Abstract

Sub-wavelength grating (SWG) metamaterials have been considered to provide promising solutions in the development of next-generation photonic integrated circuits. In recent years, increasied interest has been paid to silicon photonic planar biosensors based on SWG geometries for performance enhancement. In this work, we demonstrate a highly sensitive label-free phase-shifted Bragg grating (PSBG) sensing configuration, which consists of sub-wavelength block arrays in both propagation and transverse directions. By introducing salt serial dilutions and electrostatic polymers assays, bulk and surface sensitivities of the proposed sensor are characterized, obtaining measured results up to 579.2 nm/RIU and 1914 pm/nm, respectively. Moreover, the proposed multi-box PSBG sensor presents an improved quality factor as high as $\sim$8000, roughly 3-fold of the microring-based counterpart, which further improves the detection limit. At last, by employing a biotin-streptavidin affinity assay, the capability for small molecule monitoring is exemplified with a minimum detectable concentration of biotin down to 2.28 $\times$ 10$^{-8}$ M.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

J. R. Bickford, P. S. Cho, M. E. Farrell, E. L. Holthoff, and P. M. Pellegrino, “The investigation of subwavelength grating waveguides for photonic integrated circuit based sensor applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Luan, H. Yun, L. Laplatine, Y. Dattner, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Enhanced sensitivity of subwavelength multibox waveguide microring resonator label-free biosensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. B.-d. Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, and C. Horvath, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. F. Delgadillo, T. C. Mueser, K. Zaleta-Rivera, K. A. Carnes, J. González-Valdez, and L. J. Parkhurst, “Detailed characterization of the solution kinetics and thermodynamics of biotin, biocytin and haba binding to avidin and streptavidin,” PLoS One 14(2), e0204194 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

R. Peltomaa, B. Glahn-Martínez, E. Benito-Peña, and M. Moreno-Bondi, “Optical biosensors for label-free detection of small molecules,” Sensors 18(12), 4126 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. Ratner, K. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic biosensors using label-free detection,” Sensors 18(10), 3519 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Laplatine, E. Luan, K. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, Y. Dattner, and L. Chrostowski, “System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors using fan-out wafer-level-packaging for low cost and multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic testing,” Sens. Actuators, B 273, 1610–1617 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Čtyrokỳ, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, J. Litvik, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Dado, and P. Cheben, “Design of narrowband Bragg spectral filters in subwavelength grating metamaterial waveguides,” Opt. Express 26(1), 179–194 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

D. Conteduca, C. Reardon, M. G. Scullion, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, T. F. Krauss, and C. Ciminelli, “Ultra-high Q/V hybrid cavity for strong light-matter interaction,” APL Photonics 2(8), 086101 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Zhang, and D. Cui, “Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for biotin determination on a home-made instrument,” Procedia Technol. 27, 87–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (5)

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of soi micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Syahir, K. Usui, K.-Y. Tomizaki, K. Kajikawa, and H. Mihara, “Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays,” Microarrays 4(2), 228–244 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, H. Tian, and Y. Ji, “High-q and high-sensitivity width-modulated photonic crystal single nanobeam air-mode cavity for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nguyen, J. Park, S. Kang, and M. Kim, “Surface plasmon resonance: a versatile technique for biosensor applications,” Sensors 15(5), 10481–10510 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

S. Geschwindner, J. F. Carlsson, and W. Knecht, “Application of optical biosensors in small-molecule screening activities,” Sensors 12(4), 4311–4323 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11(2), 1972–1991 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, M. S. McClellan, and R. C. Bailey, “Sensitive on-chip detection of a protein biomarker in human serum and plasma over an extended dynamic range using silicon photonic microring resonators and sub-micron beads,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2042–2044 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker Jr, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1032–1041 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. Luebbert, Q. Liu, P. Chenben, and J. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Arai, P. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E. Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, “Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin–biotin system,” Protein Sci. 15(3), 459–467 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Laitinen, V. Hytönen, H. Nordlund, and M. Kulomaa, “Genetically engineered avidins and streptavidins,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63(24), 2992–3017 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Karlsson, P. S. Katsamba, H. Nordin, E. Pol, and D. G. Myszka, “Analyzing a kinetic titration series using affinity biosensors,” Anal. Biochem. 349(1), 136–147 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensors,” Compr. Anal. Chem. 44, 209–250 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

Z. Weissman and I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 2053–2058 (1995).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Aitchison, J.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Arai, T.

