Abstract

With human milk being the most important source of infant nutrition, the protection and support of breastfeeding are essential from a global health perspective. Nevertheless, relatively few objective methods are available to investigate human milk composition and lactation physiology when a mother experiences breastfeeding problems. We argue that optics and photonics offer promising opportunities for this purpose. Any research activity within this new application field starts with a thorough understanding on how light interacts with human milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the full set of optical properties for human milk and the biological variability therein. Using a novel approach that combines spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SR-DRS) and spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT) between 450 and 650 nm, we quantified the absorption coefficient µa, scattering coefficient µs, reduced scattering coefficient µs, anisotropy g and backscattering coefficient µb,NA of mature human milk from 14 participants released at different stages during a breastfeed (foremilk, bulk milk and hindmilk). Significant correlations were found between µa, µs, µs and µb,NA and the biochemically determined fat concentration per sample (Rs = 0.38, Rs = 0.77, Rs = 0.80, Rs = 0.44 respectively). We explained the observed variations in the optical properties of human milk using Mie theory and the biological variability in both the concentration and size distribution of milk fat globules. In conclusion, we have provided a full set of optical properties for human milk, which can hopefully serve as a starting point for future biophotonic studies on human milk and the milk containing lactating breast.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2019 (2)

M. van der Hoek, L. den Haan, A. Kaspers, W. Steenbergen, and N. Bosschaart, “Cutaneous perfusion of the human lactating breast: a pilot study with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring,” Physiol. Meas. 40(5), 05NT01 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

Y. P. Yao, G. Z. Zhao, Y. Y. Yan, H. Y. Mu, Q. Z. Jin, X. Q. Zou, and X. G. Wang, “Milk fat globules by confocal Raman microscopy: Differences in human, bovine and caprine milk,” Food Res. Int. 80, 61–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. C. Rollins, N. Bhandari, N. Hajeebhoy, S. Horton, C. K. Lutter, J. C. Martines, E. G. Piwoz, L. M. Richter, C. G. Victora, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?” Lancet 387(10017), 491–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Jordens, D. Vermeulen, T. Van Gerven, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 126, 510–519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Almasian, N. Bosschaart, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Validation of quantitative attenuation and backscattering coefficient measurements by optical coherence tomography in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 121314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choi, G. Fusch, N. Rochow, N. Sheikh, and C. Fusch, “Establishment of micromethods for macronutrient contents analysis in breast milk,” Matern. Child Nutr. 11(4), 761–772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

E. Bijl, R. de Vries, H. van Valenberg, T. Huppertz, and T. Van Hooijdonk, “Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of kappa-casein,” Int. Dairy J. 34(1), 135–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

E. D. M. Motta, R. A. Zangaro, and L. Silveira, “Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 82291F (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Hinde and J. B. German, “Food in an evolutionary context: insights from mother’s milk,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 92(11), 2219–2223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Spectral domain detection in low-coherence spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2263–2272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. de Kruif, T. Huppertz, V. S. Urban, and A. V. Petukhov, “Casein micelles and their internal structure,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 171-172, 36–52 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. Moltó-Puigmartí, A. I. Castellote, X. Carbonell-Estrany, and M. C. López-Sabater, “Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infants,” Clin. Nutr. 30(1), 116–123 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, R. Mentink, J. H. Kok, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Measurements of wavelength dependent scattering and backscattering coefficients by low-coherence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, S. B. Fein, J. Chen, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn, “Why mothers stop breastfeeding: Mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year,” Pediatrics 122(Suppl 2), S69–S76 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

B. Y. Fong, C. S. Norris, and A. K. H. MacGibbon, “Protein and lipid composition of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane,” Int. Dairy J. 17(4), 275–288 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, F. Michel, F. Tasson, and P. Poulain, “Size distribution of fat globules in human colostrum, breast milk, and infant formula,” J. Dairy Sci. 88(6), 1927–1940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. R. Mitoulas, J. C. Kent, D. B. Cox, R. A. Owens, J. L. Sherriff, and P. E. Hartmann, “Variation in fat, lactose and protein in human milk over 24 h and throughout the first year of lactation,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(1), 29–37 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. J. Jääskeläinen, K. E. Peiponen, and J. A. Räty, “On reflectometric measurement of a refractive index of milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 84(1), 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, “Optical parameters of milk fat globules for laser light scattering measurements,” Lait 81(6), 787–796 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Attaie and R. L. Richter, “Size distribution of fat globules in goat milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 83(5), 940–944 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Eriksson, T. Lundeberg, and K. Uvnäs-Moberg, “Studies on cutaneous blood flow in the mammary gland of lactating rats,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 158(1), 1–6 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. Pérez-Escamilla, R. J. Cohen, K. H. Brown, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. G. Dewey, “Maternal anthropometric status and lactation performance in a low-income Honduran population: evidence for the role of infants,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(3), 528–534 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. Rüegg and B. Blanc, “The Fat Globule Size Distribution in Human Milk,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 666(1), 7–14 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1947 (1)

K. S. Rangappa, “Studies on the refractive index of milk. 1. Observations on genuine samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 25, 86–94 (1947).

