Abstract

Confocal Raman microscopy has a number of advantages in investigating the human stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and ex vivo. The penetration profiles of xenobiotics in the SC, as well as depth profiles of the physiological parameters of the SC, such as the concentration of water depending on the strength of hydrogen bonds, total water concentration, the hydrogen bonding state of water molecules, concentration of intercellular lipids, the lamellar and lateral packing order of intercellular lipids, the concentration of natural moisturizing factor molecules, carotenoids, and the secondary and tertiary structure properties of keratin are well investigated. To consider the depth-dependent Raman signal attenuation, in most cases a normalization procedure is needed, which uses the main SC’s protein keratin-related Raman peaks, based on the assumption that keratin is homogeneously distributed in the SC. We found that this assumption is not accurate for the bottom part of the SC, where the water concentration is considerably increased, thus, reducing the presence of keratin. Our results demonstrate that the bottom part of the SC depth profile should be multiplied by 0.94 in average in order to match this non-homogeneity, which result in a decrease of the uncorrected values in these depths. The correctly normalized depth profiles of the concentration of lipids, water, natural moisturizing factor and carotenoids are presented in this work. The obtained results should be taken into consideration in future skin research using confocal Raman microscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

2018 (10)

A. Ezerskaia, N. E. Uzunbajakava, G. J. Puppels, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, H. P. Urbach, and B. Varghese, “Potential of short-wave infrared spectroscopy for quantitative depth profiling of stratum corneum lipids and water in dermatology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2436–2450 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Atef and N. Altuwaijri, “Using Raman Spectroscopy in Studying the Effect of Propylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, and Their Combination on the Rat Skin,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(1), 114–122 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. J. van Erp, M. Peppelman, and D. Falcone, “Noninvasive analysis and minimally invasive in vivo experimental challenges of the skin barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(8), 867–875 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and D. J. Lunter, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an alternative to differential scanning calorimetry to detect the impact of emulsifiers and formulations on stratum corneum lipid conformation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 121, 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, K. M. Byun, and S. Y. Lee, “Influence of water content on Raman spectroscopy characterization of skin sample,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1130–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(6), 1981–1987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Analysis of Human and Porcine Skin in vivo/ex vivo for Penetration of Selected Oils by Confocal Raman Microscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(6), 318–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, “Local statistical interpretation for water structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 568–569, 90–94 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Damien and M. Boncheva, “The extent of orthorhombic lipid phases in the stratum corneum determines the barrier efficiency of human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 130(2), 611–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Proksch, J. M. Brandner, and J.-M. Jensen, “The skin: an indispensable barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 17(12), 1063–1072 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlberg, S.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexiev, U.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso, C.

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altuwaijri, N.

E. Atef and N. Altuwaijri, “Using Raman Spectroscopy in Studying the Effect of Propylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, and Their Combination on the Rat Skin,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(1), 114–122 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angiboust, J. F.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

Aosaki, T.

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Atef, E.

E. Atef and N. Altuwaijri, “Using Raman Spectroscopy in Studying the Effect of Propylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, and Their Combination on the Rat Skin,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(1), 114–122 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baillet-Guffroy, A.

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltenneck, C.

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ban, S.

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barba, C.

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, B. W.

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bito, K.

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Blenkiron, P.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Boncheva, M.

F. Damien and M. Boncheva, “The extent of orthorhombic lipid phases in the stratum corneum determines the barrier efficiency of human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 130(2), 611–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnier, F.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bordes, S.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudier, D.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwstra, J.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwstra, J. A.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandner, J. M.

E. Proksch, J. M. Brandner, and J.-M. Jensen, “The skin: an indispensable barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 17(12), 1063–1072 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

Byrne, H. J.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

Calkoen-Kwa, F.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cambron, T.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrer, V.

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carter, E. A.

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P.

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

A. Ezerskaia, N. E. Uzunbajakava, G. J. Puppels, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, H. P. Urbach, and B. Varghese, “Potential of short-wave infrared spectroscopy for quantitative depth profiling of stratum corneum lipids and water in dermatology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2436–2450 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choe, C.

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(6), 1981–1987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Analysis of Human and Porcine Skin in vivo/ex vivo for Penetration of Selected Oils by Confocal Raman Microscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(6), 318–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

Choe, C. S.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, S.