T. Arai, P. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

Armenise, M. N.

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J. R. Bickford, P. S. Cho, M. E. Farrell, E. L. Holthoff, and P. M. Pellegrino, “The investigation of subwavelength grating waveguides for photonic integrated circuit based sensor applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–10 (2019).
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D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E. Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, “Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin–biotin system,” Protein Sci. 15(3), 459–467 (2006).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
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[Crossref]

Shoman, H.

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. B.-d. Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, and C. Horvath, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. Ratner, K. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic biosensors using label-free detection,” Sensors 18(10), 3519 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sohlström, H.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E. Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, “Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin–biotin system,” Protein Sci. 15(3), 459–467 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stenkamp, R. E.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E. Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, “Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin–biotin system,” Protein Sci. 15(3), 459–467 (2006).
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T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11(2), 1972–1991 (2011).
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Swann, M. J.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

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A. Syahir, K. Usui, K.-Y. Tomizaki, K. Kajikawa, and H. Mihara, “Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays,” Microarrays 4(2), 228–244 (2015).
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T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11(2), 1972–1991 (2011).
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Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker Jr, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
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S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” in Biosensing and Nanomedicine VII, Vol. 9166 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), p. 91660M.

Tian, H.

Tokachichu, D. R.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
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T. Arai, P. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
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A. Syahir, K. Usui, K.-Y. Tomizaki, K. Kajikawa, and H. Mihara, “Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays,” Microarrays 4(2), 228–244 (2015).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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A. Syahir, K. Usui, K.-Y. Tomizaki, K. Kajikawa, and H. Mihara, “Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays,” Microarrays 4(2), 228–244 (2015).
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Vuckovic, J.

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S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” in Biosensing and Nanomedicine VII, Vol. 9166 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), p. 91660M.

Wang, X.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
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X. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, R. Bojko, A. Liu, A. Reid, J. Pond, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Precise control of the coupling coefficient through destructive interference in silicon waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5519–5522 (2014).
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Wang, Y.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Washburn, A. L.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, M. S. McClellan, and R. C. Bailey, “Sensitive on-chip detection of a protein biomarker in human serum and plasma over an extended dynamic range using silicon photonic microring resonators and sub-micron beads,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2042–2044 (2011).
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M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
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A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
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Z. Weissman and I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 2053–2058 (1995).
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Willbold, D.

D. Frenzel and D. Willbold, “Kinetic titration series with biolayer interferometry,” PLoS One 9(9), e106882 (2014).
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Witt, D.

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. B.-d. Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, and C. Horvath, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1 (2019).
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Yang, D.

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A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Photonics-optical electronics in modern communication”, (2007).

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Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker Jr, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
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A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Photonics-optical electronics in modern communication”, (2007).

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T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11(2), 1972–1991 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. B.-d. Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, and C. Horvath, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1 (2019).
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E. Luan, H. Yun, L. Laplatine, Y. Dattner, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Enhanced sensitivity of subwavelength multibox waveguide microring resonator label-free biosensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Luan, H. Yun, L. Laplatine, J. Flückiger, Y. Dattner, D. Ratner, K. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Sub-wavelength multi-box waveguide-based label-free sensors,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII, Vol. 10535 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105350H.

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R. F. Delgadillo, T. C. Mueser, K. Zaleta-Rivera, K. A. Carnes, J. González-Valdez, and L. J. Parkhurst, “Detailed characterization of the solution kinetics and thermodynamics of biotin, biocytin and haba binding to avidin and streptavidin,” PLoS One 14(2), e0204194 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Chen, L. Zhang, and D. Cui, “Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for biotin determination on a home-made instrument,” Procedia Technol. 27, 87–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Acta Biomater. (1)

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
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R. Karlsson, P. S. Katsamba, H. Nordin, E. Pol, and D. G. Myszka, “Analyzing a kinetic titration series using affinity biosensors,” Anal. Biochem. 349(1), 136–147 (2006).
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Anal. Chem. (2)

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker Jr, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
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A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
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APL Photonics (1)

