Abstract

Optical imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse optical tomography rely on models to solve the inverse problem. Imaging an adult human head also requires a head model. Using a model, which makes describing the structure of the head better, leads to acquiring a more accurate absorption map. Here, by combining the key features of layered slab models and head atlases, we introduce a new two-layered head model that is based on the surface geometry of the subject’s head with variable thickness of the superficial layer. Using the Monte Carlo approach, we assess the performance of our model for fitting the optical properties from simulated time-resolved data of the adult head in a null distance source-detector configuration. Using our model, we observed improved results at 70 percent of the locations on the head and an overall 20 percent reduction in relative error compared to layered slab model.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fang, B. Pan, W. Liu, Z. Wang, and T. Li, “Effect of Scalp Hair Follicles on NIRS Quantification by Monte Carlo Simulation and Visible Chinese Human Dataset,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 3901110 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yao, X. Intes, and Q. Fang, “A rapid approach to compute Jacobians for diffuse optical tomography using perturbation Monte Carlo-based,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(10), 4588–4603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical Characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical Properties of Biological Tissues: A Review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

O. Pucci, V. Toronov, and K. St Lawrence, “Measurement of the optical properties of a two-layer model of the human head using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(32), 6324–6332 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yokose, K. Sakatani, Y. Murata, T. Awano, T. Igarashi, S. Nakamura, T. Hoshino, and Y. Katayama, “Bedside Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation and Hemodynamics After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Quantitative Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” World Neurosurg. 73(5), 508–513 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang and D. A. Boas, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20178–20190 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, “Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4747–4755 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044008 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, “Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568–573 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).

1995 (2)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, and S. A. Walker, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34(1), 32 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Alerstam, E.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 37(13), 2774–2780 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arvin, K.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awano, T.

N. Yokose, K. Sakatani, Y. Murata, T. Awano, T. Igarashi, S. Nakamura, T. Hoshino, and Y. Katayama, “Bedside Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation and Hemodynamics After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Quantitative Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” World Neurosurg. 73(5), 508–513 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bamett, A. H.

Barnett, A. H.

Bassi, A.

Bays, R.

Boas, D. A.

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 552–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang and D. A. Boas, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20178–20190 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, “Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4747–4755 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044008 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bamett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3095–3108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bortfeld, H.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boso, G.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caffini, M.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

Contini, D.

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. J.

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).

Cova, S.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

A. H. Bamett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3095–3108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Custo, A.

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, “Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4747–4755 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dale, A.

Dalla Mora, A.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dan, I.

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Datsenko, O. I.

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehaes, M.

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 552–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).

Diamond, S. G.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H. S.

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dögnitz, N.

Dubb, J.

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

R. Yao, X. Intes, and Q. Fang, “A rapid approach to compute Jacobians for diffuse optical tomography using perturbation Monte Carlo-based,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(10), 4588–4603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang and D. A. Boas, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20178–20190 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, B. Pan, W. Liu, Z. Wang, and T. Li, “Effect of Scalp Hair Follicles on NIRS Quantification by Monte Carlo Simulation and Visible Chinese Human Dataset,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 3901110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fantini, S.

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical Characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 37(31), 7447–7458 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, and S. A. Walker, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34(1), 32 (1995).
[Crossref]

Farina, A.

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fischl, B.

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 552–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 37(31), 7447–7458 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, and S. A. Walker, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34(1), 32 (1995).
[Crossref]

Futatsubashi, M.

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnon, L.

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golovynska, I.

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golovynskyi, S.

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, P. E.

M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 552–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hallacoglu, B.

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical Characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Hoge, R. D.

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
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Holboke, M. J.

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J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044008 (2006).
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A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
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St Lawrence, K.

Steinbrink, J.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanova, L. I.

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stott, J. J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangman, G. E.

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surova, A.

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Thaker, S.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Themelis, G.

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosi, A.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuzuki, D.

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, Y.

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

van den Bergh, H.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagnivres, G.

Walker, S. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, and S. A. Walker, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34(1), 32 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

X. Fang, B. Pan, W. Liu, Z. Wang, and T. Li, “Effect of Scalp Hair Follicles on NIRS Quantification by Monte Carlo Simulation and Visible Chinese Human Dataset,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 3901110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Warren, E. K.

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, W.

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, W. M.

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, R.

