Abstract

Many different parameters exist for the investigation of tear film dynamics. We present a new tear meniscus segmentation algorithm which automatically extracts tear meniscus area (TMA), height (TMH), depth (TMD) and radius (TMR) from UHR-OCT measurements and apply it to a data set including repeated measurements from ten healthy subjects. Mean values and standard deviations are 0.0174 ± 0.007 mm2, 0.272 ± 0.069 mm, 0.191 ± 0.049 mm and 0.309 ± 0.123 mm for TMA, TMH, TMD and TMR, respectively. A significant correlation was found between all respective tear meniscus parameter pairs (all p < 0.001, all Pearson’s r ≥ 0.657). Challenges, limitations and potential improvements related to the data acquisition and the algorithm itself are discussed. The automatic segmentation of tear meniscus measurements acquired with UHR-OCT might help in a clinical setting to further understand the tear film and related medical conditions like dry eye disease.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  56. D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
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  57. S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
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  58. D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2019 (1)

2018 (4)

M. Markoulli, T. B. Duong, M. Lin, and E. Papas, “Imaging the Tear Film: A Comparison Between the Subjective Keeler Tearscope-Plus™ and the Objective Oculus® Keratograph 5M and LipiView Interferometer,” Curr. Eye Res. 43(2), 155–162 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Farrand, M. Fridman, I. O. Stillman, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 182, 90–98 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Raj, R. Dhasmana, and R. C. Nagpal, “Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 10(5), NC01–NC04 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tian, J. H. Qu, X. Y. Zhang, and X. G. Sun, “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 8013621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

H. Pult and B. H. Riede-Pult, “Impact of conjunctival folds on central tear meniscus height,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1459–1466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek, S. H. Doh, and S. K. Chung, “Assessment of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Cornea 34(12), 1534–1540 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Chan, Y. Zhao, T. A. Tun, and L. Tong, “Repeatability of tear meniscus evaluation using spectral-domain Cirrus® HD-OCT and time-domain Visante® OCT,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 38(5), 368–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. M. Bartuzel, D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, and D. R. Iskander, “Automatic dynamic tear meniscus measurement in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2759–2768 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Comparison of a new portable digital meniscometer and optical coherence tomography in tear meniscus radius measurement,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(2), e112–e118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Altan-Yaycioglu, S. Sizmaz, H. Canan, and M. Coban-Karatas, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring the Tear Film Meniscus: Correlation with Schirmer Test and Tear-Film Breakup Time,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 736–742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. I. Park, H. Lew, and S. Y. Lee, “Tear meniscus measurement in nasolacrimal duct obstruction patients with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: novel three-point capture method,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90(8), 783–787 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, K. S. Lee, J. P. Rolland, J. M. Zavislan, J. V. Aquavella, and G. Yoon, “Micrometer axial resolution OCT for corneal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3037–3046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

K. Gumus, C. H. Crockett, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography: a diagnostic instrument for conjunctivochalasis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(6), 798–806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gayton, “Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 405–412 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Wang, J. R. Palakuru, and J. V. Aquavella, “Correlations among upper and lower tear menisci, noninvasive tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 145(5), 795–800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DEWS, “Methodologies to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease: report of the Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 108–152 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Goto, M. Dogru, T. Kojima, and K. Tsubota, “Computer-synthesis of an interference color chart of human tear lipid layer, by a colorimetric approach,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4693–4697 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea 19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, “Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76(1), 19–32 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea 16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

H. Wong, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “Deposition and Thinning of the Human Tear Film,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 184(1), 44–51 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mainstone, A. S. Bruce, and T. R. Golding, “Tear meniscus measurement in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Curr. Eye Res. 15(6), 653–661 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. A. Lucca, J. N. Nunez, and R. L. Farris, “A comparison of diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca: lactoplate, Schirmer, and tear osmolarity,” CLAO J. 16(2), 109–112 (1990).
[PubMed]

1973 (1)

M. A. Lemp and J. R. Hamill, “Factors affecting tear film breakup in normal eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 89(2), 103–105 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adzhemian, N.

