Abstract

Quantitative analysis of the peripapillary retinal layers and capillary plexuses from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography images depend on two segmentation tasks – delineating the boundary of the optic disc and delineating the boundaries between retinal layers. Here, we present a method combining a neural network and graph search to perform these two tasks. A comparison of this novel method’s segmentation of the disc boundary showed good agreement with the ground truth, achieving an overall Dice similarity coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.04 in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. The absolute error of retinal layer boundaries segmentation in the same cases was 4.10 ± 1.25 µm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

K. Yu, F. Shi, E. Gao, W. Zhu, H. Chen, and X. Chen, “Shared-hole graph search with adaptive constraints for 3D optic nerve head optical coherence tomography image segmentation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 962–983 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Devalla, P. K. Renukanand, B. K. Sreedhar, G. Subramanian, L. Zhang, S. Perera, J. M. Mari, K. S. Chin, T. A. Tun, N. G. Strouthidis, T. Aung, A. H. Thiéry, and M. J. A. Girard, “DRUNET: a dilated-residual U-Net deep learning network to segment optic nerve head tissues in optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3244–3265 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kugelman, D. Alonso-Caneiro, S. A. Read, S. J. Vincent, and M. J. Collins, “Automatic segmentation of OCT retinal boundaries using recurrent neural networks and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5759–5777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. E. Pennesi, P. Yang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Deep learning for the segmentation of preserved photoreceptors on en face optical coherence tomography in two inherited retinal diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3092–3105 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. S. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “MEDnet, a neural network for automated detection of avascular area in OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5147–5158 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

Z. Hu, C. A. Girkin, A. Hariri, and S. R. Sadda, “Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information,” Proc. SPIE 9697, 96971S (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” JAMA 311(18), 1901–1911 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3822–3832 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical micro-angiography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramoff, M. D.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Caneiro, D.

Antony, B. J.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

S. K. Devalla, P. K. Renukanand, B. K. Sreedhar, G. Subramanian, L. Zhang, S. Perera, J. M. Mari, K. S. Chin, T. A. Tun, N. G. Strouthidis, T. Aung, A. H. Thiéry, and M. J. A. Girard, “DRUNET: a dilated-residual U-Net deep learning network to segment optic nerve head tissues in optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3244–3265 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” JAMA 311(18), 1901–1911 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhavsar, K.

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M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
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Chen, H.

Chen, X.

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Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Duker, J. S.

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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Gao, S. S.

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M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Guo, Y.

Gupta, P.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
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Hanson, S. R.

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Z. Hu, C. A. Girkin, A. Hariri, and S. R. Sadda, “Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information,” Proc. SPIE 9697, 96971S (2016).
[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hong, Y.

Hormel, T. T.

Hornegger, J.

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, C. A. Girkin, A. Hariri, and S. R. Sadda, “Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information,” Proc. SPIE 9697, 96971S (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

A. Camino, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. E. Pennesi, P. Yang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Deep learning for the segmentation of preserved photoreceptors on en face optical coherence tomography in two inherited retinal diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3092–3105 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. S. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “MEDnet, a neural network for automated detection of avascular area in OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5147–5158 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

Y. Guo, A. Camino, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. S. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “MEDnet, a neural network for automated detection of avascular area in OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5147–5158 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

Jacques, S. L.

Jia, Y.

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. S. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “MEDnet, a neural network for automated detection of avascular area in OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5147–5158 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. E. Pennesi, P. Yang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Deep learning for the segmentation of preserved photoreceptors on en face optical coherence tomography in two inherited retinal diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3092–3105 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jonathan, E.

Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Ko, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kugelman, J.

Kwon, Y.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. H.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, A. K.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, M.

Lee, K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

Leung, M. K.

Li, D.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, P.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, L. H.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Long, J.

J. Long, E. Shelhamer, and T. Darrell, “Fully convolutional networks for semantic segmentation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition. 2015, pp. 3431–3440.

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Makita, S.

Mari, J. M.

Mariampillai, A.

Medeiros, F. A.

R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” JAMA 311(18), 1901–1911 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miri, M. S.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, J. C.

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Nam, A. S.

