Abstract

The fluorinated pyrimidine anticancer agent has several side effects that degrade the quality of life of patients, including hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation differs in color from common pigmentation such as a suntan, giving rise to dramatic skin appearance changes. In this study, we measured the optical properties of the skin of patients with hyperpigmentation by using the reflection spatial profile method (RSPM). The absorption coefficient in hyperpigmentation increased ~1.5–2.5 times and pheomelanin significantly increased compared to the normal skin. In addition, the scattering coefficient of skin with hyperpigmentation was about 65.9–76.5% of that of normal skin.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (1)

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “In vivo measurement of optical properties of human skin for 450–800 nm and 950–1600 nm wavelengths,” Int. J. Thermophys. 40(5), 51–65 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Development of Measurement Instrument for Optical Properties of Human Skin in Vivo,” Jpn. J. Thermophys. Properties 31(2), 72–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

H. S. Lal, “Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 80(5), 427–430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Igarashi, K. Nishino, and S. K. Nayar, “The appearance of human skin: A survey,” Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 3(1), 1–95 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Ito and K. Wakamatsu, “Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in humans, mice, and other animals: a comparative review,” Pigment Cell Res. 16(5), 523–531 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

K. K. Yuen, “The two-sample trimmed t for unequal population variances,” Biometrika 61(1), 165–170 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

G. J. Hahn, “The coefficient of determination exposed,” Chemtech 3(10), 609–612 (1973).

1962 (1)

J. H. Winston, P. L. Mathis, and M. D. Edwards, “Some observations of the effects of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of malignant tumors,” J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 54(2), 194–197 (1962).
[PubMed]

Aguilar, G.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, A.

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, K.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arita, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beckmann, L.

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaha, L.

P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

Borbujo, J. M.

T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. R.

Chen, W. S.

N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. W.

Choi, B.

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Córdoba, S.

T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolezalova, L.

P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, M. D.

J. H. Winston, P. L. Mathis, and M. D. Edwards, “Some observations of the effects of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of malignant tumors,” J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 54(2), 194–197 (1962).
[PubMed]

Fujii, M.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furukawa, H.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gloor, M.

H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hahn, G. J.

G. J. Hahn, “The coefficient of determination exposed,” Chemtech 3(10), 609–612 (1973).

Hanson, R. J.

C. L. Lawson and R. J. Hanson, Solving Least Squares Problems (Prentice Hall, (1995), p. 161.

Higashino, M.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinoki, T.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

Howel, J. R.

R. Siegel and J. R. Howel, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. (Taylor and Francis, 1992), 480–689.

Hsu, C. K.

Huang, L. L. H.

Hughes, M.

Igarashi, T.

T. Igarashi, K. Nishino, and S. K. Nayar, “The appearance of human skin: A survey,” Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 3(1), 1–95 (2007).
[Crossref]

Imamura, H.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

S. Ito and K. Wakamatsu, “Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in humans, mice, and other animals: a comparative review,” Pigment Cell Res. 16(5), 523–531 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez-Ayala, B.

T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, B.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. M.

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, T.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kono, T.

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “In vivo measurement of optical properties of human skin for 450–800 nm and 950–1600 nm wavelengths,” Int. J. Thermophys. 40(5), 51–65 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Development of Measurement Instrument for Optical Properties of Human Skin in Vivo,” Jpn. J. Thermophys. Properties 31(2), 72–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Measurement of radiative properties of scattering and absorbing layered media,” Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference. (Begel House, 2014), paper 9126110.
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurita, A.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kushikata, N.

K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

Lal, H. S.

H. S. Lal, “Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 80(5), 427–430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawson, C. L.

C. L. Lawson and R. J. Hanson, Solving Least Squares Problems (Prentice Hall, (1995), p. 161.

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Leitgeb, R. A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y. K.

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makuuc, H.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mathis, P. L.

J. H. Winston, P. L. Mathis, and M. D. Edwards, “Some observations of the effects of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of malignant tumors,” J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 54(2), 194–197 (1962).
[PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

Miura, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukai, M.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

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K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
[Crossref]

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S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Takata, and J. Yamada, “Numerical model for optical characteristics of the human skin surface,” Therm. Sci. Eng. 23(4), 61–69 (2015).

