Abstract

The dynamic range of current optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) images is limited by the fixed scanning intervals. High speed OCT devices introduce the possibility of extending the flow signal dynamic range. In this study, we created a novel scanning pattern for achieving high dynamic range (HDR)-OCTA with a superior scanning efficiency. We implemented a bidirectional, interleaved scanning pattern that is sensitive to different flow speeds by adjustable adjacent inter-scan time intervals. We found that an improved flow dynamic range can be achieved by generating 3 different B-scan time intervals using 3 repetitions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (6)

2017 (4)

Y. Chen, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional eye motion correction by Lissajous scan optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1783–1802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, P. D. Woolliams, P. H. Tomlins, and G. Nehmetallah, “Methods to assess sensitivity of optical coherence tomography systems,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 902–917 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V.-F. Duma, P. Tankam, J. Huang, J. Won, and J. P. Rolland, “Optimization of galvanometer scanning for Optical Coherence Tomography,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5495–5507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1999 (1)

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[Crossref]

Adhi, M.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

An, L.

Athwal, A.

Bailey, S. T.

Biedermann, B. R.

Braaf, B.

Briers, J. D.

A. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cable, A.

Camino, A.

Carrasco-Zevallos, O. M.

Cepurna, W.

Chai, H.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandwani, R.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Choi, W.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, E. D.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costanza, M. A.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Carlo, T. E.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dongye, C.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duma, V.-F.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fawzi, A. A.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

A. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fingler, J.

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, N. K. Waheed, S. R. Sadda, and G. Staurenghi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 64, 1–55 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Grulkowski, I.

Grunwald, J.

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Heisler, M.

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y.-J.

Hormel, T. T.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

X. Wei, A. Camino, S. Pi, T. T. Hormel, W. Cepurna, D. Huang, J. C. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Real-time cross-sectional and en face OCT angiography guiding high-quality scan acquisition,” Opt. Lett. 44(6), 1431–1434 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei, A. Camino, S. Pi, W. Cepurna, D. Huang, J. C. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Fast and robust standard-deviation-based method for bulk motion compensation in phase-based functional OCT,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2204–2207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Husvogt, L.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T.

Hwang, T. S.

Izatt, J. A.

Jaillon, F.

Jampol, L. M.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

X. Wei, A. Camino, S. Pi, T. T. Hormel, W. Cepurna, D. Huang, J. C. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Real-time cross-sectional and en face OCT angiography guiding high-quality scan acquisition,” Opt. Lett. 44(6), 1431–1434 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei, A. Camino, S. Pi, W. Cepurna, D. Huang, J. C. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Fast and robust standard-deviation-based method for bulk motion compensation in phase-based functional OCT,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2204–2207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, Y.

Jiang, J.

Ju, M. J.

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, B.

Khurana, M.

Klein, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, A. N.

Lee, B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K.

Li, D.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutty, G.

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Majji, A. B.

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

McNabb, R. P.

Meemon, P.

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, J. C.

Moult, E. M.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Nehmetallah, G.

Nesper, P. L.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novais, E. A.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onishi, A. C.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Pi, S.

Ploner, S. B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. K.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohrer, K. T.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Rosenfeld, P. J.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, N. K. Waheed, S. R. Sadda, and G. Staurenghi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 64, 1–55 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schottenhamml, J.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Shields, W.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobel, R. S.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, N. K. Waheed, S. R. Sadda, and G. Staurenghi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 64, 1–55 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Staurenghi, G.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, N. K. Waheed, S. R. Sadda, and G. Staurenghi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 64, 1–55 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tan, O.

Tankam, P.

Tindel, L. J.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Tomlins, P. H.

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uyama, M.

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Viehland, C.

Vienola, K. V.

Vitkin, I. A.

Waheed, N. K.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, N. K. Waheed, S. R. Sadda, and G. Staurenghi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 64, 1–55 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, and J. Schottenhamml, “Toward quantitative OCT angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA),” Retina 36, S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Wei, X.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Won, J.

Woolliams, P. D.

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, J.

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yoneya, S.

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Zang, E.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, P.