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A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
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Niemeijer, M.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
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B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
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K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
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Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Leary, N.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
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Parikh, M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Pechauer, A. D.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Perera, S.

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Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Reis, A. S.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
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Renukanand, P. K.

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
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Z. Hu, C. A. Girkin, A. Hariri, and S. R. Sadda, “Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information,” Proc. SPIE 9697, 96971S (2016).
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A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelhamer, E.

J. Long, E. Shelhamer, and T. Darrell, “Fully convolutional networks for semantic segmentation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition. 2015, pp. 3431–3440.

Shi, F.

Sonka, M.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonkova, P.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

Sreedhar, B. K.

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Subhash, H.

Subramanian, G.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tham, Y. C.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
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Tokayer, J.

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Wang, J.

Wang, J. K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical micro-angiography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
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R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Wei, E.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” JAMA 311(18), 1901–1911 (2014).
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Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
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T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

Wong, T. Y.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, H.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
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Yang, P.

Yang, V. X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yousefi, S.

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical micro-angiography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Zang, P.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical micro-angiography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

Biomed. Opt. Express (13)

A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3822–3832 (2014).
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J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, S. S. Gao, T. S. Hwang, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, J. C. Morrison, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated boundary detection of the optic disc and layer segmentation of the peripapillary retina in volumetric structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1306–1318 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
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L. Fang, D. Cunefare, C. Wang, R. H. Guymer, S. Li, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of nine retinal layer boundaries in OCT images of non-exudative AMD patients using deep learning and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2732–2744 (2017).
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S. K. Devalla, P. K. Renukanand, B. K. Sreedhar, G. Subramanian, L. Zhang, S. Perera, J. M. Mari, K. S. Chin, T. A. Tun, N. G. Strouthidis, T. Aung, A. H. Thiéry, and M. J. A. Girard, “DRUNET: a dilated-residual U-Net deep learning network to segment optic nerve head tissues in optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3244–3265 (2018).
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J. Kugelman, D. Alonso-Caneiro, S. A. Read, S. J. Vincent, and M. J. Collins, “Automatic segmentation of OCT retinal boundaries using recurrent neural networks and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5759–5777 (2018).
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A. Camino, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. E. Pennesi, P. Yang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Deep learning for the segmentation of preserved photoreceptors on en face optical coherence tomography in two inherited retinal diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3092–3105 (2018).
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Y. Guo, A. Camino, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. S. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “MEDnet, a neural network for automated detection of avascular area in OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5147–5158 (2018).
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K. Yu, F. Shi, E. Gao, W. Zhu, H. Chen, and X. Chen, “Shared-hole graph search with adaptive constraints for 3D optic nerve head optical coherence tomography image segmentation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 962–983 (2018).