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akpek, E. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, E. L.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almendral-Gómez, J.

P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altan-Yaycioglu, R.

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Altan-Yaycioglu, S. Sizmaz, H. Canan, and M. Coban-Karatas, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring the Tear Film Meniscus: Correlation with Schirmer Test and Tear-Film Breakup Time,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 736–742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ang, M.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquavella, J.

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquavella, J. V.

R. Yadav, K. S. Lee, J. P. Rolland, J. M. Zavislan, J. V. Aquavella, and G. Yoon, “Micrometer axial resolution OCT for corneal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3037–3046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. R. Palakuru, and J. V. Aquavella, “Correlations among upper and lower tear menisci, noninvasive tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 145(5), 795–800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aranha Dos Santos, V.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arita, R.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arriola-Villalobos, P.

P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aschinger, G.

Aschinger, G. C.

Baar, C.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J.

J. Baek, S. H. Doh, and S. K. Chung, “Assessment of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Cornea 34(12), 1534–1540 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakiner, O. S.

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandlitz, S.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Comparison of a new portable digital meniscometer and optical coherence tomography in tear meniscus radius measurement,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(2), e112–e118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartuzel, M. M.

Baskaran, M.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bata, A. M.

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, I.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benítez-Del-Castillo, J. M.

P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bombardieri, S.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bostanci-Ceran, B.

O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozkirli, E.

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bron, A. J.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bronhagl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruce, A. S.

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea 16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mainstone, A. S. Bruce, and T. R. Golding, “Tear meniscus measurement in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Curr. Eye Res. 15(6), 653–661 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caffery, B.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, C.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can, I.

O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canan, H.

R. Altan-Yaycioglu, S. Sizmaz, H. Canan, and M. Coban-Karatas, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring the Tear Film Meniscus: Correlation with Schirmer Test and Tear-Film Breakup Time,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 736–742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carsons, S. E.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalmers, R.

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Chung, E.

H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
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Chung, S.

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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Chung, S. K.

J. Baek, S. H. Doh, and S. K. Chung, “Assessment of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Cornea 34(12), 1534–1540 (2015).
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S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
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S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
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J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
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Crockett, C. H.

K. Gumus, C. H. Crockett, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography: a diagnostic instrument for conjunctivochalasis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(6), 798–806 (2010).
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C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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A. Raj, R. Dhasmana, and R. C. Nagpal, “Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 10(5), NC01–NC04 (2016).
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J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
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J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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E. Goto, M. Dogru, T. Kojima, and K. Tsubota, “Computer-synthesis of an interference color chart of human tear lipid layer, by a colorimetric approach,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4693–4697 (2003).
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Doh, S. H.

J. Baek, S. H. Doh, and S. K. Chung, “Assessment of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Cornea 34(12), 1534–1540 (2015).
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Dos Santos, V. A.

Drexler, W.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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Dua, H.

Dua, H. S.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
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J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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K. F. Farrand, M. Fridman, I. O. Stillman, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 182, 90–98 (2017).
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J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
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P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
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P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
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C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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Fridman, M.

K. F. Farrand, M. Fridman, I. O. Stillman, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 182, 90–98 (2017).
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Fukagawa, K.

A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
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V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
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S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
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V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
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D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
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Garhöfer, G.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
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R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
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E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
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A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
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E. Goto, M. Dogru, T. Kojima, and K. Tsubota, “Computer-synthesis of an interference color chart of human tear lipid layer, by a colorimetric approach,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4693–4697 (2003).
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Groeschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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Gu, B.

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K. Gumus, C. H. Crockett, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography: a diagnostic instrument for conjunctivochalasis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(6), 798–806 (2010).
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J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
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H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
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Ikeda, C.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
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Iskander, D. R.

Jeon, H. J.