Aalders, M. C. G.

N. Bosschaart, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Spectral domain detection in low-coherence spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2263–2272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Measurements of wavelength dependent scattering and backscattering coefficients by low-coherence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, R. Mentink, J. H. Kok, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdalsalam, O.

N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aernouts, B.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Jordens, D. Vermeulen, T. Van Gerven, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 126, 510–519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguayo-Maldonado, J.

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M. Almasian, N. Bosschaart, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Validation of quantitative attenuation and backscattering coefficient measurements by optical coherence tomography in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 121314 (2015).
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M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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A. A. O. Xavier, E. Díaz-Salido, I. Arenilla-Vélez, J. Aguayo-Maldonado, J. Garrido-Fernández, J. Fontecha, A. Sánchez-García, and A. Pérez-Gálvez, “Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition,” Nutrients 10(11), 1654 (2018).
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N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
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M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
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N. Bosschaart, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Spectral domain detection in low-coherence spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2263–2272 (2012).
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N. Bosschaart, R. Mentink, J. H. Kok, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097003 (2011).
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R. Pérez-Escamilla, R. J. Cohen, K. H. Brown, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. G. Dewey, “Maternal anthropometric status and lactation performance in a low-income Honduran population: evidence for the role of infants,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(3), 528–534 (1995).
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M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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R. Pérez-Escamilla, R. J. Cohen, K. H. Brown, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. G. Dewey, “Maternal anthropometric status and lactation performance in a low-income Honduran population: evidence for the role of infants,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(3), 528–534 (1995).
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Chen, J.

R. Li, S. B. Fein, J. Chen, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn, “Why mothers stop breastfeeding: Mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year,” Pediatrics 122(Suppl 2), S69–S76 (2008).
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Chen, W. P.

N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
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F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
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Choi, A.

A. Choi, G. Fusch, N. Rochow, N. Sheikh, and C. Fusch, “Establishment of micromethods for macronutrient contents analysis in breast milk,” Matern. Child Nutr. 11(4), 761–772 (2015).
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G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
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Cohen, R. J.

R. Pérez-Escamilla, R. J. Cohen, K. H. Brown, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. G. Dewey, “Maternal anthropometric status and lactation performance in a low-income Honduran population: evidence for the role of infants,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(3), 528–534 (1995).
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Contractor, N.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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L. R. Mitoulas, J. C. Kent, D. B. Cox, R. A. Owens, J. L. Sherriff, and P. E. Hartmann, “Variation in fat, lactose and protein in human milk over 24 h and throughout the first year of lactation,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(1), 29–37 (2002).
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Crume, T.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Dabelea, D.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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C. G. de Kruif, T. Huppertz, V. S. Urban, and A. V. Petukhov, “Casein micelles and their internal structure,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 171-172, 36–52 (2012).
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de Vries, R.

E. Bijl, R. de Vries, H. van Valenberg, T. Huppertz, and T. Van Hooijdonk, “Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of kappa-casein,” Int. Dairy J. 34(1), 135–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

den Haan, L.

M. van der Hoek, L. den Haan, A. Kaspers, W. Steenbergen, and N. Bosschaart, “Cutaneous perfusion of the human lactating breast: a pilot study with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring,” Physiol. Meas. 40(5), 05NT01 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewey, K. G.

R. Pérez-Escamilla, R. J. Cohen, K. H. Brown, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. G. Dewey, “Maternal anthropometric status and lactation performance in a low-income Honduran population: evidence for the role of infants,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(3), 528–534 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díaz-Salido, E.

A. A. O. Xavier, E. Díaz-Salido, I. Arenilla-Vélez, J. Aguayo-Maldonado, J. Garrido-Fernández, J. Fontecha, A. Sánchez-García, and A. Pérez-Gálvez, “Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition,” Nutrients 10(11), 1654 (2018).
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Donovan, S. M.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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M. Eriksson, T. Lundeberg, and K. Uvnäs-Moberg, “Studies on cutaneous blood flow in the mammary gland of lactating rats,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 158(1), 1–6 (1996).
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Faber, D. J.