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

Chourpa, I.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Closs, B.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coderch, L.

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crowther, J. M.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

da Silva, M. G. P.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Damien, F.

F. Damien and M. Boncheva, “The extent of orthorhombic lipid phases in the stratum corneum determines the barrier efficiency of human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 130(2), 611–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darvin, M.

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Darvin, M. E.

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(6), 1981–1987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Analysis of Human and Porcine Skin in vivo/ex vivo for Penetration of Selected Oils by Confocal Raman Microscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(6), 318–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

De Paula, L. R.

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sterke, J.

Delalleau, A.

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diembeck, W.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domanov, Y. A.

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

dos Santos, L.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Doucet, J.

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubbelaar, F. E.

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

Duplan, H.

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, H. G.

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, P. M.

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engebretsen, K. A.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelsma-van Pelt, A. M.

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ermakov, I. V.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Essendoubi, M.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ezerskaia, A.

Falcone, D.

P. E. J. van Erp, M. Peppelman, and D. Falcone, “Noninvasive analysis and minimally invasive in vivo experimental challenges of the skin barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(8), 867–875 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favero, P. P.

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fávero, P. P.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feingold, K. R.

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fluhr, J. W.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gellermann, W.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gobinet, C.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gooris, G. S.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hata, T. R.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatta, I.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidenheim, M.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imai, T.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, S.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssens, M.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, J.-M.

E. Proksch, J. M. Brandner, and J.-M. Jensen, “The skin: an indispensable barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 17(12), 1063–1072 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaczvinsky, J. R.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Katayama, Y.

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kato, S.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemperman, P.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kezic, S.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khachik, F.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, S.

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kim, S.

Koerten, H. K.

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppes, S. A.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kramer, A.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lademann, J.

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(6), 1981–1987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Analysis of Human and Porcine Skin in vivo/ex vivo for Penetration of Selected Oils by Confocal Raman Microscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(6), 318–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

Lademann, O.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanzendörfer, G.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Guillou, M.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lunter, D. J.

Z. Zhang and D. J. Lunter, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an alternative to differential scanning calorimetry to detect the impact of emulsifiers and formulations on stratum corneum lipid conformation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 121, 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magrini, T. D.

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcott, C.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuo, D. C.

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matts, P. J.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

McClane, R. W.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinke, M. C.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendes, T. O.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Miloudi, L.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munnier, E.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naito, S.

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nakata, S.

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, H.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, O. F.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, Y.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, N.

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patzelt, A.

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peppelman, M.

P. E. J. van Erp, M. Peppelman, and D. Falcone, “Noninvasive analysis and minimally invasive in vivo experimental challenges of the skin barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(8), 867–875 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pershing, L. K.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, S.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilgram, G. S.

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piot, O.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ponec, M.

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

Potter, A.

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proksch, E.

E. Proksch, J. M. Brandner, and J.-M. Jensen, “The skin: an indispensable barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 17(12), 1063–1072 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

A. Ezerskaia, N. E. Uzunbajakava, G. J. Puppels, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, H. P. Urbach, and B. Varghese, “Potential of short-wave infrared spectroscopy for quantitative depth profiling of stratum corneum lipids and water in dermatology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2436–2450 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rawlings, A. V.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ray, P.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynaud, R.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

Richter, H.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sassning, S.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schanzer, S.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schleusener, J.

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

Scholz, T. A.

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreiner, V.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sdobnov, A. Y.

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sieg, A.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Silva, M. G. P.

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterry, W.

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, N.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, “Local statistical interpretation for water structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 568–569, 90–94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Téllez Soto, C. A.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tfayli, A.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tippavajhala, V. K.

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V.

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

Urbach, H. P.

Uzunbajakava, N. E.

van der Pol, A.

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

van der Pool, A.

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Erp, P. E. J.

P. E. J. van Erp, M. Peppelman, and D. Falcone, “Noninvasive analysis and minimally invasive in vivo experimental challenges of the skin barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(8), 867–875 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Smeden, J.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Tilburg, I.

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

Verzeaux, L.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vyumvuhore, R.

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, K.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenck, H.

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wessel, S.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, A. C.

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yvergnaux, F.

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zastrow, L.

