyers, C. L.

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mico, V.

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mönkkönen, J.

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, T.

T. Moore, “A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Man Mach. Syst. 11(1), 79–84 (1970).
[Crossref]

Moussa, G.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nacht, S.

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima and H. Narasaka, “Evaluation of skin surface associated with morphology and coefficient of friction,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 15(4), 135–151 (1993).
[Crossref]

Narasaka, H.

K. Nakajima and H. Narasaka, “Evaluation of skin surface associated with morphology and coefficient of friction,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 15(4), 135–151 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nicklén, K.

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowacka, A.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuutinen, J.

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozana, N.

Y. Bishitz, N. Ozana, A. Schwarz, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 1003–1014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, B. D.

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. Y.

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, Q. D.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potts, R. O.

R. O. Potts, E. M. Buras, and D. A. Chrisman, “Changes with age in the moisture content of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 82(1), 97–100 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras, “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rawlings, A. V.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rieger, M. M.

M. M. Rieger and D. E. Deem, “Skin moisturizers. The effects of cosmetic Ingredients on human stratum corneum,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 25, 253–262 (1974).

Rim, J. H.

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruas, G. W.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sand, D.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sand, M.

M. Sand, T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, F. G. Bechara, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Evaluation of the epidermal refractive index measured by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(2), 114–118 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulman, M. A.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, A.

Seehra, G. P.

F. H. Silver, L. M. Siperko, and G. P. Seehra, “Mechanobiology of force transduction in dermal tissue,” Skin Res. Technol. 9(1), 3–23 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shenhav, A.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sieg, A.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Silver, F. H.

F. H. Silver, L. M. Siperko, and G. P. Seehra, “Mechanobiology of force transduction in dermal tissue,” Skin Res. Technol. 9(1), 3–23 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siperko, L. M.

F. H. Silver, L. M. Siperko, and G. P. Seehra, “Mechanobiology of force transduction in dermal tissue,” Skin Res. Technol. 9(1), 3–23 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirvent, A.

P. Girard, A. Beraud, and A. Sirvent, “Study of three complementary techniques for measuring cutaneous hydration in vivo in human subjects: NMR spectroscopy, transient thermal transfer and corneometry - application to xerotic skin and cosmetics,” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 205–213 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparr, E.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, N. D.

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strässle, V.

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanyan, K.

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taeymans, J.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tagami, H.

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taqueda, M. E.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topgaard, D.

S. Björklund, J. M. Andersson, Q. D. Pham, A. Nowacka, D. Topgaard, and E. Sparr, “Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers,” Soft Matter 10(25), 4535–4546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velasco, M. V.

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdier-Sévrain, S.

S. Verdier-Sévrain and F. Bonté, “Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 6(2), 75–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Yeung, D.

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

Youn, J. I.

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zalevsky, Z.

Y. Bishitz, N. Ozana, A. Schwarz, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 1003–1014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. L.

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (1)

J. H. Rim, S. J. Jo, J. Y. Park, B. D. Park, and J. I. Youn, “Electrical measurement of moisturizing effect on skin hydration and barrier function in psoriasis patients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 30(4), 409–413 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Man Mach. Syst. (1)

T. Moore, “A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Man Mach. Syst. 11(1), 79–84 (1970).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. (1)

K. Nakajima and H. Narasaka, “Evaluation of skin surface associated with morphology and coefficient of friction,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 15(4), 135–151 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Biomech. (1)

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras, “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, “Low-frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1311–1319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, and T. M. Hancewicz, “Near infrared imaging for measuring and visualizing skin hydration. A comparison with visual assessment and electrical methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Dermatol. (2)

S. Verdier-Sévrain and F. Bonté, “Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 6(2), 75–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Leite e Silva, M. A. Schulman, C. Ferelli, J. M. Gimenis, G. W. Ruas, A. R. Baby, M. V. Velasco, M. E. Taqueda, and T. M. Kaneko, “Hydrating effects of moisturizer active compounds incorporated into hydrogels: in vivo assessment and comparison between devices,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 8(1), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (3)

P. M. Elias, “Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 80(6), 044s–049s (1983).
[Crossref]

I. H. Blank, “Factors Which Influence the Water Content of the Stratum Corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. Potts, E. M. Buras, and D. A. Chrisman, “Changes with age in the moisture content of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 82(1), 97–100 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

L.-C. Gerhardt, V. Strässle, A. Lenz, N. D. Spencer, and S. Derler, “Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(28), 1317–1328 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. (2)

M. M. Rieger and D. E. Deem, “Skin moisturizers. The effects of cosmetic Ingredients on human stratum corneum,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 25, 253–262 (1974).