H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
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Jones, L.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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Jonsson, R.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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Joo, C. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
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Karpecki, P.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
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Kawamorita, T.

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
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D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
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D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
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R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, “Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76(1), 19–32 (1999).
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N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
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H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea 19(4), 497–500 (2000).
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Koh, S.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
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Kojima, T.

E. Goto, M. Dogru, T. Kojima, and K. Tsubota, “Computer-synthesis of an interference color chart of human tear lipid layer, by a colorimetric approach,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4693–4697 (2003).
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Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
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Komuro, A.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
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Kucera, M.

Lazreg, S.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
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T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
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Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. Y.

D. I. Park, H. Lew, and S. Y. Lee, “Tear meniscus measurement in nasolacrimal duct obstruction patients with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: novel three-point capture method,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90(8), 783–787 (2012).
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Leitgeb, R.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
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Leitgeb, R. A.

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
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R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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Lemp, M. A.

M. A. Lemp and J. R. Hamill, “Factors affecting tear film breakup in normal eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 89(2), 103–105 (1973).
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Lew, H.

D. I. Park, H. Lew, and S. Y. Lee, “Tear meniscus measurement in nasolacrimal duct obstruction patients with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: novel three-point capture method,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90(8), 783–787 (2012).
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Li, J.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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Li, Y.

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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Lin, M.

M. Markoulli, T. B. Duong, M. Lin, and E. Papas, “Imaging the Tear Film: A Comparison Between the Subjective Keeler Tearscope-Plus™ and the Objective Oculus® Keratograph 5M and LipiView Interferometer,” Curr. Eye Res. 43(2), 155–162 (2018).
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S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
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Lu, A. T.

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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Lu, F.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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Lucca, J. A.

J. A. Lucca, J. N. Nunez, and R. L. Farris, “A comparison of diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca: lactoplate, Schirmer, and tear osmolarity,” CLAO J. 16(2), 109–112 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ma, H.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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Maeda, N.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
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T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea 16(6), 649–661 (1997).
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J. C. Mainstone, A. S. Bruce, and T. R. Golding, “Tear meniscus measurement in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Curr. Eye Res. 15(6), 653–661 (1996).
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Markoulli, M.

M. Markoulli, T. B. Duong, M. Lin, and E. Papas, “Imaging the Tear Film: A Comparison Between the Subjective Keeler Tearscope-Plus™ and the Objective Oculus® Keratograph 5M and LipiView Interferometer,” Curr. Eye Res. 43(2), 155–162 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruyama, K.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
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Mehta, J. S.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
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Messner, A.

Mitchell, G. L.

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
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Moutsopoulos, H. M.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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Murphy, P. J.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Comparison of a new portable digital meniscometer and optical coherence tomography in tear meniscus radius measurement,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(2), e112–e118 (2014).
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Nagpal, R. C.

A. Raj, R. Dhasmana, and R. C. Nagpal, “Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 10(5), NC01–NC04 (2016).
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Nakayama, N.

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. D.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nepp, J.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
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Nichols, J. J.

Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
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J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, K. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishida, K.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunez, J. N.

J. A. Lucca, J. N. Nunez, and R. L. Farris, “A comparison of diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca: lactoplate, Schirmer, and tear osmolarity,” CLAO J. 16(2), 109–112 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ogasawara, Y.

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oguz, H.

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea 19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oie, Y.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
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Palakuru, J.

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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Palakuru, J. R.

J. Wang, J. R. Palakuru, and J. V. Aquavella, “Correlations among upper and lower tear menisci, noninvasive tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 145(5), 795–800 (2008).
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Pantalon, A.

Papas, E.

M. Markoulli, T. B. Duong, M. Lin, and E. Papas, “Imaging the Tear Film: A Comparison Between the Subjective Keeler Tearscope-Plus™ and the Objective Oculus® Keratograph 5M and LipiView Interferometer,” Curr. Eye Res. 43(2), 155–162 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D. I.