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and D. J. Lunter, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an alternative to differential scanning calorimetry to detect the impact of emulsifiers and formulations on stratum corneum lipid conformation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 121, 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AAPS PharmSciTech (2)

V. K. Tippavajhala, T. D. Magrini, D. C. Matsuo, M. G. P. Silva, P. P. Favero, L. R. De Paula, and A. A. Martin, “In Vivo Determination of Moisturizers Efficacy on Human Skin Hydration by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(7), 3177–3186 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Atef and N. Altuwaijri, “Using Raman Spectroscopy in Studying the Effect of Propylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, and Their Combination on the Rat Skin,” AAPS PharmSciTech 19(1), 114–122 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) (1)

J. A. Bouwstra, F. E. Dubbelaar, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “The lipid organisation in the skin barrier,” Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh.) 208, 23–30 (2000).
[PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

L. Zhang, T. Cambron, Y. Niu, Z. Xu, N. Su, H. Zheng, K. Wei, and P. Ray, “MCR Approach Revealing Protein, Water, and Lipid Depth Profile in Atopic Dermatitis Patients’ Stratum Corneum via in Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(4), 2784–2790 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (3)

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(6), 1981–1987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vyumvuhore, A. Tfayli, H. Duplan, A. Delalleau, M. Manfait, and A. Baillet-Guffroy, “Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4103–4111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1)

C. Alonso, V. Carrer, C. Barba, and L. Coderch, “Caffeine delivery in porcine skin: a confocal Raman study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 310(8), 657–664 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (3)

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakazawa, T. Imai, I. Hatta, S. Sakai, S. Inoue, and S. Kato, “Low-flux electron diffraction study for the intercellular lipid organization on a human corneocyte,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(6), 1424–1431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomarkers (1)

S. A. Koppes, P. Kemperman, I. Van Tilburg, F. Calkoen-Kwa, K. A. Engebretsen, G. J. Puppels, P. J. Caspers, and S. Kezic, “Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin: Raman microspectroscopy versus HPLC,” Biomarkers 22(6), 502–507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biophys. Chem. (1)

I. Hatta, N. Ohta, S. Ban, H. Tanaka, and S. Nakata, “X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum,” Biophys. Chem. 89(2-3), 239–242 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 567–577 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Sun, “Local statistical interpretation for water structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 568–569, 90–94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

Z. Zhang and D. J. Lunter, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an alternative to differential scanning calorimetry to detect the impact of emulsifiers and formulations on stratum corneum lipid conformation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 121, 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Dermatol. (5)

E. Proksch, J. M. Brandner, and J.-M. Jensen, “The skin: an indispensable barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 17(12), 1063–1072 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. J. van Erp, M. Peppelman, and D. Falcone, “Noninvasive analysis and minimally invasive in vivo experimental challenges of the skin barrier,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(8), 867–875 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Verzeaux, R. Vyumvuhore, D. Boudier, M. Le Guillou, S. Bordes, M. Essendoubi, M. Manfait, and B. Closs, “Atopic skin: In vivo Raman identification of global molecular signature, a comparative study with healthy skin,” Exp. Dermatol. 27(4), 403–408 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Darvin, J. W. Fluhr, P. Caspers, A. van der Pool, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(12), 1060–1063 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fluhr, S. Sassning, O. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, S. Schanzer, A. Kramer, H. Richter, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(2), 130–134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (3)

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Human skin in vivo has a higher skin barrier function than porcine skin ex vivo-comprehensive Raman microscopic study of the stratum corneum,” J. Biophotonics 11(6), e201700355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Sdobnov, M. E. Darvin, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and V. V. Tuchin, “Hydrogen bound water profiles in the skin influenced by optical clearing molecular agents-Quantitative analysis using confocal Raman microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 12(5), e201800283 (2019).
[PubMed]

L. Miloudi, F. Bonnier, A. Tfayli, F. Yvergnaux, H. J. Byrne, I. Chourpa, and E. Munnier, “Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vitro monitoring of active ingredient penetration and distribution in reconstructed human epidermis model,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. Sci. (1)