M. Almasian, N. Bosschaart, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Validation of quantitative attenuation and backscattering coefficient measurements by optical coherence tomography in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 121314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Spectral domain detection in low-coherence spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2263–2272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Measurements of wavelength dependent scattering and backscattering coefficients by low-coherence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030503 (2011).
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T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
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Fein, S. B.

R. Li, S. B. Fein, J. Chen, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn, “Why mothers stop breastfeeding: Mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year,” Pediatrics 122(Suppl 2), S69–S76 (2008).
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Fong, B. Y.

B. Y. Fong, C. S. Norris, and A. K. H. MacGibbon, “Protein and lipid composition of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane,” Int. Dairy J. 17(4), 275–288 (2007).
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Fontecha, J.

A. A. O. Xavier, E. Díaz-Salido, I. Arenilla-Vélez, J. Aguayo-Maldonado, J. Garrido-Fernández, J. Fontecha, A. Sánchez-García, and A. Pérez-Gálvez, “Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition,” Nutrients 10(11), 1654 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forman, N.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foschum, F.

França, G. V. A.

C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frank, D. N.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, S. L.

N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, J. E.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fusch, C.

A. Choi, G. Fusch, N. Rochow, N. Sheikh, and C. Fusch, “Establishment of micromethods for macronutrient contents analysis in breast milk,” Matern. Child Nutr. 11(4), 761–772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fusch, G.

G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choi, G. Fusch, N. Rochow, N. Sheikh, and C. Fusch, “Establishment of micromethods for macronutrient contents analysis in breast milk,” Matern. Child Nutr. 11(4), 761–772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fusch, S.

G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrido-Fernández, J.

A. A. O. Xavier, E. Díaz-Salido, I. Arenilla-Vélez, J. Aguayo-Maldonado, J. Garrido-Fernández, J. Fontecha, A. Sánchez-García, and A. Pérez-Gálvez, “Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition,” Nutrients 10(11), 1654 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

German, J. B.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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K. Hinde and J. B. German, “Food in an evolutionary context: insights from mother’s milk,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 92(11), 2219–2223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
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Goldman, A.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Grier, D. G.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
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Grummer-Strawn, L. M.

R. Li, S. B. Fein, J. Chen, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn, “Why mothers stop breastfeeding: Mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year,” Pediatrics 122(Suppl 2), S69–S76 (2008).
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Hadsell, D.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Hajeebhoy, N.

N. C. Rollins, N. Bhandari, N. Hajeebhoy, S. Horton, C. K. Lutter, J. C. Martines, E. G. Piwoz, L. M. Richter, C. G. Victora, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?” Lancet 387(10017), 491–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hambidge, M.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Hartmann, P. E.

L. R. Mitoulas, J. C. Kent, D. B. Cox, R. A. Owens, J. L. Sherriff, and P. E. Hartmann, “Variation in fat, lactose and protein in human milk over 24 h and throughout the first year of lactation,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(1), 29–37 (2002).
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Hinde, K.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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K. Hinde and J. B. German, “Food in an evolutionary context: insights from mother’s milk,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 92(11), 2219–2223 (2012).
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Hohmann, A.

Horseman, N. D.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Horton, S.

N. C. Rollins, N. Bhandari, N. Hajeebhoy, S. Horton, C. K. Lutter, J. C. Martines, E. G. Piwoz, L. M. Richter, C. G. Victora, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?” Lancet 387(10017), 491–504 (2016).
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C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
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Hovey, R. C.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Huppertz, T.

E. Bijl, R. de Vries, H. van Valenberg, T. Huppertz, and T. Van Hooijdonk, “Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of kappa-casein,” Int. Dairy J. 34(1), 135–141 (2014).
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C. G. de Kruif, T. Huppertz, V. S. Urban, and A. V. Petukhov, “Casein micelles and their internal structure,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 171-172, 36–52 (2012).
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Huser, T.

N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
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Huybrechts, T.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Jordens, D. Vermeulen, T. Van Gerven, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 126, 510–519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
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Ijichi, S.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
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Isobe, K.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
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Itoh, S.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
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Jääskeläinen, A. J.

A. J. Jääskeläinen, K. E. Peiponen, and J. A. Räty, “On reflectometric measurement of a refractive index of milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 84(1), 38–43 (2001).
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Janoff, E.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Javaid, S.

Jin, Q. Z.