D. I. Park, H. Lew, and S. Y. Lee, “Tear meniscus measurement in nasolacrimal duct obstruction patients with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: novel three-point capture method,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90(8), 783–787 (2012).
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Pfister, M.

Pflugfelder, S. C.

K. Gumus, C. H. Crockett, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography: a diagnostic instrument for conjunctivochalasis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(6), 798–806 (2010).
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Pillemer, S. R.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, N.

Popa-Cherecheanu, A.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puent, B.

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pult, H.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Pult and B. H. Riede-Pult, “Impact of conjunctival folds on central tear meniscus height,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1459–1466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Comparison of a new portable digital meniscometer and optical coherence tomography in tear meniscus radius measurement,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(2), e112–e118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purslow, C.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Comparison of a new portable digital meniscometer and optical coherence tomography in tear meniscus radius measurement,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(2), e112–e118 (2014).
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S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
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Qu, J. H.

L. Tian, J. H. Qu, X. Y. Zhang, and X. G. Sun, “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 8013621 (2016).
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Radke, C. J.

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
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A. Raj, R. Dhasmana, and R. C. Nagpal, “Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 10(5), NC01–NC04 (2016).
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Riede-Pult, B. H.

H. Pult and B. H. Riede-Pult, “Impact of conjunctival folds on central tear meniscus height,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1459–1466 (2015).
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Riedl, J.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Room, K. I.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosner, P.

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapeta, S.

Sarac, O.

O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saracino, M.

J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. Puent, M. Saracino, and G. L. Mitchell, “Evaluation of tear film interference patterns and measures of tear break-up time,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 363–369 (2002).
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Schaumberg, D. A.

K. F. Farrand, M. Fridman, I. O. Stillman, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 182, 90–98 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheschy, U.

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
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M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidinger, G.

Schmidl, D.

M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
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Schwarzhans, F.

Shen, M.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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Shimizu, K.

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
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Sizmaz, S.

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
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R. Altan-Yaycioglu, S. Sizmaz, H. Canan, and M. Coban-Karatas, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring the Tear Film Meniscus: Correlation with Schirmer Test and Tear-Film Breakup Time,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 736–742 (2013).
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S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
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Soyugelen, G.

O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stapleton, F.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
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Stegmann, H.

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stillman, I. O.

K. F. Farrand, M. Fridman, I. O. Stillman, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 182, 90–98 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, B. D.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X. G.

L. Tian, J. H. Qu, X. Y. Zhang, and X. G. Sun, “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 8013621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szczesna-Iskander, D. H.

Szegedi, S.

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
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Talal, N.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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Tang, M.

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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Tao, A.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, L.

L. Tian, J. H. Qu, X. Y. Zhang, and X. G. Sun, “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 8013621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiffany, J. M.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
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Tomlinson, A.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Chan, Y. Zhao, T. A. Tun, and L. Tong, “Repeatability of tear meniscus evaluation using spectral-domain Cirrus® HD-OCT and time-domain Visante® OCT,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 38(5), 368–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Triggs, G. J.

Tsubota, K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
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E. Goto, M. Dogru, T. Kojima, and K. Tsubota, “Computer-synthesis of an interference color chart of human tear lipid layer, by a colorimetric approach,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4693–4697 (2003).
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Tun, T. A.

H. H. Chan, Y. Zhao, T. A. Tun, and L. Tong, “Repeatability of tear meniscus evaluation using spectral-domain Cirrus® HD-OCT and time-domain Visante® OCT,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 38(5), 368–372 (2015).
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Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
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Uchino, M.

A. Uchida, M. Uchino, E. Goto, E. Hosaka, Y. Kasuya, K. Fukagawa, M. Dogru, Y. Ogawa, and K. Tsubota, “Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 232–237 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulas, B.

S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uozato, H.