S. Nacht, J.-A. Close, D. Yeung, and E. H. Gans, “Skin friction coefficient: changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 32(2), 55–65 (1981).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun. 289, 149–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. Ozana, I. Margalith, Y. Beiderman, M. Kunin, G. Abebe Campino, R. Gerasi, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of a Remote Optical Measurement Configuration That Correlates With Breathing, Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure, Blood Coagulation, & Blood Oxygenation,” Proc. IEEE 103(2), 248–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skin Res. Technol. (6)

E. Alanen, J. Nuutinen, K. Nicklén, T. Lahtinen, and J. Mönkkönen, “Measurement of hydration in the stratum corneum with the MoistureMeter and comparison with the Corneometer,” Skin Res. Technol. 10(1), 32–37 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Barel and P. Clarys, “In vitro calibration of the capacitance method (Corneometer CM 825) and conductance method (Skicon-200) for the evaluation of the hydration state of the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 3(2), 107–113 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, J. Taeymans, and A. O. Barel, “Hydration measurements of the stratum corneum: comparison between the capacitance method (digital version of the Corneometer CM 825) and the impedance method (Skicon-200EX®),” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 316–323 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup scheme.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The two experimental instruments: (a) Our optical setup, extracting the optical parameter. (b) The Corneometer CM 825 probe (by Courage + Khazaka, Germany) measuring capacitance.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) an example for the signals extracted from our optical system. The correlation analysis between every two consecutive frames in a video, yielded this signal in which the amplitude represents the shifts in the correlation peak. Volar Forearm human skin without any treatment (blue) and half an hour after moisturizer application (green). (b) Frequency responses, same color meaning as in (a). The excitation frequency in this measurement is 130 Hz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical signature through 3 hours of experiment on one subject. After measuring the dry skin, a moisturizer was applied and completely rubbed into the skin, then 6 measurements were taken every 0.5 hour. One can see the potential of measuring the amount of moisture through this measurement, as the optical signature decreasing through time and even going back up after 3 hours when the Corneometer indicates a decrease skin moisture.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical signatures of three different subjects (a-c), dry skin (blue) from the left forearm against moist skin (orange) from the right forearm after moisturizer application. The amplitude speckle shift in frequency domain is the optical parameter, as a function of the 6 frequencies examined. Five independent measurements were taken from the three subjects, each time from both forearms. Here is presented the average accepted values, with standard deviations of the five repetitions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Three subjects whose skin was examined over the period of 3 hours by the two instruments, the Corneometer (a-c) and our optical system (d-f). Sections (a, d) belong to subject 1, sections (b, e) belong to subject 2 and sections (c, f) belong to subject 3. Each experiment was performed under the same humidity and room temperature conditions. For each participant the moisturizer was applied to the right volar forearm (orange) immediately after the first measurement. The left volar forearm (blue) of each participant served as a reference. One can see that both instruments responded to moisturizer application in the same way, but opposite. High moisture is interpreted in the Corneometer as an increase in the graph, and in our analysis, it is interpreted as a decrease in the graph. In both instruments, the values were normalized by the value from the first measurement. In each time point, the measurement was performed in 3 repetitions and the median and standard deviation were taken.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The 6 points along distance over the volar forearm, at distances of 1.5cm, 2cm, 2.5cm, 3cm, 4cm, and 5cm from the edge of the CVS. (b) Fit curves for each skin condition show that the greater the moisture content is, the faster the acoustic wave fades along the skin.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Damping length and R-square of curves fitting.

Equations (3)

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β= 4πtanα λ 4πα λ
X(k)= j=1 N x(j) e 2πijk N
A= A 0 e ( d D )