Y. P. Yao, G. Z. Zhao, Y. Y. Yan, H. Y. Mu, Q. Z. Jin, X. Q. Zou, and X. G. Wang, “Milk fat globules by confocal Raman microscopy: Differences in human, bovine and caprine milk,” Food Res. Int. 80, 61–69 (2016).
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Jordens, J.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Jordens, D. Vermeulen, T. Van Gerven, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 126, 510–519 (2015).
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Kaspers, A.

M. van der Hoek, L. den Haan, A. Kaspers, W. Steenbergen, and N. Bosschaart, “Cutaneous perfusion of the human lactating breast: a pilot study with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring,” Physiol. Meas. 40(5), 05NT01 (2019).
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Kato, I.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kent, J. C.

L. R. Mitoulas, J. C. Kent, D. B. Cox, R. A. Owens, J. L. Sherriff, and P. E. Hartmann, “Variation in fat, lactose and protein in human milk over 24 h and throughout the first year of lactation,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(1), 29–37 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S.

Kienle, A.

Kok, J. H.

N. Bosschaart, R. Mentink, J. H. Kok, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097003 (2011).
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Krasevec, J.

C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauter, P.

Krebs, N. F.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Kusaka, T.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lammertyn, J.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Jordens, D. Vermeulen, T. Van Gerven, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 126, 510–519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebrilla, C. B.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and J. B. German, “Size-dependent lipid content in human milk fat globules,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16), 7446–7450 (2008).
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Lee, S. Y.

G. Fusch, N. Rochow, A. Choi, S. Fusch, S. Poeschl, A. O. Ubah, S. Y. Lee, P. Raja, and C. Fusch, “Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?” Clin. Nutr. 34(3), 465–476 (2015).
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Lemay, D. G.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Leproux, A.

N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
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Li, R.

R. Li, S. B. Fein, J. Chen, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn, “Why mothers stop breastfeeding: Mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year,” Pediatrics 122(Suppl 2), S69–S76 (2008).
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López-Sabater, M. C.

C. Moltó-Puigmartí, A. I. Castellote, X. Carbonell-Estrany, and M. C. López-Sabater, “Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infants,” Clin. Nutr. 30(1), 116–123 (2011).
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Lundeberg, T.

M. Eriksson, T. Lundeberg, and K. Uvnäs-Moberg, “Studies on cutaneous blood flow in the mammary gland of lactating rats,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 158(1), 1–6 (1996).
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Lutter, C. K.

N. C. Rollins, N. Bhandari, N. Hajeebhoy, S. Horton, C. K. Lutter, J. C. Martines, E. G. Piwoz, L. M. Richter, C. G. Victora, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?” Lancet 387(10017), 491–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacGibbon, A. K. H.

B. Y. Fong, C. S. Norris, and A. K. H. MacGibbon, “Protein and lipid composition of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane,” Int. Dairy J. 17(4), 275–288 (2007).
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MacLean, P. S.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
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Martines, J. C.

N. C. Rollins, N. Bhandari, N. Hajeebhoy, S. Horton, C. K. Lutter, J. C. Martines, E. G. Piwoz, L. M. Richter, C. G. Victora, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?” Lancet 387(10017), 491–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaren, C. E.

N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. P. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(5), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McManaman, J. L.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, P.

M. C. Neville, S. M. Anderson, J. L. McManaman, T. M. Badger, M. Bunik, N. Contractor, T. Crume, D. Dabelea, S. M. Donovan, N. Forman, D. N. Frank, J. E. Friedman, J. B. German, A. Goldman, D. Hadsell, M. Hambidge, K. Hinde, N. D. Horseman, R. C. Hovey, E. Janoff, N. F. Krebs, C. B. Lebrilla, D. G. Lemay, P. S. MacLean, P. Meier, A. L. Morrow, J. Neu, L. A. Nommsen-Rivers, D. J. Raiten, M. Rijnkels, V. Seewaldt, B. D. Shur, J. VanHouten, and P. Williamson, “Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 17(2), 167–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mentink, R.

N. Bosschaart, R. Mentink, J. H. Kok, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, “Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097003 (2011).
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Michalski, M. C.

M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, F. Michel, F. Tasson, and P. Poulain, “Size distribution of fat globules in human colostrum, breast milk, and infant formula,” J. Dairy Sci. 88(6), 1927–1940 (2005).
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M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, “Optical parameters of milk fat globules for laser light scattering measurements,” Lait 81(6), 787–796 (2001).
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Michel, F.