E. Hosaka, T. Kawamorita, Y. Ogasawara, N. Nakayama, H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, M. Dogru, K. Tsubota, and E. Goto, “Interferometry in the evaluation of precorneal tear film thickness in dry eye,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151(1), 18–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vietauer, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villani, E.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitali, C.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. R. Palakuru, and J. V. Aquavella, “Correlations among upper and lower tear menisci, noninvasive tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 145(5), 795–800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, H.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

S. Koh, C. Ikeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Oie, T. Soma, H. Watanabe, N. Maeda, and K. Nishida, “Effect of non-invasive tear stability assessment on tear meniscus height,” Acta Ophthalmol. 93(2), e135–e139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisman, M. H.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, H. Stegmann, M. Pfister, A. Messner, G. Schmidinger, G. Garhofer, and R. M. Werkmeister, “CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 622–641 (2019).
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M. Ang, M. Baskaran, R. M. Werkmeister, J. Chua, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. Garhöfer, J. S. Mehta, and L. Schmetterer, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 66, 132–156 (2018).
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S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
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P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, G. J. Triggs, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, A. Messner, D. Schmidl, G. Garhofer, G. Aschinger, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2650–2670 (2016).
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D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
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V. Aranha Dos Santos, L. Schmetterer, M. Gröschl, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, M. Kucera, A. Unterhuber, J. P. Hermand, and R. M. Werkmeister, “In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21043–21063 (2015).
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D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witkowska, K. J.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidl, L. Schmetterer, K. J. Witkowska, A. Unterhuber, V. A. dos Santos, S. Kaya, J. Nepp, C. Baar, P. Rosner, R. M. Werkmeister, and G. Garhofer, “Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease,” Cornea 34(4), 421–426 (2015).
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Wolffsohn, J. S.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, H.

H. Wong, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “Deposition and Thinning of the Human Tear Film,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 184(1), 44–51 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wozniak, P. A.

P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Wei, Q. Le, J. Hong, W. Wang, F. Wang, and J. Xu, “Assessment of Lower Tear Meniscus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(11), 1420–1425 (2016).
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Yadav, R.

Yiu, S. C.

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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Yokoi, N.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
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H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea 19(4), 497–500 (2000).
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Yoon, G.

Yoon, K. C.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report,” Ocul. Surf. 15(3), 539–574 (2017).
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Yow, K. C.

H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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Zavislan, J. M.

Zhang, X. Y.

L. Tian, J. H. Qu, X. Y. Zhang, and X. G. Sun, “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease,” J. Ophthalmol. 2016, 8013621 (2016).
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Zhang, Y.

Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
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Zhao, Y.

H. H. Chan, Y. Zhao, T. A. Tun, and L. Tong, “Repeatability of tear meniscus evaluation using spectral-domain Cirrus® HD-OCT and time-domain Visante® OCT,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 38(5), 368–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, Y. Li, A. T. Lu, P. Liu, M. Tang, S. C. Yiu, and D. Huang, “Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(5), 442–447 (2009).
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Acta Ophthalmol. (4)

D. I. Park, H. Lew, and S. Y. Lee, “Tear meniscus measurement in nasolacrimal duct obstruction patients with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: novel three-point capture method,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90(8), 783–787 (2012).
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P. A. Wozniak, D. Schmidl, A. M. Bata, K. Fondi, K. J. Witkowska, V. Aranha Dos Santos, C. Baar, K. I. Room, J. Nepp, I. Baumgartner, A. Popa-Cherecheanu, G. Garhöfer, R. M. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Effect of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e307–e313 (2017).
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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

K. Gumus, C. H. Crockett, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Anterior segment optical coherence tomography: a diagnostic instrument for conjunctivochalasis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(6), 798–806 (2010).
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C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61(6), 554–558 (2002).
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Biomed. Eng. Online (2)