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 87(2), 183–191 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (6)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Schreiner, G. S. Gooris, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lanzendörfer, H. Wenck, W. Diembeck, E. Proksch, and J. Bouwstra, “Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 114(4), 654–660 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Pilgram, A. M. Engelsma-van Pelt, J. A. Bouwstra, and H. K. Koerten, “Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 403–409 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Damien and M. Boncheva, “The extent of orthorhombic lipid phases in the stratum corneum determines the barrier efficiency of human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 130(2), 611–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gniadecka, O. F. Nielsen, S. Wessel, M. Heidenheim, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Water and protein structure in photoaged and chronically aged skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 111(6), 1129–1133 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Hata, T. A. Scholz, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. K. Pershing, “Non-invasive raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115(3), 441–448 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (1)

J. Doucet, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck, and Y. A. Domanov, “Micron-scale assessment of molecular lipid organization in human stratum corneum using microprobe X-ray diffraction,” J. Lipid Res. 55(11), 2380–2388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Automated depth-scanning confocal Raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(8-9), 813–818 (2000).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Lademann, P. J. Caspers, A. van der Pol, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, L. Zastrow, M. Darvin, W. Sterry, and J. W. Fluhr, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(1), 76–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mech. Ageing Dev. (1)

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Age related depth profiles of human Stratum Corneum barrier-related molecular parameters by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 172, 6–12 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pharm. Res. (1)

P. J. Caspers, A. C. Williams, E. A. Carter, H. G. Edwards, B. W. Barry, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Monitoring the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide in human stratum corneum in vivo by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Pharm. Res. 19(10), 1577–1580 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15900 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. (1)

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Analysis of Human and Porcine Skin in vivo/ex vivo for Penetration of Selected Oils by Confocal Raman Microscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(6), 318–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (2)

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Kikuchi, T. Aosaki, K. Bito, S. Naito, and Y. Katayama, “In vivo evaluation of lateral lipid chain packing in human stratum corneum,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(1), 76–83 (2015).
[PubMed]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

L. dos Santos, V. K. Tippavajhala, T. O. Mendes, M. G. P. da Silva, P. P. Fávero, C. A. Téllez Soto, and A. A. Martin, “Evaluation of penetration process into young and elderly skin using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. Choe, S. Choe, J. Schleusener, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Modified normalization method in in vivo stratum corneum analysis using confocal Raman microscopy to compensate non-homogenous distribution of keratin,” J. Raman Spectrosc., (published online ahead of print).

S. Laing, S. Bielfeldt, K. P. Wilhelm, and J. Obst, “Confocal Raman Spectroscopy as a tool to measure the prevention of skin penetration by a specifically designed topical medical device,” Skin research and technology: official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI) (2019).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characteristic Raman spectra of human SC in vivo at 11 µm depth (18 µm SC thickness) in the FP (a) and HWN (b) ranges. The bands at 1003 cm−1 (Urea/Phenylalanine), 1450 cm−1 (CH2/CH3), 1525 cm−1 (C = C of carotenoids) and 1650 cm−1 (C = C of Amide I), as well as the 2800–2910 cm−1 (yellow, C–H of mostly lipids but also keratin), 2910–2965 cm−1 (grey, CH3 of mostly keratin but also lipids) and 3350–3550 cm−1 (blue, OH of water) ranges are marked.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The in vivo SC depth profile of the lipid concentration obtained by taking the non-homogeneity of keratin distribution in the SC into consideration (solid black line) and without any corrections (dotted gray line). For visibility, the error bars, denoting ± 1 standard deviation, are only shown one-sided. “*” represents significant difference (p<0.01) between corrected and uncorrected values.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The in vivo SC depth profile of the water concentration in mass % obtained by taking the non-homogeneity of keratin distribution in the SC into consideration (solid black line) and without any corrections (dotted gray line). For visibility, the error bars, denoting ± 1 standard deviation, are only shown one-sided. “*” represents significant difference (p<0.01) between corrected and uncorrected values.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The in vivo SC depth profile of the NMF concentration obtained taking the non-homogenous keratin distribution in the SC into consideration (solid black line) and without any corrections (dotted gray line). For visibility, the error bars, denoting ± 1 standard deviation, are only shown one-sided. “*” represents significant difference (p<0.01) between corrected and uncorrected values.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The in vivo SC depth profile of the carotenoid concentration obtained taking the non-homogenous keratin distribution in the SC into consideration (solid black line) and without any corrections (dotted gray line). For visibility, the error bars, denoting ± 1 standard deviation, are only shown one-sided.

Equations (2)

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W/P W/P+R
(W/P)*corr (W/P)*corr+R