M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, F. Michel, F. Tasson, and P. Poulain, “Size distribution of fat globules in human colostrum, breast milk, and infant formula,” J. Dairy Sci. 88(6), 1927–1940 (2005).
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M. C. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, “Optical parameters of milk fat globules for laser light scattering measurements,” Lait 81(6), 787–796 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mikami, J.

K. Tanimoto, T. Kusaka, T. Nishida, K. Ogawa, I. Kato, S. Ijichi, J. Mikami, I. Sobue, K. Isobe, and S. Itoh, “Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding,” Pediatr. Res. 70(4), 400–405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitoulas, L. R.

L. R. Mitoulas, J. C. Kent, D. B. Cox, R. A. Owens, J. L. Sherriff, and P. E. Hartmann, “Variation in fat, lactose and protein in human milk over 24 h and throughout the first year of lactation,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(1), 29–37 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moltó-Puigmartí, C.

C. Moltó-Puigmartí, A. I. Castellote, X. Carbonell-Estrany, and M. C. López-Sabater, “Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infants,” Clin. Nutr. 30(1), 116–123 (2011).
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Morrow, A. L.

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C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
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Sánchez-García, A.

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C. G. Victora, R. Bahl, A. J. D. Barros, G. V. A. França, S. Horton, J. Krasevec, S. Murch, M. J. Sankar, N. Walker, N. C. Rollins, and Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, “Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect,” Lancet 387(10017), 475–490 (2016).
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M. van der Hoek, L. den Haan, A. Kaspers, W. Steenbergen, and N. Bosschaart, “Cutaneous perfusion of the human lactating breast: a pilot study with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring,” Physiol. Meas. 40(5), 05NT01 (2019).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic overview of the optical methods used to determine the full set of optical properties. a) Illustration of the SR-DRS setup. Light from the illumination fiber diffuses through the sample, which can be detected as a function of inter-fiber distance r by translation of the detection fiber. b) Schematic overview of the sOCT setup. c) Flowchart of the experimental and numerical methods in this study, with the optical properties they provide. MMF: multi mode fiber, r: source-detector distance, MS: motorized stage, NDF: neutral density filters, L#: lens #, BS: beam splitter, DCG: dispersion compensation glass, PDM: piezo driven mirror, C: cuvette with sample, SMF: single mode fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimentally derived optical property spectra for foremilk, bulk milk and hindmilk. Thick, solid lines represent the median values for all participants, dashed lines represent the 25th and 75th percentiles, and dash-dot lines represent the minimum and maximum values (0th and 100th percentile).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fat globule size distributions and concentration. A: Average fat globule size distribution for foremilk, bulk milk and hindmilk, normalized with the total amount of particles. B: Centroid diameter of the fat globule size distribution for every sample within this study (error bars represent standard deviations). C: biochemically determined fat concentration per participant and sample (error bars represent the coefficient of variation in the fat determination). Participant 2 and 3 were excluded from the analysis, due to deviation from the sample collection procedure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical properties versus fat concentration – experimental data and Mie calculations. The experimentally derived absorption coefficient was averaged between λ = 450 – 470 nm, and all other experimentally derived optical properties were averaged between λ = 530 – 570 nm. Vertical error bars represent standard deviations. Mie calculations were performed at λ = 550 nm using the average size distributions of all foremilk, bulk milk and hindmilk samples. The Mie theory upper and lower limit are based on the size distributions of individual samples. Horizontal error bars represent the coefficient of variation in the biochemical fat determination.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Participant information.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R theory (r)= 1 4π ( z 0 r 1 2 ( µ eff + 1 r 1 ) e µ eff r 1 + z 0 +2 z b r 2 2 ( µ eff + 1 r 2 ) e µ eff r 2 )
R meas ( r )=β R theory (r)
µ s '=a λ b
ln( (S( λ,d ) S bg ) 2 )=ln( α(λ) )2 µ t ( λ )d
α(λ)= µ b,NA (λ)ζ(λ)
g=1 µ s ' µ s
µ s,Mie = i N fat,i σ s,fat,i + N cas σ s,cas
P (θ) com = i ( N fat,i P (θ) fat,i )+ N cas P (θ) cas N total
g Mie = 2π 0 π P (θ) com cosθsinθdθ 2π 0 π P (θ) com sinθdθ
µ s ' Mie = µ s,Mie (1 g Mie )
µ b,NA,Mie = i ( N fat,i σ s,fat,i 2π πNA π P (θ) fat,i sin(θ)dθ 2π 0 π P (θ) fat,i sin(θ)dθ ) + N cas σ s,cas 2π πNA π P (θ) cas sin(θ)dθ 2π 0 π P (θ) cas sin(θ)dθ

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