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, C. Viehland, B. Keller, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Constant linear velocity spiral scanning for near video rate 4D OCT ophthalmic and surgical imaging with isotropic transverse sampling,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(10), 5052–5070 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, A. Athwal, M. V. Sarunic, and Y. Jian, “Effective bidirectional scanning pattern for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2336–2350 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional eye motion correction by Lissajous scan optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1783–1802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Hormel, J. Wang, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6412–6424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, P. D. Woolliams, P. H. Tomlins, and G. Nehmetallah, “Methods to assess sensitivity of optical coherence tomography systems,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 902–917 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Zang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Extended axial imaging range, widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1464–1472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Vis. (1)

G. Lutty, J. Grunwald, A. B. Majji, M. Uyama, and S. Yoneya, “Changes in choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 35 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Variable velocity range imaging of the choroid with dual-beam optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 20(1), 385–396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, “Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14375–14384 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) System configuration for the 400-kHz SS-OCT system that contains two 200-kHz multiplexed swept sources. BD is balanced detector, PC is polarization controller, DL is delay line, L1 is 100 mm focus lens, L2 is 50 mm focus lens and EL is the electric lens. (B) Spectrum of the 400-kHz AXSUN laser, where S1 and S2 are the spectra of the individual 200-kHz swept sources.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of one bidirectional scanning protocol. (A) Scanning cells contain the lateral positions P(1), P(2), …, P(n), P(n + 1) swept during OCTA data acquisition. The first scanning position of the second cell is acquired after the positions in the previous cells have been scanned two times. Orange arrows and blue arrows indicate different scanning position, (B) Details of the voltage signal applied to each galvanometer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example of a protocol based on combined bidirectional scanning cells. (A) A basic cell containing four scanning positions, P(n) to P(n + 3). (B) Voltage signal applied on galvo mirrors for the four scanning position configurations. (C) A basic cell containing six scanning positions, P(n) to P(n + 5). (D) Voltage signal applied on galvo mirrors for the six-scanning position configuration.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) conventional equal interval scanning method, for which the total number of intervals available for measurements is two, corresponding to Δt and 2Δt. (B) interleaved scanning achieves the number of scan intervals from the same number of scans, as given by Eq. (6). In this case, 3 different scanning intervals ( Δt, 2Δt, and 3Δt) are obtained from 3 B-scans.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) Diagram to show the raster scan based HDR-OCTA scan pattern at different positions P(n). Orange lines indicated flyback movements (B) Signal applied to the galvo scanner. (C) Bidirectional HDR-OCTA scanning pattern. (D) signal applied to the galvo scanner for the HDR-OCTA scan pattern. X axis is the fast axis, Y axis is the slow axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Fitted flow phantom experiment results at different scanning intervals and flow speeds, (B) Dynamic range calculated using experimental data. The shaded rectangular boxes indicate the dynamic range of different scanning intervals. Δv: dynamic range of 1.5 interval, dynamic range after combining three intervals is increased by 125%. T u : upper threshold, T l : lower threshold.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Human peripapillary retina images. (A-C) three different scanning interval images with three different dynamic ranges. (D) combined HDR-OCTA image. The white box in A, B, C and D is expanded in E, F, G and H. The region in E, F, G and H that is highlighted using another white box shows significant different between the different intervals.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Human macular retina images. (A-C) three different scanning interval images with three different dynamic ranges. (D) combined HDR-OCTA. The white box in A, B, C and D are expanded in E, F, G and H.

Equations (9)

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D ¯ SSADA (x,z)=1 1 N1 1 M n=1 N1 m=1 M A n,m (x,z) A n+1,m (x,z) 1 2 A n,m (x,z) 2 + 1 2 A n+1,m (x,z) 2 .
g(τ)= I 2 exp( |τ| τ c ).
τ c ( v flow + v brownian + v bulk )=k,
g g (τ)= I 2 exp[ τ( v flow + v brownian + v bulk ) k ].
D ¯ SSADA =1exp[ τ( v flow + v brownian + v bulk ) k ].
N interval =( N Bscan 2 ).
D std =std(D)
T u = D max D std
T l = D min + D std

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