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokose, N.

N. Yokose, K. Sakatani, Y. Murata, T. Awano, T. Igarashi, S. Nakamura, T. Hoshino, and Y. Katayama, “Bedside Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation and Hemodynamics After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Quantitative Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” World Neurosurg. 73(5), 508–513 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, E.

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yücel, M. A.

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zappa, F.

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C. L.

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, R.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubkov, L.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zucchelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
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M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 37(31), 7447–7458 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnivres, and H. van den Bergh, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 779–791 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 37(13), 2774–2780 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bamett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3095–3108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, “Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4747–4755 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Pucci, V. Toronov, and K. St Lawrence, “Measurement of the optical properties of a two-layer model of the human head using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(32), 6324–6332 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Fang, B. Pan, W. Liu, Z. Wang, and T. Li, “Effect of Scalp Hair Follicles on NIRS Quantification by Monte Carlo Simulation and Visible Chinese Human Dataset,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 3901110 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

J. Zhao, H. S. Ding, X. L. Hou, C. L. Zhou, and B. Chance, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of infant brain using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044008 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

S. Golovynskyi, I. Golovynska, L. I. Stepanova, O. I. Datsenko, L. Liu, J. Qu, and T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, “Optical windows for head tissues in near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions: Approaching transcranial light applications,” J. Biophotonics 11(12), e201800141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(10), 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, G. Boso, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Effects of time-gated detection in diffuse optical imaging at short source-detector separation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(4), 045401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (6)

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ohmae, Y. Ouchi, M. Oda, T. Suzuki, S. Nobesawa, T. Kanno, E. Yoshikawa, M. Futatsubashi, Y. Ueda, H. Okada, and Y. Yamashita, “Cerebral hemodynamics evaluation by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy: correlation with simultaneous positron emission tomography measurements,” Neuroimage 29(3), 697–705 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, M. Caffini, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, A. Custo, D. Tsuzuki, B. Fischl, W. Wells, I. Dan, and D. A. Boas, “Validating atlas-guided DOT: A comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies,” Neuroimage 62(3), 1999–2006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, M. A. Yücel, M. Dehaes, R. J. Cooper, K. L. Perdue, J. Selb, T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, and D. A. Boas, “Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements,” Neuroimage 59(4), 3933–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, and S. A. Walker, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34(1), 32 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Pediatr. Res. (2)

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61(5 Pt 1), 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, “Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568–573 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. (1)

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 True head model consists of a superficial layer and brain region used for generating realistic TD-NIRS data. (a) locations of optodes on the head. (b) and (c) 45 selected optodes for this study. Blue circles show the location of sources. The number next to each circle is the ID number of that optode. Yellow circles show the location of nearest neighbouring detectors of each source. These detectors were used to record the TPSFs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reconstruction models. (a) Layered-slab model; there are twenty sublayers on top. Large region below is considered as brain tissue. Blue circle is source and red circles show four of detectors in nearest neighborhood. (b) Layered-head model; the surface geometry is the same as true head model. The contour is the superficial layer divided into twenty sublayers. Large middle region considered as brain. In both models, the thickness of superficial layer can be changed from 1 to 20 mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Estimated brain absorptions for (a) layered-slab model and (b) layered-head model at source number 665, an example where layered-slab had better performance. (c) Estimation of brain absorption for layered-slab model and (d) layered-head model at source number 1270 where layered-head model showed better performance. Each color corresponds to a different superficial layer absorption.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Boxplot of relative error for 45 individual sources. Blue and green boxes correspond to layered-slab and layered-head models respectively. Black dots show the median values. Relative error at source locations on the head for (b) layered-slab model and (c) layered-head model.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Total relative errors in μ a,brain estim . (b) Relative errors for different μ a,superf true . Blue and green boxes correspond to layered-slab and layered-head models respectively and red lines indicate the medians. Layered-head model has smaller medians in all cases.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Sensitivity maps of superficial layer for S-D channels at three different locations on the head for (a) true model and (b) layered-head model. Sensitivity maps of brain region for the same S-D channels for (c) true model and (d) layered-head model.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative errors for different absorption coefficient of superficial layer

Equations (3)

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t j = i=1 m PP L i c/ n i
w j =exp( i=1 m PP L i μ a,i )
Relative Error=  | μ a,brain estim μ a,brain true | μ a,brain true