Y. Bai, W. Ngo, B. Gu, Y. Zhang, and J. J. Nichols, “An imaging system integrating optical coherence tomography and interferometry for in vivo measurement of the thickness and dynamics of the tear film,” Biomed. Eng. Online 17(1), 164 (2018).
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H. Hwang, H. J. Jeon, K. C. Yow, H. S. Hwang, and E. Chung, “Image-based quantitative analysis of tear film lipid layer thickness for meibomian gland evaluation,” Biomed. Eng. Online 16(1), 135 (2017).
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H. H. Chan, Y. Zhao, T. A. Tun, and L. Tong, “Repeatability of tear meniscus evaluation using spectral-domain Cirrus® HD-OCT and time-domain Visante® OCT,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 38(5), 368–372 (2015).
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Cornea (5)

P. Arriola-Villalobos, J. I. Fernández-Vigo, D. Díaz-Valle, J. Almendral-Gómez, C. Fernández-Pérez, and J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, “Lower Tear Meniscus Measurements Using a New Anterior Segment Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Agreement With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cornea 36(2), 183–188 (2017).
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O. Sarac, G. Soyugelen, C. Gurdal, B. Bostancı-Ceran, and I. Can, “Tear meniscus analysis with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in keratoconus,” Curr. Eye Res. 36(6), 528–533 (2011).
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S. Sizmaz, R. Altan-Yaycioglu, O. S. Bakiner, E. Bozkirli, M. Coban-Karatas, and B. Ulas, “Assessment of tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography in thyroid-associated ophtalmopathy,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(4), 323–328 (2014).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (8)

D. Schmidl, K. J. Witkowska, S. Kaya, C. Baar, H. Faatz, J. Nepp, A. Unterhuber, R. M. Werkmeister, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “The association between subjective and objective parameters for the assessment of dry-eye syndrome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(3), 1467–1472 (2015).
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J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
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R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
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S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, and H. Pult, “Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5842–5847 (2014).
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A. Raj, R. Dhasmana, and R. C. Nagpal, “Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 10(5), NC01–NC04 (2016).
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H. Wong, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “Deposition and Thinning of the Human Tear Film,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 184(1), 44–51 (1996).
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J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. (1)

S. Szegedi, U. Scheschy, D. Schmidl, V. Aranha Dos Santos, H. Stegmann, N. Adzhemian, K. Fondi, A. M. Bata, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Couderc, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Effect of Single Instillation of Two Hyaluronic Acid-Based Topical Lubricants on Tear Film Thickness in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 34(9), 605–611 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophthalmol. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Regions of measurement for central tear film thickness (blue square) and lower tear meniscus parameters (yellow rectangle).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Step-by-step illustration of the tear meniscus segmentation algorithm. (a) Initial measurement. Following images are after (b) detection of ROI, (c) Otsu’s thresholding, (d) first interface detection (red), (e) meniscus removal, islet removal, filling and second interface detection (blue). (f) Combination of both interfaces for parameter estimation (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Automatic segmentation of the lower tear meniscus in a healthy subject. Exemplary image with light camera saturation in the center region. Calculated parameters (represented in yellow) are (A) tear meniscus area, (B) height, (C) depth and (D) radius of curvature. Green crosses represent the points used for the estimation of the radius of curvature. The yellow arrows indicate mirror artifacts of the true upper meniscus boundary due to internal reflectors in the optical setup of the system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Exemplary cross-sectional images with particular segmentation cases. (A) Small debris, (B) larger debris cutting the tear meniscus area in two parts, (C) not segmented cavity (yellow arrow) and (D) irregular meniscus anatomy.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Tear parameters in healthy subjects. Mean value and standard deviation (SD) over all time points of the investigated parameters in comparison to literature values in healthy subjects.

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Table 2 Partial correlation coefficients and p-values of the investigated parameters over all eyes before correction for multiple testing.

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Table 3 Correlation coefficients and p-values of the investigated parameters over all eyes before correction for multiple testing.

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Table 4 Intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for the tear meniscus parameters based on single-measures and average-measures (k = 7), absolute-agreement, 2-way mixed-effects models.