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M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical micro-angiography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” JAMA 311(18), 1901–1911 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121(11), 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE 7262, 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The architecture of the designed neural network.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diagram of the optic disc center detection. (A) En face average projection of the volumetric OCT. The detected optic disc region is covered by green. The red point is the detected disc center. (B) The normal B-frame corresponding to the position of the left blue line, which is outside of the disc. (C) The gradient map of the B-frame in (B). (D) The binary image of the layers with highest gradient intensity in (C). (E) The normal B-frame corresponding to the position of the right blue line, which is inside the disc. (F) The gradient map of the B-frame in (E). (G) The binary image of the layers with highest gradient intensity in (F). Note the single band of pixels in the disc region. (H) En face accumulation projection based on the volumetric gradient map. The center region with two thirds of the image length is indicated by the red box.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Generation of diametral B-frames. (A) En face average projection of a volumetric OCT scan from a glaucoma patient. The green point is the automatically detected optic disc center. The two red lines with angle and arrows indicate planes along with the diametral B-frames are generated. (B) The diametral B-frame corresponding to the red line at 1°. The green line corresponds to the optic disc center (green point) in (A). The region between two blue lines is the optic disc. The peripapillary retina is to the left and right of the blue lines. (C) The generated diametral B-frame corresponding to the red line at 45° in (A). The manually segmented EZ + RPE are colored in cyan.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Smoothing process of the initial optic disc boundary. (A) Volumetric prediction maps of EZ + RPE. (B) Initial optic disc region based on the en face projection of (A). (C) The bump artifacts were removed using morphological opening. (D) The final optic disc region after the convex hull calculation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The image and corresponding label in the training data set for the designed neural network for peripapillary retinal boundaries segmentation. (A) Image constructed from five adjacent B-frames. (B) Colormap of the peripapillary retinal layers based on the manually delineated boundaries of the B-frame marked by red arrow in (A). Six major layers are shown: NFL (red), IPL (green), INL (yellow), OPL (blue), ONL (purple), and EZ + RPE (cyan). (C) The seven channel labels based on the manual delineation of the third channel of (A).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The initial boundaries were refined by a multi-weights graph search. (A) The prediction map generated from the trained neural network. (B) The initial boundaries based on the prediction map in (A). The optic disc region, as automatically determined by the algorithm, is indicated by the solid light blue vertical lines. The region between these lines and the orange dotted lines is where refined weights in the graph search are used to ensure convergence to the BMO. This region covers one quarter of the distance between the edge of the image and the optic disc. (C) The final boundaries after the multi-weights graph search and smoothing.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The segmentation results of the optic disc boundary. In each part, the optic disc or its boundary is shown in green. (A) The en face average projection of the volumetric OCT scanned from a healthy participant. (B) The bottom-to-top 3D view of the volumetric OCT of (A). (C) The en face average projection of the volumetric OCT scanned from a glaucoma patient. (D) The bottom-to-top 3D view of the volumetric OCT of (C).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Segmentation results of the left eye of a healthy participant. (A) The en face average projection, with the segmented optic disc region overlaid in green. (B) The 3D anatomical map of the entire volumetric OCT based on the segmented peripapillary retinal layers. (C) Cutaway from (B) at the blue line location in (A), clearly showing the anatomic structure inside the disc. (D) En face SVC angiogram based on the segmented boundaries. (E) B-frame corresponding to the red line in (A) with segmented peripapillary retinal boundaries. (F) Corresponding image for the blue line in (A). The slab boundaries are, from top to bottom, the Vitreous/ILM (red), NFL/GCL (green), IPL/INL (yellow), INL/OPL (blue), OPL/ONL (magenta), ONL/EZ (cyan), EZ/RPE (red) and RPE/BM (blue).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Segmentation results for the right eye of a glaucoma patient. (A) En face average projection image, with the segmented optic disc region overlaid in green. (B) En face RPCP angiogram based on the segmented boundaries. Capillary loss in the superotemporal area is marked with a green line. (C) NFL thickness map based on the segmented peripapillary retinal boundaries. (D) B-frame corresponding to the red line in (A) with segmented peripapillary retinal boundaries. (E) Corresponding image for the blue line in (A). (F) The 3D anatomical map of whole volumetric OCT based on the segmented peripapillary retinal layers. (G) Cutaway from (F) at the blue line location in (A), clearly showing anatomic structure inside the optic disc. The slab boundaries are, from top to bottom, the Vitreous/ILM (red), NFL/GCL (green), IPL/INL (yellow), INL/OPL (blue), OPL/ONL (magenta), ONL/EZ (cyan), EZ/RPE (red) and RPE/BM (blue).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The sixteen feature maps of normal layers in the Global block.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Segmentation accuracy of our method

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Table 2 Comparison of the peripapillary retinal boundaries segmentation

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Table 3 Comparison of the validation accuracy between different architectures

Equations (6)

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Loss=1 1 N c n=1 N c Ou t n La b n +eps Ou t n La b n +eps
G hie =Conv( B normal , k hie )
I b ( x,y )={ 1 1 I c ( x,y )>1.3×mean( 1 I c ) 0 otherwise
P(x,z)=argmin(P(x1,z+d(i))+G(x,z)×(w(i)+| z+d(i) B initial (x1) |×0.1) i=[1, 2, ..., n] d=[3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3] w=[1.4, 1.2, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4]
n=21 d=[10, 9, ..., 0, ..., 9, 10] w=[1.8, 1.8, ..., 1.8, 1.4, 1.2, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, ..., 1.8, 1.8]
n=17 d=[8, 7, ..., 0, ..., 7, 8] w=[1.4, 1.4, 1.2, 1.2, 1.1, 1.1, 1.0, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8].

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