D. Conteduca, C. Reardon, M. G. Scullion, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, T. F. Krauss, and C. Ciminelli, “Ultra-high Q/V hybrid cavity for strong light-matter interaction,” APL Photonics 2(8), 086101 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
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M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
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Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (5)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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J. R. Bickford, P. S. Cho, M. E. Farrell, E. L. Holthoff, and P. M. Pellegrino, “The investigation of subwavelength grating waveguides for photonic integrated circuit based sensor applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–10 (2019).
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E. Luan, H. Yun, L. Laplatine, Y. Dattner, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Enhanced sensitivity of subwavelength multibox waveguide microring resonator label-free biosensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. B.-d. Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, and C. Horvath, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1 (2019).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Z. Weissman and I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 2053–2058 (1995).
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J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

T. Arai, P. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lab Chip (1)

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, M. S. McClellan, and R. C. Bailey, “Sensitive on-chip detection of a protein biomarker in human serum and plasma over an extended dynamic range using silicon photonic microring resonators and sub-micron beads,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2042–2044 (2011).
[Crossref]

Microarrays (1)

A. Syahir, K. Usui, K.-Y. Tomizaki, K. Kajikawa, and H. Mihara, “Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays,” Microarrays 4(2), 228–244 (2015).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
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Opt. Express (9)

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of soi micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
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S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
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PLoS One (2)

R. F. Delgadillo, T. C. Mueser, K. Zaleta-Rivera, K. A. Carnes, J. González-Valdez, and L. J. Parkhurst, “Detailed characterization of the solution kinetics and thermodynamics of biotin, biocytin and haba binding to avidin and streptavidin,” PLoS One 14(2), e0204194 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Frenzel and D. Willbold, “Kinetic titration series with biolayer interferometry,” PLoS One 9(9), e106882 (2014).
[Crossref]

Procedia Technol. (1)

X. Chen, L. Zhang, and D. Cui, “Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for biotin determination on a home-made instrument,” Procedia Technol. 27, 87–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Protein Sci. (1)

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E. Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, “Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin–biotin system,” Protein Sci. 15(3), 459–467 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, B (1)

L. Laplatine, E. Luan, K. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, Y. Dattner, and L. Chrostowski, “System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors using fan-out wafer-level-packaging for low cost and multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic testing,” Sens. Actuators, B 273, 1610–1617 (2018).
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Sensors (5)

R. Peltomaa, B. Glahn-Martínez, E. Benito-Peña, and M. Moreno-Bondi, “Optical biosensors for label-free detection of small molecules,” Sensors 18(12), 4126 (2018).
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H. Nguyen, J. Park, S. Kang, and M. Kim, “Surface plasmon resonance: a versatile technique for biosensor applications,” Sensors 15(5), 10481–10510 (2015).
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S. Geschwindner, J. F. Carlsson, and W. Knecht, “Application of optical biosensors in small-molecule screening activities,” Sensors 12(4), 4311–4323 (2012).
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T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11(2), 1972–1991 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. Ratner, K. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic biosensors using label-free detection,” Sensors 18(10), 3519 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

E. Luan, H. Yun, L. Laplatine, J. Flückiger, Y. Dattner, D. Ratner, K. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Sub-wavelength multi-box waveguide-based label-free sensors,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXII, Vol. 10535 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105350H.

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon photonics design: from devices to systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” in Biosensing and Nanomedicine VII, Vol. 9166 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), p. 91660M.