Nakasaki, H.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

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S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
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T. Igarashi, K. Nishino, and S. K. Nayar, “The appearance of human skin: A survey,” Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 3(1), 1–95 (2007).
[Crossref]

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K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
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T. Igarashi, K. Nishino, and S. K. Nayar, “The appearance of human skin: A survey,” Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 3(1), 1–95 (2007).
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E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odraska, P.

P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

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K. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Takata, and J. Yamada, “Numerical model for optical characteristics of the human skin surface,” Therm. Sci. Eng. 23(4), 61–69 (2015).

K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
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M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
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S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
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M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
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R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77(1), 13–19 (1981).
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S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
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Sakuramoto, S.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasako, M.

S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
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Sato, S.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
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H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
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S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–14 (2017).
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M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
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M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
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R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
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Tajima, T.

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takata, S.

K. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Takata, and J. Yamada, “Numerical model for optical characteristics of the human skin surface,” Therm. Sci. Eng. 23(4), 61–69 (2015).

K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, K.

K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

Taydas, E.

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
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Tezuka, Y.

K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
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Tzeng, S. Y.

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
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Verkruysse, W.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
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Viator, J. A.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
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Vollweiler, B.

H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
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S. Ito and K. Wakamatsu, “Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in humans, mice, and other animals: a comparative review,” Pigment Cell Res. 16(5), 523–531 (2003).
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K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

Winston, J. H.

J. H. Winston, P. L. Mathis, and M. D. Edwards, “Some observations of the effects of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of malignant tumors,” J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 54(2), 194–197 (1962).
[PubMed]

Wirth, H.

H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
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Xu, S. J.

N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, J.

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “In vivo measurement of optical properties of human skin for 450–800 nm and 950–1600 nm wavelengths,” Int. J. Thermophys. 40(5), 51–65 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Development of Measurement Instrument for Optical Properties of Human Skin in Vivo,” Jpn. J. Thermophys. Properties 31(2), 72–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Takata, and J. Yamada, “Numerical model for optical characteristics of the human skin surface,” Therm. Sci. Eng. 23(4), 61–69 (2015).

K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, Y. Arita, A. An, Y. Miura, and S. Takata, “Estimation of radiative properties for human skin by reflection profile measurement,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 74(745), 2034–2039 (2008).
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T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Measurement of radiative properties of scattering and absorbing layered media,” Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference. (Begel House, 2014), paper 9126110.
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S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Sakuramoto, M. Sasako, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kinoshita, M. Fujii, A. Nashimoto, H. Furukawa, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohashi, H. Imamura, M. Higashino, Y. Yamamura, A. Kurita, K. Arai, and ACTS-GC Group, “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(18), 1810–1820 (2007).
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Yang, C. C.

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
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K. K. Yuen, “The two-sample trimmed t for unequal population variances,” Biometrika 61(1), 165–170 (1974).
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X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–14 (2017).
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N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Actas Dermosifiliogr. (1)

T. Sanz-Sánchez, S. Córdoba, B. Jiménez-Ayala, and J. M. Borbujo, “[5-Fluorouracil-induced reticular hyperpigmentation],” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99(7), 573–574 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. (1)

M. Mukai, T. Hinoki, T. Tajima, H. Nakasaki, S. Sato, Y. Okamoto, K. Ogoshi, and H. Makuuc, “Complete remission after combination chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver matastases: case report,” Ann. Cancer Res. Ther. 11(1–2), 169–181 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1)

H. Wirth, B. Vollweiler, M. Gloor, and U. W. Schnyder, “The effect of systemic treatment with 5-fluorouracil on the ipidermis of the guinea pig,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 263(1), 31–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biometrika (1)

K. K. Yuen, “The two-sample trimmed t for unequal population variances,” Biometrika 61(1), 165–170 (1974).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

S. A. Sharif, E. Taydas, A. Mazhar, R. Rahimian, K. M. Kelly, B. Choi, and A. J. Durkin, “Noninvasive clinical assessment of port-wine stain birthmarks using current and future optical imaging technology: a review,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(6), 1215–1223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chemtech (1)

G. J. Hahn, “The coefficient of determination exposed,” Chemtech 3(10), 609–612 (1973).

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

K. Negishi, N. Kushikata, K. Takeuchi, Y. Tezuka, and S. Wakamatsu, “Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(11), 1380–1387 (2006).
[PubMed]

Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. (1)

T. Igarashi, K. Nishino, and S. K. Nayar, “The appearance of human skin: A survey,” Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 3(1), 1–95 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1146–1154 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. (1)

H. S. Lal, “Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 80(5), 427–430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “In vivo measurement of optical properties of human skin for 450–800 nm and 950–1600 nm wavelengths,” Int. J. Thermophys. 40(5), 51–65 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, B. Jung, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024030 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Med. Assoc. (1)

J. H. Winston, P. L. Mathis, and M. D. Edwards, “Some observations of the effects of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of malignant tumors,” J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 54(2), 194–197 (1962).
[PubMed]

Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties (1)

K. Naito, J. Yamada, T. Ogawa, and S. Takata, “Measurement of scattering phase function of human skin,” Jap. J. Thermophys. Properties 24(2), 101–108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Thermophys. Properties (1)

T. Kono and J. Yamada, “Development of Measurement Instrument for Optical Properties of Human Skin in Vivo,” Jpn. J. Thermophys. Properties 31(2), 72–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

Klin. Onkol. (1)

P. Odraska, E. Mazurova, L. Dolezalova, and L. Blaha, “In vitro evaluation of the permeation of cytotoxic drugs through reconstructed human epidermis and oral epithelium,” Klin. Onkol. 24(3), 195–202 (2011).
[PubMed]

Molecules (1)

N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S. J. Xu, and W. S. Chen, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of resistance and reversal strategies,” Molecules 13(8), 1551–1569 (2008).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photograph showing (a) face and (b) hand depicting a hyperpigmentation appearance caused by fluorinated pyrimidine anticancer agent, notably (a) entire face and (b) interphalangeal joints of hand with discoloration of the skin.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflection by surfaces exposed to structured light; (a) opaque material (e.g., a metal), (b) semitransparent material (e.g., human skin), (c) reflection spatial profiles of the opaque material (blue line) and semitransparent material (red line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated reflected radiation intensity profiles.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relationship between optical properties and the profile of reflected radiation: (a) average intensity and (b) average deviation of the calculated reflected radiation profiles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A schematic of the instrument for the in vivo measurement of skin: 1. Halogen lamp, 2. multi-slit mask, 3. extended projection lens, 4. in vivo human skin 5. aperture, 6. collimator lens, 7. diaphragm, 8. diffraction grating, 9. Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The insets show the (left) multi-slit mask used for producing structured illumination with pitch L being 2 mm and (right) a sample spectral profile from the CCD camera.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scattering coefficients of normal cheek skin and cheek skin with hyperpigmentation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Absorption coefficients of normal cheek skin and cheek skin with hyperpigmentation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Molar absorption coefficients ε of eumelanin, pheomelanin, HbO2, and Hb [10,11].
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Fitting curves, which are the sums of the absorption coefficients of pheomelanin, eumelanin, HbO2, and Hb, calculated using the fitted molar concentrations of the primary absorption components in human skin to reproduce the measured absorption coefficients of (a) normal skin and (b) skin with hyperpigmentation.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Numbers of Subjects with Normal Skin (Nn = 198)

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Table 2 Numbers of Subjects with Hyperpigmentation (Nh = 34)

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Table 3 Fitted Molar Concentrations of the Primary Absorption Components in Human Skin

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Table 4 Coefficients of Determination R2 and Standard Deviation When Using Only Eumelanin, Pheomelanin, or HbO2/Hb, and Mixture of All Four Substances for the Molar Concentrations in the Fitting Algorithm

Equations (9)

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1 β dI(s,Ω) ds =I(s,Ω)+ ω 4π 4π p( Ω Ω)I(s, Ω )d Ω ,
β= μ a + μ s ,
ω= μs β .
i ¯ = y y+L i(y)dy/L ,
σ ¯ = y y+L | i(y) i ¯ | dy/L,
p HG (g)= (1 g 2 ) (1+ g 2 2gcosθ) ,
p(0°θ<51°)=0.89 p HG (g=0.77) p(51°θ180°)=0.47 p HG (g=0.36),
i= i h i s / ρ s ,
μ a,skin = M eumelanin × ε eumelanin + M pheomelanin × ε pheomelanin + M Hb O 2 × ε Hb O 2 + M Hb × ε Hb ,