X. Wang, “Silicon photonic waveguide Bragg gratings”, Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia (2013).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Photonics-optical electronics in modern communication”, (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed multi-box phase-shifted Bragg grating (PSBG) sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel in which molecule interactions happen at the sensor surface, leading to a change in the waveguide’s effective index. Insets: Cross-sections of electric field distributions in conventional (top left) and multi-box (bottom right, including the distribution in silicon segments and gaps) waveguides, respectively, in the quasi-transverse electric (TE) mode.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Two-dimensional schematic geometry of a 5-row multi-box PSBG waveguide with a thickness of 220 nm ($\Lambda _1$ and $\Lambda _2$ are the period of Bragg gratings and multi-box blocks, $L_{\textrm {Si}}$ and $L_{\textrm {gap}}$ are the length of silicon boxes and gaps in between, $W$ and $\Delta W$ are the width of the main waveguide and corrugation boxes, and $N$ is the number of periods on each side).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Simulated central wavelengths of the stop band as a function of the length of multi-box blocks ($L_{\textrm {Si}}$) for 3, 4, and 5-row multi-box Bragg gratings ($\Delta W$ = 120 nm, and $L_{\textrm {gap}}$ = 60 nm). (b) Simulated $Q$-factors from the transmission spectra versus the variation of the corrugation width of 3, 4, and 5-row multi-box Bragg gratings ($L_{\textrm {Si-3row}}$ = 190 nm, $L_{\textrm {Si-4row}}$ = 185 nm, and $L_{\textrm {Si-5row}}$ = 180 nm).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured extinction ratio (ER, in the bar chart) and quality factor ($Q$-factor, in the curve graph) values as a function of the corrugation width ($\Delta W$) in 3, 4, and 5-row PSBG waveguides. Fixed parameters: $N$ = 140, $L_{\textrm {Si-3row}}$ = 190 nm, $L_{\textrm {Si-4row}}$ = 185 nm, and $L_{\textrm {Si-5row}}$ = 180 nm. (b) Measured ER and $Q$-factor values as a function of the number of periods ($N$) in 3, 4, and 5-row PSBG waveguides. Fixed parameters: $\Delta W_{\textrm {3row}}$ = 120 nm, $\Delta W_{\textrm {4row}}$ = 140 nm, and $\Delta W_{\textrm {5row}}$ = 160 nm. For the 3-row PSBG with N = 180, the $Q$-factor is not included due to the noisy resonant behavior caused by the low ER.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the proposed sensing device with one input and three outputs connecting with 3, 4, and 5-row multi-box PSBGs, as well as the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, focused at the center of the phase-shifted cavity, where silicon is false-colored. (b) Measured transmission spectra of the proposed device, after calibrated by a similar 4-port device where PSBGs are replaced by standard waveguides. Inset: A closer look at the resonant peak of the 3-row PSBG waveguide before (black dots) and after (red curve) the curve fitting, exhibiting a 100-fold enhanced resolution of 0.1 pm. (c) Wavelength shift sensorgrams of bulk refractive index (RI) steps with NaCl dilutions from 62.5 to 500 mM. Inset: The system noise floor of proposed multi-box PSBG sensors at 25$^{\circ }$C. (d) Bulk sensitivity results of 3, 4, and 5-row multi-box PSBGs. Refractive indices of NaCl dilutions were calculated at 1550 nm based on a third-order polynomial fit from Ref. [42].
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the layer-by-layer polyelectrolytes deposition process at the surface of proposed sensors. (b) Measured wavelength shifts of 3, 4, and 5-row multi-box PSBGs in terms of the deposition of polymers. Inset: An amplification of the wavelength shift in two deposition cycles: a more substantial shift (2 nm) is observed in PSS than in PAH (1 nm) due to the molecular weight (MW) difference. (c) Surface sensitivities of proposed sensors. Inset: Measured thicknesses of different numbers of PSS/PAH bilayers on the glass slide.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Schematic of the surface functionalization and biotin titrations steps: Step A = 150 µg/mL biotinylated Bovine Serum Albumin (bBSA), Step B = 50 µg/mL streptavidin (SA), Step C = 50 µg/mL Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), and Step D = biotin dilutions. Each step was washed with sufficient PBS buffer. (b) Complete sensorgrams of the small molecule interaction assay, where the blue curve represents the experimental (sensing) data, and the red curve represents the control (reference) data. Light blue portions indicate PSB rinsing steps. (c) Zoomed sensorgrams of single-cycle kinetic (SCK) titrations using biotin dilution series at concentrations of 10$^{-11}$, 10$^{-9}$ ,10$^{-7}$, 10$^{-5}$, and 10$^{-3}$ M. Each concentration was injected with a flow rate of 30 µL/min for 5 min and followed with a 3-min PBS rinse. The grey area shows the 3$\sigma$ of the system noise. (d) Wavelength shift as a function of the concentration of biotin, which is fitted with the Langmuir equation, indicating a dissociation constant ($K_{\textrm {d}}$) of 8.6 $\times$ 10$^{-8}$ M.

Equations (5)

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[ A in B in ] = G P G [ A out B out ] = [ M 11 M 12 M 21 M 22 ] [ A out B out ] ,
G = [ c o s h ( s L G ) + j Δ β 2 s s i n h ( s L G ) j κ s s i n h ( s L G ) j κ s s i n h ( s L G ) c o s h ( s L G ) j Δ β 2 s s i n h ( s L G ) ] ,
P = [ e j β L P 0 0 e j β L P ] ,
κ = π n g Δ λ PSBG λ c 2 ,
R max = M analyte M receptor R ads × n

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